Past continous presentation.....!!!!
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- 1. PAST CONTINOUS How do we use the Past Continuous Tense?
2. PAST CONTINOUS USE The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment. For example, yesterday I watched a film on TV. The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm. 3. EXAMPLE At 8pm yesterday, I was watching TV. past present future 8pm At 8pm, I was in the middle of watching TV. 4. When we use the past continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. Look at these examples: I was working at 10pm last night. They were not playing football at 9am this morning. What were you doing at 10pm last night? What were you doing when he arrived? She was cooking when I telephoned her. We were having dinner when it started to rain. Ram went home early because it was snowing. 5. English Tip: Some verbs cannot be used in continuous/progressive tenses. We often use the past continuous tense to "set the scene" in stories. We use it to describe the background situation at the moment when the action begins. Often, the story starts with the past continuous tense and then moves into the simple past tense. Here is an example: " James Bond was driving through town. It was raining. The wind was blowing hard. Nobody was walking in the streets. Suddenly, Bond saw the killer in a telephone box..." 6. PAST CONTINOUS TENSE+SIMPLE PAST TENSE We often use the past continuous tense with the simple past tense. We use the past continuous tense to express a long action. And we use the simple past tense to express a short action that happens in the middle of the long action. We can join the two ideas with when or while. In the following example, we have two actions: long action (watching TV), expressed with past continuous tense short action (telephoned), expressed with simple past tense 7. EXAMPLE PAST PRESENT FUTURE Long action. I was watching TV at 8pm. 8pm. You telephoned at 8pm. Short action. 8. We can join these two actions with when: I was watching TV when you telephoned. (Notice that "when you telephoned" is also a way of defining the time [8pm].) We use: when + short action (simple past tense) while + long action (past continuous tense) 9. THERE ARE FOUR BASIC COMBINATIONS: I was walking past the car when it exploded. When the car exploded I was walking past it. The car exploded while I was walking past it. While I was walking past the car it exploded. 10. Notice that the long action and short action are relative. "Watching TV" took a few hours. "Telephoned" took a few seconds. "Walking past the car" took a few seconds. "Exploded" took a few milliseconds. 11. PAST CONTINOUS FORM [was/were + present participle] Examples: You were studying when she called. Were you studying when she called? You were not studying when she called. 12. USE 1 INTERRUPTED ACTION IN THE PAST Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. Examples: I was watching TV when she called. When the phone rang, she was writing a letter. While we were having the picnic, it started to rain. What were you doing when the earthquake started? I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm. 13. You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off. While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car. Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane. While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off. A: What were you doing when you broke your leg? B: I was snowboarding. 14. USE 2 SPECIFIC TIME AS AN INTERRUPTION In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption. Examples: Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. At midnight, we were still driving through the desert. Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work. 15. IMPORTANT In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action. Examples: Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. I started eating at 6 PM. Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner. 16. USE 3 PARALLEL ACTIONS When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel. Examples: I was studying while he was making dinner. While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television. Were you listening while he was talking? 17. I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes. What were you doing while you were waiting? Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either. They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time. 18. USE 4 ATMOSPHERE In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past. Example: When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service. 19. USE 5 REPETITION AND IRRITATION WITH "ALWAYS" The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing." Examples: She was always coming to class late. He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone. I didn't like them because they were always complaining. 20. WHILE VS. WHEN Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence. Examples: I was studying when she called. While I was studying, she called. 21. REMEMBER NON-CONTINUOUS VERBS / MIXED VERBS It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past. Examples: Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct 22. ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples: You were just studying when she called. Were you just studying when she called? 23. ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples: The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. Active The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store. Passive 24. ACTIVE / PASSIVE VERB FORMS Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English. Active Form In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active. [Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action] 25. EXAMPLES The professor (Subject Doing Action ) teaches (Verb) the students.(Object Receiving Action) John (Subject Doing Action ) washes (Verb) the dishes. (Object Receiving Action) 26. PASSIVE FORM In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action. [Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action] 27. EXAMPLES The Students (Subject Receiving Action) are taught (Passive Verb) by the professor (Doing Action) The Dishes (Subject Receiving Action) are washed (Passive Verb) by John (Doing Action)