Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue978-1-137-59698-7/1.pdf · dialogue, the...

of 32 /32
Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue Series Editors Gerard Mannion Georgetown University Washington, D.C., USA Mark Chapman Ripon College Cuddesdon Cuddesdon Oxford, UK

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue978-1-137-59698-7/1.pdf · dialogue, the...

  • Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue

    Series Editors

    Gerard Mannion Georgetown University Washington , D.C., USA

    Mark Chapman Ripon College Cuddesdon Cuddesdon Oxford , UK

  • Aims of the Series Building on the important work of the Ecclesiological Investigations International Research Network to promote ecumenical and inter-faith dialogue, the Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue series publishes scholarship on interreligious encounters and dialogue in relation to the past, present, and future. It gathers together a richly diverse array of voices in monographs and edited collections that speak to the challenges, aspirations, and elements of interreligious conversation. Through its publications, the series allows for the exploration of new ways, means, and methods of advancing the wider ecumenical cause with renewed energy for the twenty-fi rst century.

    More information about this series at
  • Edmund Kee-Fook Chia Editor

    Interfaith Dialogue Global Perspectives

  • Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue ISBN 978-1-137-59697-0 ISBN 978-1-137-59698-7 (eBook) DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-59698-7

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2016948749

    The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifi cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfi lms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specifi c statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made.

    Cover image Jakkree Thampitakkul / Getty Cover design: Paileen Currie

    Printed on acid-free paper

    This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Nature America Inc. New York

    Editor Edmund Kee-Fook Chia Australian Catholic University Melbourne , Australia

  • To Pope Francis

    Person of Dialogue in Our Age

  • vii

    Interfaith Dialogue: Global Perspectives aptly draws together in a single useful volume representative papers from the international conference in May 2014 at Australian Catholic University, Melbourne. This judicious selection promotes a truly Catholic and inclusively interfaith enterprise, as it addresses issues familiar and central in todays Catholic Church; and yet it opens up wider global and interfaith perspectives. Among the 20 dis-tinguished contributors, the Christian authors are from around the world, while the contributors from other faith traditions, of the Jewish, Muslim, and Bah faiths, raise interesting questions about the familiar Christian teachings, and in this way teach Christian readers how to revisit and appre-ciate anew familiar doctrines and values.

    Due attention is paid to what Christians might learn from other reli-gions, and consequently new directions in dialogue are also encouraged and facilitated. As Edmund Kee-Fook Chia notes in his Preface, the col-lection intends a glimpse at interfaith dialogue from multiple perspec-tives; and so it is that the volume aptly surveys issues of great importance today, briefl y reviewing many of the great issues of our times. Interfaith Dialogue: Global Perspectives thus maps key issues that will in the next decades have to be taken up in the distinct but related fi elds of interfaith dialogue, the theology of religions and theology of religious pluralism, and comparative theology. I commend Chia and his colleagues for this col-laborative achievement, and hope that this volume serves as a useful guide for all those around the world who are entering the interfaith fi eld today.

    Francis X. Clooney SJ


  • ix

    PATHS TODIALOGUE INOUR AGE In our age, when humanity is being drawn closer together day by day, and the ties between different peoples are becoming stronger, the adherents of the worlds religions are examining what they have in common and what draws them to fellowship. Through the praxis of interfaith dialogue some headway has already been made on this path to peace, understand-ing, and collaboration. Within Roman Catholicism, the Second Vatican Councilconvened by Pope John XXIIIheightened the consciousness of the church with regard to other religions. His successorPope Paul VIhad as his fi rst encyclical the 1964 document Ecclesiam Suam (sub-titled paths of the church), where dialogue was promoted as the new way of being church. The topic of dialogue was given further attention at Vatican II in the 1965 document Nostra Aetate (NA; in our age), which counselled the church to be in dialogue and collaboration with the fol-lowers of other religions (NA, 2).

    Hence, the theme of the International Theological Conference on Interfaith Dialogue held at Australian Catholic University in May 2014 was Paths to Dialogue in Our Age. Beginning with paths to dialogue, it commemorated the fi ftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the land-mark Ecclesiam Suam document. Ending with in our age, it regarded the contributions of Nostra Aetate as starting points for the advance-ment of interfaith dialogue in our age. While celebrating the bold spirit of dialogue expressed in these two documents, we were also conscious that much had changed in the world in the last half century, especially



    within the sphere of interfaith relations. Thus, the conference was hosted to explore the advances and setbacks of the last fi ve decades and to investi-gate new paths that can contribute to the well-being of humanity and the entire cosmos in our age.

    NATURE OFTHECONFERENCE The conference was, therefore, open to exploring the history, theory, practice, and challenges of interfaith encounters and the opportunities for dialogue that exist between Christians, Muslims, Jews, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and other First Nation Peoples, and scholars of other religious communities. It was also open to discussions on models, proponents, or exemplars of dialogue from within a particular tradition or within a specifi c context or period. Interfaith explorations on such themes as the understanding of the human person, ethical values, justice, peace, sin, salvation, education, formation, the role of women and youth, the place of prayer, spirituality, poverty, and consumerism were also welcomed. Likewise, it welcomed examining con-cerns such as the possibility of multiple religious belonging; the challenge of secularism, relativism, or fundamentalism; the practice of cross-textual or intertextual hermeneutics; methodologies of comparative theology or religious studies; and discussions about the means and ends of dialogue.

    By all accounts the conference was a tremendous success. More than 200 people participated and they had come from more than 20 countries from around the globe. They included university-based scholars and semi-nary professors, teachers as well as students, religious leaders and practi-tioners, members of interfaith networks and of non-faith institutions, and representatives from governmental as well as non-governmental organiza-tions. Some were seasoned scholars with dozens of books to their name while others were only just beginning their academic career. Some had participated in hundreds of conferences around the world while for others the May 2014 conference was their very fi rst. The pluralism amongst the participants invited each person to be especially attentive and respectful of the other. The conference, therefore, provided the perfect forum for put-ting into practice the ideals and principles of authentic interfaith dialogue.

    While about 50 papers were presented at the conference, it was not possible to use most of themeven very insightful onesfor the present book. As should be the case, a volume such as this has to consist only of essays which, when put together, show some semblance of coherence and

  • PREFACE xi

    thrust. Fortunately, this was indeed possible, but only after soliciting extra contributions from some scholars who were not present at the conference but who shared in its goals. Thus, about three-fourths of the chapters within the volume are written by scholars present at the conference while the rest are from other scholar friends who willingly obliged. Together, they represent the best of the scholarship available for the themes addressed. Not only do the contributors come from more than a dozen countries located in six continents, they are also adherents of a number of religious traditions and specialize in very different academic disciplines and inter-ests. This makes the volume especially global, and readers are assured that reading the entire text would afford them a glimpse, from multiple per-spectives, at interfaith dialogue and matters related to the encounters of peoples of different religions.

  • xiii


    While many members of the Faculty of Theology and Philosophy of the Australian Catholic University contributed signifi cantly to the success of the conference, it is without doubt the unstinting commitment and guid-ance of the executive dean of the faculty at that time, Professor Anne Hunt, who played the most instrumental role in the overall project. The conference would not have materialized if not for her vision and support. Likewise, this volume would not have been possible if not for the generos-ity of all the contributors, who willingly collaborated in submitting and reviewing the drafts of their chapters, as well as of the contributors to the Foreword and blurbs. I would like to specially acknowledge the sup-port of Gerard Mannion, series editor of Pathways for Ecumenical and Interreligious Dialogue , as well as the support provided by Phil Getz and Alexis Nelson of Palgraves Religion and Philosophy List. Many thanks to all for the successful conference and for bringing this book to print.

    Australian Catholic University Edmund Kee-Fook Chia February 2016

  • xv


    Part I The Second Vatican Council and Nostra Aetate 1

    1 Vatican II and Interfaith Dialogue 3 Michael Louis Fitzgerald

    2 Article Four of Nostra Aetate and Christian- Jewish Relations 17 John T. Pawlikowski

    3 Jewish Perspectives on Interfaith Dialogue After Nostra Aetate 31 Fred Morgan

    4 Response of the Asian Church to Nostra Aetate 45 Edmund Kee-Fook Chia

    Part II Islam and Muslims Around the Globe 57

    5 Challenges of Muslim-Christian Relations in Nigeria 59 Mukhtar Umar Bunza

    6 Impact of State Policies on Interfaith Relations in Pakistan 73 Ali Ahmed

  • xvi CONTENTS

    7 Australian Muslims and the Innocence of Muslims 87 Fatih Erol Tuncer

    8 Citizenship Between State and Mosque for Muslims in Switzerland 103 Stphane Lathion

    Part III What Christians Can Learn 117

    9 What Christians Can Learn from Shamanic Pneumatology 119 Jojo M. Fung

    10 What Christians Can Learn from Buddhism 129 Paul F. Knitter

    11 What Christians Can Learn from Indian Religions 143 Michael Amaladoss

    12 What Christians Can Learn from Chinese Religions 155 Jonathan Y. Tan

    13 What Christians Can Learn from Japanese Religions 169 Emi Mase-Hasegawa

    Part IV Methods and Models for Interfaith Dialogue 181

    14 Deeper Dialogue with Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia 183 Christopher C. Prowse

    15 African Christian Approaches to Other Religions 197 Moussa Serge Traore

  • CONTENTS xvii

    16 Encountering the Other Other: A Bah Perspective 209 Natalie Mobini

    17 Commonalities Among Renewal Movements Across Religions 223 Roberto Catalano

    18 The Promise of Comparative Theology: Reading Between the Lines 237 Michael Barnes

    19 Raimon Panikkars Contribution to Interfaith Dialogue 251 Gerard Hall

    20 Epistemic Confi dence, Humility, and Kenosis in Interfaith Dialogue 265 Julius-Kei Kato

    Index 277

  • xix


    Ali Ahmed is a Pakistani Shiite Muslim trained in political science and religious studies, especially in the fi elds of religious persecution and genocide studies; he is a keen observer of the sociopolitical and religious trends in South Asia.

    Michael Amaladoss , SJ, is Professor Emeritus at Vidyajyoti College of Theology, Delhi, India, and Director of the Institute for Dialogue with Cultures and Religions in Chennai. He was former assistant to the superior general of the Jesuits in Rome.

    Michael Barnes , SJ, is Professor of Interreligious Relations at Heythrop College, University of London. He publishes widely on theology of religions and has acted as a consultant to the Vaticans Pontifi cal Council for Interreligious Dialogue.

    Mukhtar Umar Bunza is Professor of Social History and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. He also serves as a member of the Peace and Collaborative Development Network.

    Roberto Catalano is Director of Focolares International Offi ce for Interreligious Dialogue in Rome. He worked in India for 28 years and lectures at Urbaniana University, Sophia University Institute, and Accademia di Scienze Umane e Sociali.

    Edmund Kee-Fook Chia is a Malaysia theologian who teaches at the Australian Catholic University. He has taught at Catholic Theological Union in Chicago and served as executive secretary of interreligious dialogue for the Asian Bishops Conferences.

    Francis X. Clooney , SJ, is Parkman Professor of Divinity and Director of the Center for the Study of World Religions at Harvard University. He is also profes-sorial research fellow at Australian Catholic University and previously taught at Boston College for 21 years.


    Michael Louis Fitzgerald (Archbishop) served from 1987 to 2006 as secretary and then president of the Pontifi cal Council for Interreligious Dialogue. He was then appointed papal nuncio to Egypt and delegate to the Arab League. He has been in retirement since 2012.

    Jojo M. Fung, SJ, is a Malaysian theologian teaching at the East Asian Pastoral Institute and Loyola School of Theology in the Philippines. He researches in the areas of contextual theology and indigenous spirituality.

    Gerard Hall, SM, is a Marist priest and Associate Professor of Theology at Australian Catholic University. As a student of Raimon Panikkar, he was an invited member of the International Spirit of Religion Project and has ongoing involve-ment in Panikkar studies and activities.

    Emi Mase-Hasegawa is Associate Professor at J.F.Oberlin University in Tokyo where she teaches in the fi eld of religious studies. She holds a ThD in Missiology with Ecumenical Studies from Lund University, Sweden.

    Julius-Kei Kato is Associate Professor of Biblical and Religious Studies at Kings University College, Western University, in London, Canada. He holds a PhD from the Graduate Theological Union in California, having studied earlier in Rome, Jerusalem, and Tokyo.

    Paul F. Knitter is Emeritus Professor of Theology, World Religions, and Culture at Union Theological Seminary, New York City. He taught for many years at Xavier University, Cincinnati, and has been on the International, Interreligious Peace Council.

    Stphane Lathion is a Swiss historian and specialist in European Islam. He is also a lecturer and cofounder and coordinator of the Group of Research on Islam in Switzerland.

    Natalie Mobini is the Director of the Offi ce of External Affairs for the Australian Bahai community. She holds a PhD from Monash University; she focused on historical research of the Arab community in Indonesia.

    Fred Morgan is Emeritus Rabbi of Temple Beth Israel in Melbourne; Movement Rabbi of the Union for Progressive Judaism in Australia, New Zealand and Asia; and Professorial Fellow in Interreligious Dialogue at the Australian Catholic University.

    John T. Pawlikowski , OSM, is a Servite priest and Professor of Social Ethics and Director of the Catholic-Jewish Studies Program at Catholic Theological Union in Chicago. He was two-term President and Chair of the Theology Committee of the International Council of Christians and Jews.


    Christopher C. Prowse is the Catholic Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Canberra- Goulburn. He serves as Chair of the Australian Bishops Commission for Ecumenism and Interreligious Relations and member of the Commission for Relations with Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Jonathan Y. Tan is Professor of Catholic Studies and affi liated faculty in Ethnic and Asian Studies at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio and co-chair of the World Christianity Group at the American Academy of Religion.

    Moussa Serge Traore, M Afr., is a Missionaries of Africa priest from Burkina Faso. He has served in Rwanda and Mauritania and is Director of the Cardinal Lavigerie Center for Study and Research in Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue of the Catholic University of the Savior, Salvador, Brazil.

    Fatih Erol Tuncer serves as Project Offi cer of the Fethullah Glen Chair in the Study of Islam and Muslim-Catholic Dialogue, as well as of the Faculty of Theology and Philosophy at Australian Catholic University.

  • xxiii


    The Introduction, by Edmund Kee-Fook Chia, advises that a fundamental option for those at the margins was employed in the selection of essays for the volume, aside from ensuring that a global perspective was presented. Part I of the book discusses the impact of Nostra Aetate on the churchs relations with religions other than Christianity. Part II looks at Islam and Muslims from the standpoint of a specifi c context in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe. Part III focuses on the learning dimensions of interfaith dia-logue and is aimed at facilitating a listening church rather than a teach-ing church. Part IV examines specifi c models and methods for interfaith engagements.

    NATURE OFTHIS VOLUME As indicated in the Preface, the present volume is one of the fruits of an international conference held at the Australian Catholic University in May 2014. Actually, the idea of hosting a conference arose when we found out in early 2013 that Archbishop Michael Fitzgerald was coming to Australia the following year. He had served as president of the Vaticans Pontifi cal Council for Interreligious Dialogue. At the same time Australian Catholic University was also in discussion with Professor John Pawlikowski, one of the worlds foremost scholars in the fi eld of Catholic-Jewish dialogue, to come as a Visiting Fellow. We thus began exploring how we could take advantage of these two auspicious visits to host an event in the southern hemisphere for the benefi t of the larger international community and especially for the cause of interfaith relations.


    It makes sense, therefore, that this volume begins with the contribu-tions of Fitzgerald and Pawlikowski, and takes the Catholic Churchs doc-uments as starting points for refl ection. But, it then takes off from there to include other interests and themes of interfaith dialogue. An important aim of the volume is to enable more people to read about the concerns of lesser-known communities across the globe, to hear the voices of those who are seldom afforded a forum to speak, and to appreciate the concerns and traditions that are not as often articulated. This fundamental option for those at the margins together with the global and diverse nature of the volume is its strengths.

    Readers will, therefore, be able to fi nd out more about Nostra Aetate s infl uence from the Jewish and Asian perspectives. They will read about interfaith relations as presented through the lens of an African Muslim and also an African Christian living in South America. They will get a sense of the impact of wars, state and security policies, and socio-political forces on Islam and Muslims, as well as understand the challenges con-fronting religious minorities such as the members of the Ahmadiyya and Bah communities, and also of Swiss and Australian Muslims. Readers will be taken on a tour of the beliefs and practices of the Japanese and Shamanic traditions, as well as an exploration of the Chinese and Indian religions. They will discover how Christians can learn from engagements with the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia, the Karen tribal peoples of Thailand, and also from the emphasis on inner-personal transformation of Buddhist social activists. Christians will fi nd out that certain beliefs and practices of other religions can complement their own and appreciate that God or the Great Spirit is called Hti kja Cauj kja by some and that others regard Ta no Wa as central to living in community. The volume includes elucidations of the works of the Focolare Movement, Glen Movement, and Rissh Ksei-kai and discusses advances made in Comparative Theology, as well as the contributions of Raimon Panikkar to interfaith dialogue and Ken Wilber to theories for appreciating religious truth claims.

    Thus, Part I explores the Catholic Churchs Second Vatican Council and especially the impact of Nostra Aetate on the churchs relations with religions other than Christianity. This, of course, is an obvious choice, as we were commemorating the fi ftieth anniversary of the historic coun-cil in relation to its effect on interfaith dialogue. The section includes discussions on article four of Nostra Aetate and related documents


    (such as Ecclesiam Suam ), as well as similar dialogue documents pro-duced by leaders of the Jewish tradition (such as Dabru Emet ) and also those presented to us by the bishops of the Asian Church (such as the Theses on Interreligious Dialogue ).

    Part II looks specifi cally at Islam and Muslims, no doubt the most important and urgent dialogue partner for Christianity and Christians in our age. It explores the religion and the challenges and issues confront-ing its adherents from the perspectives of scholars living on four different continents. Thus, the section includes refl ections on a variety of aspects of Islam and Muslims from the standpoint of a specifi c context in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe. The chapters touch on issues pertaining to the instrumentalization of religion, especially for socio-political or eco-nomic objectives, as well as the diffi culties Muslims in the West face in forging their identity or in social participation.

    Part III focuses on the learning dimensions of interfaith dialogue and is aimed at facilitating an ecclesia discens (listening church) instead of an ecclesia docens (teaching church). Premised on the fact that the present book will have a greater circulation in the West where more readers prob-ably come from Christian backgroundswhether practising or notor are more familiar with Christianity, it presents some deep lessons that Christians can and should learn from other religious and cultural tradi-tions. Some of these traditions are so different from the beliefs and prac-tices of Christianity that they can be understood and appreciated only within the context of their histories and cultures.

    Part IV examines specifi c models and methods for interfaith engage-ments. Again, this is looked at through different lenses, addressing a vari-ety of dimensions of interfaith relations. The section includes refl ections on how approaches to interfaith dialogue can learn from ecumenical and cultural dialogues, as well as the encounters with newer faith groups. It examines how it can be shaped by advances made in spiritual renewal movements and the methodology of Comparative Theology and the practice of Scriptural Reasoning. It also addresses how interfaith dialogue can be enhanced through refl ections on the cosmotheandric vision or by employing a kenotic approach to religious truths.

    In short, the volume contains a lot of critical studies that can benefi t many, especially those wishing to extend their horizons of understanding into the various issues surrounding interfaith relations, as well as the chal-lenges confronting peoples of faith from around the globe.


    A WORD ABOUT EACH CHAPTER Chapter 1 , by Archbishop Michael Louis Fitzgerald, discusses Vatican IIs impact on interfaith dialogue. It begins by stating that the Second Vatican Council was the fi rst council in the churchs history to explicitly address the issue of the Catholic Churchs relationship with other religions. Acknowledging that while a lot of refl ections have already been offered on the fi ve articles of Nostra Aetate , less, however, have been written about the other documents which contributed to shaping the churchs inter-religious consciousness. The chapter, therefore, examines some of these, in particular the papal encyclical Ecclesiam Suam . It also looks at the role the papacy has played in promoting the ministry of interreligious dialogue amongst the Catholic faithful, as well as the whole human community.

    Chapter 2 , by John T. Pawlikowski, OSM, concentrates on Vatican IIs groundbreaking document Nostra Aetate that provided the impetus for a substantial renovation of the perceptions Christians have towards other religions. The fourth article forged a new vision for the churchs rela-tionship with the Jewish people. The chapter explores the signifi cance of this, especially its impact on Christian theology vis--vis Second Temple Judaism. It begins by reviewing classical Christian thought which empha-sized the displacement of the old Israel by Christianity (the new Israel). It then discusses the premises undergirding Nostra Aetate 4 and concludes by examining the developments in Christian theology and bibli-cal studies in light of the new Christian-Jewish relationship.

    Chapter 3 , by Rabbi Fred Morgan, focuses on the Jewish perspectives on interfaith dialogue after Nostra Aetate . Its starting point is that even though Nostra Aetate is a document of the Catholic Church, it has had a signifi cant impact on Jewish attitudes to interfaith dialogue. The chapter begins by reviewing the advances made in dialogue by the Jewish commu-nity, especially with the rise of the reform and liberal expressions of Judaism in the early to mid-1800s. It then discusses two different positions on interfaith dialogue as represented by the works of Rabbi Soloveitchik and Rabbi Heschel, followed by an examination of the signifi cance of Dabru Emet . The chapter concludes by advocating that interfaith dialogue be conferred the status of a sacred activity.

    Chapter 4 , by Edmund Kee-Fook Chia, examines the response of the Asian Church to Nostra Aetate . Acknowledging that Vatican IIs Nostra Aetate has had a signifi cant impact on churches throughout the world, it posits that this is especially true for the church in Asia, the cradle of all the major religious

    traditions. The chapter examines how the Asian Church has responded to the challenge of interreligious dialogue, as well as identifi es the specifi c con-tributions it has made in the context of the works of the Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences. It highlights the Triple Dialogue as the priority and mode of evangelization in Asia. Interreligious dialogue, therefore, entails the process of inculturation and efforts of integral liberation.

    Chapter 5 , by Mukhtar Umar Bunza, interrogates the challenges of Muslim-Christian relations in Nigeria. It begins by suggesting that despite rather positive Muslim-Christian relations in Nigeria through most of his-tory, the situation has deteriorated since the early 1980s. Interfaith con-fl icts became frequent occurrences, especially in the heterogeneous states in Northern Nigeria. These tensions were signifi cantly fuelled by the polar-ization of the communities into Christians versus Muslims, Northern ver-sus Southern, settler versus indigene, dominant versus marginalized, and rich versus poor. The chapter examines these challenges, but only after dis-cussing the history of the more positive encounters between Christianity and Islam. The religions certainly have no problem with one another; it is their adherents who are the problem.

    Chapter 6 , by Ali Ahmed, evaluates the impact of State policies on inter-faith relations in Pakistan. Its point of departure is that religious extremism is ruining Pakistan. The country is collapsing under the weight of violent jihadists, produced initially to contain the perceived enemies across its bor-ders. However, analysis shows that the countrys security policies have caused further domestic confl icts. Pakistan nationalized Islam, resulting in both Muslims and non-Muslims being victimized. The chapter explores how a states bias towards a particular faith has led to the present state of interfaith hostility in Pakistan. Its inability to bridle the extremists is ringing alarm bells in the minds of the non-extremist Muslims and non-Muslims in Pakistan.

    Chapter 7 , by Fatih Erol Tuncer, begins on the premise that Muslims are still regarded as a newly settled community in Australia. This is attrib-uted to a certain lack of civic engagement with wider society until recent times. The chapter investigates the maturing of the voice of the Muslim community, precipitated in part by the protests to the YouTube video Innocence of Muslims. It discusses how the event brought together diverse Muslim organizations and how their responses shaped public opin-ion. It also explores the role of the media in the spread of stereotypes and promotion of Islamophobia or hatred against Australian Muslims. The behaviors and attitudes of second- and third-generation Muslims will be underscored.

    Chapter 8 , by Stphane Lathion, refl ects on the issue of citizenship between State and Mosque for Muslims in Switzerland. As is the case elsewhere in Europe, Swiss Muslims are confronted with the challenge of negotiating their identity as active participants of society and faithful adherents of their faith. Finding the balance between being Muslim and being Swiss is their major dilemma and which is what the chapter exam-ines. It does this by looking at the experience of the Turkish Muslim com-munity of Switzerland, exploring the various waves of migration, looking at the different Muslim networks and associations, and discussing the mul-tiple ways individuals express their religious identities in a secular state.

    Chapter 9 , by Jojo M.Fung, SJ, attempts to fi nd out what Christians can learn from shamanic pneumatology. Taking seriously the biblical injunction that the Holy Spirit blows wherever the Spirit wills, the chapter investigates a shamanic pneumatology in view of discerning correlations with the Christian faith. On the basis of fi rst-hand research amongst the Karen tribal communities of Northern Thailand, the author posits that the peoples spirituality is one of sacred sustainability. This is premised upon the sustaining presence of the Spirits manifestation throughout the whole of creation, including their ancestors and nature, and creations partici-pation in the power of Ruach Elohim . This leads to an appreciation that panentheism is the fl ip side of Theo-en-passim .

    Chapter 10 , by Paul F.Knitter, probes into what Christians can learn from Buddhism. In the chapter, the author of Without Buddha I Could Not Be a Christian explores Buddhist-Christian dialogue from the perspec-tive of suffering. It begins with an analysis of the Buddhist and Christian understandings of suffering, the starting point for the teachings of Jesus and Buddha. It then discusses the shared diagnosis of suffering, examines the different remedies prescribed, and posits a complementary liberative praxis between the two traditions. Its thrust is that Christianity invites Buddhists to a greater awareness of the importance of social transforma-tion, while Buddhism reminds Christians not to neglect inner-personal transformation in their pursuit of social change.

    Chapter 11 , by Michael Amaladoss, SJ, studies what Christians can learn from Indian religions. Beginning by reminding us that the Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of many religions, the chapter takes a cur-sory survey of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism in view of examining the specifi city in each of the traditions. The thrust of the chap-ter is to discern elements from each of the religions that we can learn something to enrich ourselves. From Jainism it would be the doctrine of

    ahimsa or non- violence, from Buddhism the teachings on impermanence and attachment are signifi cant, from Sikhism one learns about reaching the Absolute that is beyond name and form, and from Hinduism the prin-ciple of advaita or not-twoness.

    Chapter 12 , by Jonathan Y.Tan, addresses what Christians can learn from Chinese religions. The traditional Chinese term sanjiao refers to the three great Chinese religious traditions of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. There is much to learn from them, especially in how they have interacted with, and transformed each other. The chapter begins by exploring the advent of the Chinese civilization, examining the founda-tions and major features of Chinese religions. It then discusses the teach-ings of Confucius on the ideal moral life and also the Daodejing on the principal goals of living. The chapter concludes by postulating common themes that could offer lessons to Christianity, describing Westerners as Truth-seekers and the Chinese as Way-seekers.

    Chapter 13 , by Emi Mase-Hasegawa, looks at what Christians can learn from Japanese religions. Japanese religiosity is unique in that it is premised on diversity and pluralism. Most Japanese identify with more than one religion or engage in the practices of more than one religious tradition. The popular idea that Japanese are born Shinto, marry Christian, and die Buddhist encapsulates this sentiment. At the base of this, however, is the principle of Ta no Wa or harmony of diversity. This, in turn, is at the roots of koshinto or basic Shinto, which is Japans most fundamental religious spirituality. It is a spirituality founded on religious experience, intuition, and non-rationality.

    Chapter 14 , by Archbishop Christopher C. Prowse, examines what Christians can learn from a deeper dialogue with Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia. Some of the recent developments in ecumeni-cal dialogue include spiritual ecumenism and receptive ecumenism, while interreligious dialogue is engaged in through a fourfold dialogue methodology. Meantime, the churchs engagement with the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia continues through the more tra-ditional and informal indigenous methodologies of relating. The chapter discusses the various types of dialogue in view of exploring if the methods used in one can help inform the dialogue of another. Its aim is to search for methodologies which facilitate a deeper dialogue with the indigenous peoples of Australia.

    Chapter 15 , by Moussa Serge Traore, M.Afr., explores African Christian approaches to other religions. Informing that African Christians have been

    coming together in search of an African and Christian approach to inter-faith relations, the chapter discusses their efforts in view of identifying key elements in African spirituality pertinent to harmonious and life-giving relationships. It begins by mapping out the religious terrain in the dif-ferent regions of Africa, highlighting how the history and context shape interfaith relations. It then offers an overview of Christian approaches to other religions and spells out signifi cant features that characterize African theology. Its thesis is that life, unity, interdependence, simplicity, and togetherness are essential ingredients to facilitating wholistic interfaith relations.

    Chapter 16 , by Natalie Mobini, discusses the encounter of what is called the other other from a Bah perspective. It begins by asking what our attitudes are towards the other other, especially if the other adheres to a new tradition which developed from your own. This is a diffi cult chal-lenge confronting the interfaith dialogue movement which the chapter explores in the context of the Bahai faith, especially in light of its contin-ued persecution in the land of its origins. It fi rst lays out the central teach-ings of Bahullh, upon which the direction of its interfaith relationship is based. Diffi culties confounding religion are then examined and alterna-tive ways of responding to the challenge of diversity are highlighted.

    Chapter 17 , by Roberto Catalano, seeks out commonalities among renewal movements across religions. A number of spiritual renewal reli-gious movements have been developing across religious traditions since the middle of the last century. Many of them are lay-led and share a num-ber of other characteristics. The chapter examines the commonalities across three of these movements representing three different religions. The fi rst is the Christian Focolare Movement, the second is the Muslim Glen Movement, and the third is the Buddhist Rissh Ksei-kai. The examination focuses on the understandings of leadership, anthropology, community, and scriptures as taught by their founders, in view of how they shape the communitys outreach in interfaith relations.

    Chapter 18 , by Michael Barnes, SJ, surveys the fi eld of Comparative Theology which, by method, is both confessional and dialogical. The chap-ter discusses the promises it holds for a positive theological account of reli-gious pluralism. It explores this in relationship to the practice of Scriptural Reasoning and the emergence of theology of religions. The chapter then examines interreligious reading in the context of the rapprochement between the church and the Jewish people. It refl ects briefl y on the dialectic of textuality and imagination, insisting that reading another religious world

    entails more than reading from the written text; one also has to read the hidden voices and forgotten traces in between the lines.

    Chapter 19 , by Gerard Hall, SM, interrogates Raimon Panikkars con-tribution to interfaith dialogue. In the visionary thought of Panikkar, the call for the actual praxis of dialogue among traditions has become an exis-tential imperative. The chapter examines his contributions, beginning with his call for depth-dialogue or what he calls dialogical dialogue. This invita-tion is premised on his cosmotheandric vision, which postulates that the divine, human, and earthly realities are interrelated and inter- independent. It also invites us to trust that a new wholistic experience of reality is emerg-ing in which every tradition can play its part in the unfolding of a new experience (revelation) where all will live in harmony and peace.

    Chapter 20 , by Julius-Kei Kato, advances the need for humility and a kenotic approach in interfaith dialogue. Interfaith dialogue entails the shar-ing of truth claims. Oftentimes, these are proclaimed with a certain epis-temic confi dence. Most of these claims are absolute in nature and are not empirically verifi able and so risk being dismissed altogether. The chapter investigates the nature of truth claims as commonly found in religious tradi-tions. It does this in the context of a globalized and hybridized world char-acterized by a scientifi c and historical mentality. Its thesis is that the seed of epistemic confi dence has to die in view of embracing a kenotic approach to religious truths and in the service of a more fruitful interfaith dialogue.

    SET YOUR HEART ONFIRE After having read all the chapters within this volume, it is of course not expected or desired that readers will necessarily agree with all or most of the insights and opinions articulated. It suffi ces that another perspective in addressing the issues has been presented. Perhaps it might do well for readers to spend just a minute to consider all the ideas and thoughts from the chapters and weigh them against the words of the great guru of inter-faith dialogue Anthony de Mello whose wisdom transcends most of the perspectives discussed:

    Said a traveler to one of his disciples, I have travelled a great distance to listen to the Master, but I fi nd his words quite ordinary.

    Dont listen to his words, listen to his message. How does one do that?

    Take hold of a sentence that he says. Shake it well till all the words drop off. What is left will set your heart on fi re. (Anthony de Mello, One Minute Wisdom , 1985)

    Australian Catholic University Edmund Kee-Fook Chia [email protected]

    Melbourne , Australia

    DedicationForewordPrefacePaths toDialogue inOur AgeNature oftheConferenceAcknowledgmentsContentsContributorsIntroductionNature ofThis VolumeA Word About Each ChapterSet Your Heart onFire