PEaV - Chapter1 Ethics and Professionalism
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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila) Intramuros, Manila
College of Engineering and Technology Computer Engineering Department
Professional Ethics and Values
Written Report Ethics and Professionalism
Submitted by: Alio, Lailani S. Aloa, Al Jerico M. Layug, Joseph Haydin M. Valenzuela, Jessica Rose P. Verches, Juan Carlos G.
Submitted to: Engr. Maria Rizette Sayo Faculty
November 6, 2011
Chapter 1 ETHICS AND PROFESSIONALISM
Engineers create products and processes to improve food production, shelter, energy, communication, transportation, health and protection against natural calamities and to enhance the convenience and beauty of our everyday lives. Engineering had transformed our sense of connection with the cosmos and even fostered dreams of routine space travel for ordinary citizens. Sample of this is the first human, Neil Armstrong, steps on the moon on July 20, 1969. Technology has double implications. As it creates benefits it also creates new moral challenges. Example is the explosion of space shuttles Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003; this tragedy can be prevented if warnings of experience engineers were heeded. Technological risk should not overshadow technological benefits and ethics involves appreciating the many positive dimensions of engineering that so deeply enrich our lives. Scope of Engineering Ethics
1. ENGINEERING AS SOCIAL EXPERIMENTATION.
Engineering projects are social experiments that generate both new possibilities and risks, and engineers share responsibility for creating benefits, preventing harm, and pointing out dangers.
Case: Columbias Explosion on February 1, 2003 killed the seven astronauts on board. It was feared the caused was a terrorist attack. The cause of the explosion was a piece of insulating foam from the external fuel tank that struck the left wing after launch. There is the same explosion of a space shuttle named Challenger in 1986, which engineers were not being heeded.
Technological Development is double edge. As engineering projects create new possibilities, they also create dangers.
2. ETHICS AND EXCELLENCE: ENGINEERING.
Moral values permeate all aspects of technological development; hence ethics and excellence in engineering go together. Case: There is an assignment in freshman course at Harvey Mudd College to design a chicken coop that would increase egg and chicken production, using materials that were readily available and maintainable by local workers. In making this assignment, the students identify the plausible building materials, decide between cages or open are, and design structures for strength and endurance. They had to create safe access for the villages. They had to ensure humane condition for the chickens. They also had to improve the cleaning procedures to prevent damage to the environment. The primary goal is to double the current chicken and egg production, and achieving this goal includes having a good relationship to the local villagers. Moral Values are embedded at several junctures in engineering projects including: The basic standards of safety and efficiency The structure of technological corporations as communities of people engaged in shared activities The character of engineers who spearhead technological progress The idea of engineering as profession that combines advance skill with commitment to the public good
3. PERSONAL COMMITMENT AND MEANING.
Personal meaning commitments matter in engineering ethics, along with principles of responsibility that are stated in codes of ethics and are incumbent on all engineers. Case: A team of engineers designed an artificial lung marketed by their company. The engineers dont have contact with their costumers because of long working hours; they are focused on the problems on the lungs not on the people. When the engineers know their customers could breathe freely, relax and enjoy life because of
their product, they were energized that their efforts really did improve peoples lives. Personal commitment is having mind bot commitments to shared responsibilities and to these more individual commitments as they affect professional endeavors. 4. PROMOTING DOING. RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT AND PREVENTING WRONG
Promoting responsible conduct is even more important that punishing wrong doing. Case: Beginning in 2001, scandals shook Americans corporations. Enron and WorldCom are bankrupted. Arthur Andersen, a large accounting firm charged with checking books of Enron and other corporations, was charged in complicity and was forced to dissolve.
5. MYRIAD MORAL REASONS GENERATE ETHICAL DILEMMAS Ethical dilemmas or moral dilemmas are situations in which moral reasons come into conflict, or in which the applications of moral values are problematic, and it is not immediately obvious what should be done. The moral reasons might be obligations, rights, goods, ideals, or other moral considerations. Case: A chemical engineer working in the environmental division of a computer manufacturing firm learns that her company might be discharging unlawful amounts of lead and arsenic into the sewer. The city processes the sludge into a fertilizer used by local farmers. To ensure safety, it imposes restrictive laws on the discharge of lead and arsenic. Preliminary investigations convince the engineer that the company should implement stronger pollution controls, but her manager insists the cost of doing so is prohibitive and that technically the company is in compliance with the law. 6. MICRO AND MACRO ISSUES
Micro issues concern the decisions made by individuals and companies. Macro issues concern more global issues, such as the directions in technological development, the laws that should and should not be passed, and the collective responsibilities of groups such as engineering professional societies and consumer groups. Case: A debate about sport utility vehicles (SUVs). The Ford Explorer and the Bridgestone/Firestone, providing tires to the former. During late 1990s, reports began to multiply about the tread on Explorer tires separating from the rest of the tires, leading to blowouts and rollovers. By 2002, estimates were that 300 people had died and another thousand were injured and more recent estimates place the numbers much higher since then. Ford and Bridgestone/Firestone blamed each other for the problem, leading to breakup of a century-old business partnership. As it turned out, the hazard had multiple sources. Micro issues: Bridgestone/Firestone used a flawed design tire design and poor quality control at a major manufacturing facility. Ford chose tires with a poor safety margin, relied on drivers to maintain proper inflation within a very narrow range, and then dragged its feet in admitting the problem and recalling dangerous tires. Macro issues: It center on charges the SUVs are among the most harmful vehicles on the road, even the most harmful, given their numbers. The problems are instability because of their height that leads to rollovers, far greater kill rate of other drivers during accidents, reducing the vision of drivers in shorter cars behind them on freeways, blinding other drivers vision because of high-set lights, gas guzzling and excessive polluting. 7. CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM ABOUT TECHNOLOGY Pessimists view advanced technology as ominous and often out of control. They point to pollution, depletion of natural resources, mass death on highways and in high-tech wars, fears of biological and chemical weapons, and the lingering threat of nuclear war. Optimists highlight how technology profoundly improves all our lives. What is Engineering Ethics? The word ethics has several meanings, it is synonymous with morality. It refers to moral values that are sound, actions that are morally required (right) or morally permissible (all right), policies and laws that are desirable. It studies which actions, goals, principles, policies and laws are morally justified. Engineering ethics is the study of the decisions, policies and values that are morally desirable in engineering practice and research.
In a descriptive sense, we speak of Henry Fords ethics or ethics of American Engineers, referring thereby to what specific individuals or groups believe and how they act, without implying that their beliefs and actions are justified. In a normative sense, engineering ethics refers to justified moral values in engineering. Morality concerns moral right and wrong, moral good and bad, moral values and what morally ought to be done. Why Study Engineering Ethics? Engineering ethics should be studied because it is important, both in contributing to safe and useful technological products and in giving meaning to engineers endeavors. It is also complex, in ways that call for serious reflection throughput a career, beginning with earning a degree. The direct aim is to increase ones ability to deal effectively with moral complexity in engineering. The unifying goal is to increase moral autonomy. Autonomy means self-determining or independent. Moral autonomy can be viewed as the skill and habit of thinking rationally about ethical issues on basis of moral concern. Skills related to engineering ethics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Moral awareness Cogent moral reasoning Moral coherence Moral imagination Moral communication Moral reasonableness Respect for persons
Responsibility Meaning of responsibility1. Obligations, responsibilities are obligations types of actions that
are morally mandatory. Some obligations are incumbent on each of us, such as to be honest, fair and decent. Other obligations are role responsibility, acquired when we take on special roles such as parents, employees, or professionals.2. Accountable, being responsible means being accountable. Thi