Parisara Vahini August 2014

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Parisara Vahini August 2014 Karnataka State Pollution Control Board

Transcript of Parisara Vahini August 2014

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    CEMENTING THE WASTE TO SAVE ENVIRONMENT

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    Eco-friendly Ganesha festival awareness orientation Camp in Hoskote

    Representatives from 60 eco clubs of various schools in Hoskote Taluk participated in Eco-friendly Ganesha Festival Orientation Workshop held on 5th August at Hoskote. Smt Viji Kartikeyan, Environment Officer, KSPCB conducted this workshop.

    Eco-friendly Ganesha workshop in Doddaballapura

    62 ecoclub teachers of Government schools of Doddaballapura Taluk participated in the awareness programme on eco friendly Ganesha festival, organised by Karnataka State Pollution Control Board. They were also given orientation on Parisara Mitra school Programme 2014-15. These schools have also been selected for the National Green Corps programme of which KSPCB is an active member.

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    A Two day Seminar on Nation First-CSR Building Relationships Beyond Funding was organized in Bangalore on the second week of July 2014 at New Biological Science Building Auditorium, IISC. This was organized by Indian Social Responsibility Network, Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology (KSCST), CBR NETWORK and CSR Assist in collaboration with Karnataka State Pollution Control Board,Hutti Gold Mines, Karnataka and Novozymes.

    The workshop was inaugurated by Honble Justice Sri Rama Jois .

    The Inagural Session had Dr Vinay Sahasrabhudde, Justice Sri Rama Jois,Dr Vaman Acharya,Dr.A.K.Monappa,Prof M.S.Mohan Kumar, Sri Surendra Shroff as chief guests.

    A digital library on CSR was released by Dr Vaman Acharya ,Chairman, Karnataka State Pollution Control Board. Digital library on CSR contains CSR policies, practices and legislations in India and other countries.

    Dr A.K. Monappa,Chairperson,Hutti Gold

    Mines graced the function as the chief guest.Prof.M.S. Mohan Kumar,Director,KSCST chaired the inaugural session. Dr Vinay Sahasrabhudde ,Chairperson Rambhavmalgi Prabodini gave the key note address.

    Around 160 participants from corporate sector, Government departments, Universities, Civil societies participated in the seminar.

    There were presentations by Dr. C.S.Kedar, IAS, on the `Scope of CSR, Prof Vansanthi Srinivasan, IIM Bangalore presented on `CSR - a window of new opportunities, Dr Manoj Chakravarthi, IIM Bangalore shared CSR the way forward. Dr Malathi Somaiah, Former faculty of IIM, Bangalore highlighted the Need for professional management systems for effective implementation of CSR.

    Dr. Pranjal Goswami from Novozymes presented `CSR and corporate concerns. Sri Ravindra Sathe from ISRN presented the `Scope of ISRN in building effective CSR supported programme to achieve the inclusive and sustainable developments. Nalini Sampath and

    KSPCB Chairman participates in NATION FIRST CSR Building Relationships Beyond Funding

    Sri Rajgopal from CSR Assist shared the `Need for good management and support systems for effective implementation of CSR.

    Sri Pranav Desai, USA, Ms Debra Perry, USA shared the `Global policies and practices in CSR.

    Smt Deepthi Samanth consultant, research scholar , Syracuse university presented the need for HRD

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    for effective CSR.

    `Good practices in CSR were presented by Karnataka state pollution Control Board and Hutti Gold Mines.

    The seminar concluded on the 12th July.Prof Krishna Bhatta, eminent educationist and MLC, Karnataka gave a key note address on `Indian perspective to CSR and education. Dr Sudha Rao, Member Secretary, Knowledge Commission delivered the valedictory address and highlighted the need to implement CSR with a human touch.

    The major recommendations of the workshop are given below:

    CSR has become an integral part of sustainable inclusive development in The Companies Act as amended with effect from 1st April 2014. There is a need for more awareness about the new Act.

    Section 135 of The Companies Act, mandates funding in CSR activities out of the net profits earned. This was envisaged 5 years ago and many are clueless about the Acts specific requirements, beyond charitable and philanthropic spending. Therefore, there is a need for support system to corporate sector as well as civil

    societies in developing effective projects under CSR as per the Act.

    CSR has to be looked deeper into, beyond just funding. Indian Social Responsibility Network, is aiming to bring together the Corporate sector and Voluntary organizations (NGOs). The general feeling is that the corporate entities are concerned only with their profitability and growth and none what so ever about the society in which they perform.

    It was resolved to upload the seminar papers, list of participants, digital library and outcomes on the website for continued interaction.

    Corporate companies said they need a CSR workshop exclusively for them. It also decided to organize similar seminars in other parts of India.

    OBJECTIVES OF THE SEMINARThe two day seminar was an initative to understand and explore new strategies to build linkages

    /networks/support systems between business communities and civil societies for effective implementation of developmental projects to build up a strong and vibrant India. Issues focussed in the Seminar were

    1.Sensitizing the companies and civil societies about the Companies Act, 2013.

    2.Understanding the replicable best practices in CSR.

    3.Understanding the issues, challenges and needs to achieve the sustainable inclusive development through CSR activities.

    4.Promoting a forum for knowledge building, sharing and networking for the effective implementation of CSR Projects.

  • 12 PlP jg | DU 2014

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    The spectacular growth of the construction industry has had unintended consequences for every river in India today. The mining of sand which is an essential part of construction has often been in the news, largely due to the control of local mafias over this minor mineral. Most people also intuitively recognise that sand mining has damaged, and continues to damage, the delicate ecosystem of Indias rivers, on which millions of people depend for their drinking and household needs, livelihoods and irrigation. Yet, what is little understood is this: why is sand necessary for the river and what role does it play?

    performs critical functions, each necessary for the long term survival of a river. These include

    Recharging the ground water table far beyond the river basin itself by slowing down the flow of water in the river and allowing for percolation, not just downwards but laterally across large areas on either side of the river as well exactly how large an area is recharged by the river depends on various factors, including nature of the soil, the topography and so on. Indeed, a study in the United States showed that where the hyporheic zone was minimal, water recharge was limited and wells often went dry in summer.

    Life in a Grain of Sand: Why Sand Matters

    Sand, very simply, is

    the soil of the river, providing and sustaining virtually all life that exists in the river itself. Alongwith another very important mineral, gravel, it forms part of the hyporheic zone, an intermediate zone between the surface water of the river and the groundwater beneath.

    The hyporheic zone has been studied extensively all over the world for the last seventy years and it is now well accepted that this zone

    -

    Being a refuge for fish and an incubator for eggs and for

    spawning. While lakhs of fishermen in India are critically dependant on fishing, fish itself is a vital source of rural protein and, as is now being studied, the humungous scale of sand and gravel extraction (along with the number of hydel projects coming up) is impacting fish availability across the country. Ironically, many fishermen, in an effort to keep their incomes from falling, are part of the extensive sand mining network, working

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    The removal of the sand-and-gravel layer of the river ecosystem is inhibiting the self-cleaning mechanism of the river, even as Indias rivers receive increasing loads of toxic and sewage wastes from urban and agricultural areas. The removal of sand and the increasing pollution are irreversibly damaging the ecology of every river in India today.

    the river-beds for a fraction of the amount that the sand is sold to the end user.

    Buffering agricultural lands and towns from rising water levels during floods. This function is performed by sand by its very nature of being porous and is a process known as bank storage. To understand this better, one only needs to fill a glass with sand and pour water into it! This value of sand that of being a vast storage tank of clean water has an additional priceless property: during the dry months of the year, sand releases some of this water to keep the river flowing, ensuring (sand-filtered) water for our needs.

    Harbouring unique invertebrate fauna and micro-organisms such as fungi and microbes that filter the water, due to its physical, chemical and biological conditions. The sediment particles, for instance, impede the flow of silt and particulate matter as water enters and moves through sand. A second, biological filtering mechanism works in a manner similar to the trickling filters of sewage treatment plants, where nutrients dissolved in river water are taken up or transformed by microbial bio-films coating the sediments, into food for the many species of invertebrates that live in the hyporheic zone. The chemical conditions prevalent within the hyporheic zone allow the precipitation of dissolved minerals and metals, which is then trapped by the physical filter, where it may be degraded biologically. These are complex processes, evolved over thousands of years, and the removal of the sand-and-gravel layer of the river ecosystem is inhibiting the self-cleaning mechanism of the river, even as Indias rivers receive increasing loads of toxic and sewage wastes from urban

    and agricultural areas. The removal of sand and the increasing pollution are irreversibly damaging the ecology of every river in India today.

    Dams, while they do not remove sand, have decimated this cleansing property of a river as well. Indeed, a report by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) attributed the self-purifying ability of Gangajal to river sediments, notably sand, and data indicated that the blocking of sediments behind the Tehri Dam had diminished this property.

    What is needed therefore is an urgent national effort to develop an ecologically safe, cost-effective, technically comparable substitute for sand and to critically evaluate the impact on the hyporheic zone prior to the clearance of a hydroelectric project. To ensure water security for Indias future, we need to keep the sand where it belongs to in the river.

  • 14 PlP jg | DU 2014

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    ATTENTION : ALL HEALTH CARE UNITS!Let The Waste Of The Sick Not Contaminate

    The Lives Of The Healthy

    HOW TO MANAGE BMW?l Scientifically segregate Bio- Medical Solid Waste as per

    Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and hand over to authorised facility.

    l Liquid Bio- Medical Waste should be disinfected before discharge.

    l Obtain necessary Consent/ Authorisation from Karnataka State Pollution Control Board as per law.

    ADHERE TO RULES FOR DISPOSAL OF BIO- MEDICAL WASTEWHAT IS BIO- MEDICAL WASTE(BMW) ?

    Any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human be-ings or animal or research activities

    WHAT ARE THE RISKS INVOLVED WITH BMW ?

    KARNATAKA STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARDParisara Bahvana, No. 49, Church StreetBangalore- 560 001. WEBSITE: www.kspcb.gov.in EMAIL: [email protected] FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/kspcbofficialBLOG: kspcb.wordpress.org

    For more information visit our website: http:kspcb.kar.nic.in

    PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMWORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM

    VIRUSES AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis, Infected needles, body HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis Infectious Hepatitis, Fluids, Human excreta, soiled A,C, Arboviruses, Dengue, Japanese linen, Blood, body fluids. Enteroviruses encephalitis, tick-borne fevers, etc.

    BACTERIA Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus, Human excreta and Salmonella typhi, Wound infections, body fluid in landfills and Vibrio cholerae, septicemia, rheumatic hospital wards, Sharps such Clostridium Tetani, fever, endocarditis, skin as needles, surgical blades in Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and soft tissue infections hospital waste.

    PARASITES Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Human excreta, blood and Wucheraria Bancrofti, Kala Azar, Malaria body fluids in poorly Plasmodium managed sewage system of hospithls.

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  • 18 PlP jg | DU 2014

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  • 20 PlP jg | DU 2014

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  • 22 PlP jg | DU 2014

    An International seminar on `AFR for co-processing incinerable and non-incinerable industrial wastes in cement plants was organized in Bangalore last week. Experts from Singapore, Belgium, Germany and United States congregated along with experts from Indian cement industries to share their experience in industrial waste disposal in cement plants. The seminar was organized by Academy of Certified Hazardous Materials Managers (ACHMM)-India Chapter and Institute of Hazardous Materials Managers (IEHMM), Bangalore and supported by Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, KSPCB. The main objective of this seminar was to provide a platform to explore the possibilities of using co-processing techniques in cement industries and also for interaction between the red category industries producing hazardous materials and sludges with the cement manufacturers and Government officials and Officers of Karnataka State Pollution Control Board. This seminar discussed not only the complexity of treatments required by the difficult materials but also the economics of co-processing and popularize the technique among the cement manufacturers to

    arrive at a win-win situation between the cement manufacturers and the Indian industries generating incinerable and non-incinerable wastes.

    Global picture of co-processing

    Mr. John Jones, Regional Operations Director, Geocycle Asia Network, Singapore gave an overview of increasing worldwide waste generation and challenges, concepts and benefits of co-processing, development of legal framework for co-processing and the Geocycle approach to customer based waste management solutions. He presented waste management approach through co-processing and introduced Holcim and Geocycle practices. He mentioned that Holcim is a Swiss company and a leading global supplier of building materials in over

    CEMENTING THE WASTE TO SAVE ENVIRONMENT

    Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials (AFR) for Co-processing In Cement Plants An Answer to Industrial Waste Disposal.

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  • 23PlP jg | DU 2014

    70 countries. Cement contributes to about 5% of the total CO2 put into the atmosphere by mankind and the world demand for cement increases by roughly 2% every year, reaching a figure of about 5000 metric tons by 2020, John said. In every 10 seconds, 119 MT of hazardous substances are added to the environment, 3.716 MT of fossil fuels are consumed, 2000 MT of carbon is added to the atmosphere from burning of the fossil fuels, two die of drinking polluted water and the world has lost an unknown amount of biological diversity, he said quoting an UNEP source. This ecological misbehaviour is squeezing the earth of its resources. The Operation Director of Geocycle Asia Network said that cement kiln co-processing technology is accepted by Basel convention for disposal of hazardous wastes and is accepted by Montreal protocol for disposal of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), hazardous and non hazardous wastes as practiced widely and successfully in many countries around the world . He was of the opinion that the cement kilns offer the best solution for disposal of wastes in an environmentally sound and ecologically sustaining manner. The use of waste and biomass instead of fossil fuel in the cement industry has resulted in the reduction of European absolute emissions by 11 MT / year this millenium. He gave a list of waste materials that can be co-processed in cement kilns.

    Jan Theulen, Global Waste Co-processing Manager, Hazardous Waste Co-processing in cement kilns at Heidelberg Cement (HC) based at Belgium shared his experiences in co-processing at the HC plants at Belgium and the Ammasandra Cement Plant at Tumkur near Bangalore. Mr Theulen gave an overview of the Heidelberg Cements Hazardous Waste Treatment. He described the advanced solid hazardous waste platforms at Recyfuel Belgium and RENOR Norway; advanced liquid hazardous waste platform: SRM UK (8 sites including recycling liquids); Basic solid hazardous waste platforms at Romania and Indonesia; Plants using prepared hazardous waste from market at Czech Republic, Sweden and Germany and Waste oil fuel utility at more than 20 plants inside HC. Jan said that ours is a absolute zero waste solution and the burning process destroys all substances from primary and alternative fuels by maintaining a flame temperature >2,000C with long residence times and

    with enough oxygen, rich in alkalis and active lime with an energy efficiency > 70% . There is no increase in emissions due to input of alternative fuels with product quality remaining unchanged and ashes are left in the clinker without leaving behind any residue. At the Recyfuel, Belgium 80,000 MT of solid + pasty hazardous waste was collected in a joint venture with a waste collector and pretreated every year at a pretreatment facilty following closely regulated standards of quality control of incoming waste, homogenization of flows, size reduction and mixing of the solid and pasty material into valuable fuel thus saving 50,000 MT of coal and 25,000 MT of carbon dioxide. At the Ammasandra plant, co-processing of AFR of hazardous waste consisting of used oil, petroleum refining, oil soaked cotton, paint sludge, tyre chips, plastic waste and wind blade FRP residue was practiced as per KSPCB norms, expert from the Heidelberg Cement mentioned. He described the upgraded feeding facility for AFR at the Ammasandra plant.

    Ms Saumya Srivastava, Manager, Business Development, ACC Ltd, Geocycle India, in her introductory remarks said that we are not able to provide an ecologically sustaining solution for management of different kinds of wastes. We are not able to conserve about 8-10 MTPA of coal and an equal amount of natural resources such as lime, iron, silica, alumina etc. We are resorting to disposal options that locks up precious land for any further use and High level of carbon footprint on account of increase in the GHG emissions. Government, Waste generator and Solution provider carry large amount of liability towards refurbishment of damage to the landfill, Ms Saumya remarked. She presented the various initiatives taken for safe waste co-processing in cement plants based on the Geocycle India guidelines at various ACC plants. Emission results of ten co processing trials were evaluated as per CPCB defined trial protocol was used for emission monitoring of particulate matter, SOx, NOx, HCl, HF, TOC, Heavy Metals, Dioxin / Furans for seven different types of waste streams representing five industrial sectors engineering, steel, chemicals, FMCG and pharma. Emission monitoring from the cement kiln stack carried out by two CPCB approved agencies showed no obvious changes in the emission

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  • 24 PlP jg | DU 2014

    quality after the use of co-processed wastes as fuel. The real challenges for cement units for co-processing include increasing volumes, varying quality and infrastructure for handling, different types of packaging, risk mitigation of each waste stream, large storage space requirement, kiln adaptability constraints and traceability of problem materials, Ms Saumya said. She also presented a list of industrial hazardous waste materials that are being processed which included sludges (ETP, WWT, Oil, Paint), process residues, distillation residues, solvents (spent, waste, contaminated), spent media, oily rags and cloth, contaminated soil, liquid wastes, ,and inustrial non-hazardous wastes such as FMCG waste (date expired, reject, packaging), plastic waste, sludges (ETP, WWT, Oil, Paint) and process Residues. Sorted MSW and biomass are also handled at our plants, Ms Saumya added. The wastes that are not handled are anatomical hospital wastes, bio-hazardous and asbestos wastes, electronic scrap, batteries, explosives, mineral acids and high concentration cyanide and radio active wastes. The present status is that HWM Rules recognizes co-processing technology for managing hazardous wastes, recover energy from waste. Detailed framework of operation and methodology as per CPCB issued guidelines of co-processing, 2010 is successful in demonstration of co processing technology through large number of trial runs conducted in various cement plants. But, the hurdles are guidelines exist in favor of co processing without complimentary Rules, huge timelines in receiving co processing permits for trial as well as regular co processing, absence of framework for pre-processing and no incentives for undertaking this greening initiative, the expert from ACC added.

    Mr. Larry Lockrem from Larry L Lockrem, M.S. Director, Technology Development, Center for Laboratory Sciences, RJ Lee Group, Washington, USA, shared his experience in cement-based waste forms which immobilize the toxic elements of the waste by binding them in a low-solubility solid phase and/or encapsulating the soluble toxic elements in a less-soluble, low permeability matrix that resists degradation. He presented The Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site plans to convert several liquid

    waste streams from operations into solid waste forms describing the development of a cementitious waste form for Hanford. The cement mix that has been developed consists of portland cement, blast furnace slag, hydrated lime, and getter.

    Dr. B. Sengupta, former Member Secretary, Central Pollution Control Board, CPCB, New Delhi presented the regulatory reforms recommended to promote co-processing of waste in India. Describing the term co-processing as the use of suitable waste materials in manufacturing processes for the purpose of energy and/or resource recovery and resultant reduction in the use of conventional fuels and/or raw materials through substitution, Dr Sengupta, explained the general principles and the requirements for co-processing and said that the operator of the co-processing plant should develop a waste evaluation procedure to assess health and safety of workers and public, plant emissions, operations and product quality, variables that should be considered when selecting waste including kiln operation, emissions, clinker, cement and final product quality. Most promising alternative fuels available in India for co-processing are RDF from municipal solid waste, used tyres, hazardous waste, industrial plastic waste, biomass and the useful alternative raw materials were the flash and blast furnace slag. Dr. Sengupta also presented their potential availability in India as 0.64 MTA of hazardous wate, 150 MTA of biomass, 0.83 MTA of used tyre, 0.20 MTA of industrial plastic waste, 6.88 MTA of RDF from MSW, 200 MTA of flyash and 10 MTA of blast furnace slag. Available hazardous waste which can be used as partial fuel in cement kiln include organic residue from Pharmaceuticals

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  • 25PlP jg | DU 2014

    and Pesticide industry, spent solvent, sludge from petrochemical / oil refinery, slaughter house waste, waste oil, paint sludge, effluent treatment plant sludge spent pot lining from aluminum industry and spent carbon, he said. Regarding the regulatory reforms in co-processing, the former Member Secretary of CPCB, informed that to boost up the concept of co-processing of waste in cement plant, a Regulatory Forum (RF) consisting of Member Secretary of AP, Rajasthan, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka along with representatives of Ministry of Environment and Forest,(MoEF), Central Pollution Control Board, (CPCB), Cement Manufacturers Association (CMA) and Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) have been constituted under the Chairmanship of Member Secretary , Gujarat State Pollution Control Board (GSPCB). The RF met five times and recommended amendment in existing Hazardous Waste Management Rules 1998/2008, Air Act 1981, Fly Ash Management Rules 2009 and EIA 2006. He also presented salient features in the proposed amendment in hazardous waste management rules to boost up co-processing of waste in cement plant which included the definitions of terms such as co-processing and disposal according to which a co-processor or a cement kiln owner shall become an operator of disposable facility under clause r of section 3, and the activity shall be carried out by the unit only after obtaining approval from the concerned SPCBs, and shall include co-processor on par with TSDF operator in respect of packaging and labelling of hazardous waste. Dr. Sengupta also presented the RF proposal for emission standards for cement plants co-processing AFR including hazardous waste effective from 01-08-2015. The RF has recommended that the proposed standard may be notified under EP Act, 1986 by MoEF. This may also be notified under Section 17 (1)(g) of Air Act, 1981 by SPCBs / PCCs. It is also suggested by RF that SPCBs / PCCs may also give permission for co-processing of alternate fuel other than hazardous waste in cement kiln under Air Act subject to compliance of following (i) the cement industry meets emission standards for co-processing of alternate fuel and hazardous waste in cement kiln (ii) the cement plant install all continuous emission monitoring system. and (iii) the cement industry ensures quality of clinker and cement

    Following recommendations were drafted during the panel discussion at the seminar for the Government and PCBs to implement.

    1. Pollution Control Boards take initiative to create Association of Small scale Hazardous Waste producers to create a Centralized Hazardous Waste storage Facility to pool the AFR waste materials and the Association take the responsibility of transporting the waste to nearby cement kilns with necessary authorizations

    2. Encourage each cement company to create a service oriented specific waste business unit , with necessary authorization by State Pollution Control Board, to interface wastes market and the cement factory and for pre-processing specific waste materials, commonly generated by the cluster of industries in and around the region, for co-processing.

    3. Cement units to accept the waste transported by the association free of cost or at uniform price.

    4. After completion of the trial burn for a particular type of waste authorization/ permission to be given, by the State Pollution Control Board itself, to cement plants where trial burn is conducted and also to other industries where co-processing is practiced.

    strictly as per BIS norms. Regarding co-processing of RDF from municipal solid waste (MSW) in cement plant, Dr. Senupta, said that the RDF from MSW is to be notified by SPCB/PCC as approved fuel under Air Act or alternatively under MSW Rules under EP Act, and MoEF to consider to include RDF from MSW as fuel in cement kiln as a disposal option of MSW management. Regarding co-processing flyash generated from thermal power plants, Dr. Sengupta said that present generation of fly ash is about 190-200 MTA from coal based power station and it is going to increase rapidly as more coal based power station are being setup in India. Under BIS code, fly ash upto

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  • 26 PlP jg | DU 2014

    35% are permitted to be used to manufacture fly ash pozzolona cement. BIS may consider to increase this limit to 45-50% for some special category uses of cement. MoEF under Fly Ash Management Rules, 2009 include the use of fly ash to make fly ash pozzolona cement as a disposal option and under EIA 2006/2009 notification, cement grinding unit making fly ash pozzolona cement are required to obtain EC. As fly ash cement grinding unit are environmentally friendly units, RF recommended that the requirement of taking EC under EIA 2006 / 2009 notification may be waived by MoEF. Under EIA 2006 while granting EC to thermal power plant, MoEF may consider to put a condition to TPP to send fly ash to cement grinding unit for making fly ash pozzolona cement as much as possible. For blast furnace slag generated from integrated steel plants, Dr Sengupta said that presently in India, more than 10 MTA blast furnace slag are generated from steel industry. Blast furnace slag after granulation can be used for making slag cement. Under EIA 2006 while granting EC to steel industry, MoEF may impose a condition that all blast furnace (BF) slag should be granulated and used for making slag cement.

    Indias cement production capacityIndia is the second largest producer of cement in the world with cement production capacity currently estimated at about 345 million tonnes per annum (MTA), with 148 large and 365 mini cement plants including public sector facilities. According to a report from Cement Manufacturers Association (CMA) of India, long-term target calls for Indian cement industry to reach a capacity of 550 MTA by 2020 which will involve adding a further 230 MTA.

    The cement kilns operate at a high temperature using fossil fuels such as coal and fuel oil and the major raw materials are mainly lime stone, sand or clay and alumina. Escalating cost of fuel and depleting resources of raw materials added to their increased cost of their mining and transportation has led to the use of alternative fuel and raw materials for cement production. Fly ash, a waste product of thermal plants was considered as of nuisance value a few years back but its utility in the recent years in cement production as pozzolan has greatly solved its disposal without affecting the cement quality. Looking at the success of fly ash as a raw material many cement manufacturers were quick to jump the bandwagon to establish their units close to thermal plants. The current thinking is to establish small and medium cement kilns suiting the needs and the availability of AFR right in the industrial plants too on similar lines as for collecting flyash.

    The most promising alternative fuels are used tyres, hazardous waste, industrialised plastic waste, biomass including RDF from municipal solid waste, and raw materials that include fly ash and blast furnace slag. Presently these industrial wastes, although readily available, are sent to landfill for logistics and economical reasons and the waste with calorific value are burnt in the incinerators resulting in undesirable burning of materials with fuel value causing air pollution and burial of useful recoverable resource materials of value in the landfills. Incineration and landfilling are at the bottom of the Waste Processing Hierarchy.

    AFR technique is being practiced in cement kilns in Europe, Japan, USA , Canada, and Australia since the beginning of the 1970s and recently in India to a limited extent. Experts say that the Chief reasons for limited practice of co-processing in India are inadequate knowledge of the potential of AFR and of legislative and institutional requirements related to co-processing, legal uncertainties and concerns of the public over environmental and health damage.

    Holcim, a Swiss company, is the global leader in cement kiln co-processing and is operating in 70 countries across the world for over two decades. GEOCYCLE is a pioneer in the waste mapping and physical pre-processing moves. It has a scientific core group which looks at difficult, recalcitrant and cement incompatible waste materials, to find a solution to these for the industry. ACC, now a Holcim group company, has a separate division with dedicated professionals working concertedly with corporate support for managing the hazardous wastes.

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  • 30 PlP jg | DU 2014

    Electroplating units are significant from Water pollution, Air Pollution and Hazardous waste point of view. Improper environmental management from these units result in severe impact on the surrounding. Electroplating industry in India is spread throughout the country. They are mainly in small scale sectors with over 3,00,000 small scale units (source TIFAC). Majority of electroplating units in Karnataka are concentrated in and around Bangalore in places in and around Peenya, Rajajinagar, Mahadevapura, Veerasandra etc.

    The Peenya region of Bangalore in Karnataka State has a high concentration of electroplating units and hence the issues arising out of these are of great concern. Unless we as a responsible community take the issue head on and resolve to address, the consequence will be serious.

    The menace of Electroplating

    related pollution and KSPCB views

    The Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) has taken steps to close down around 50 electroplating industries in Peenya industrial area and its surrounding areas alone. This is being done because of the environmental threat they pose, especially to surrounding residential areas. The Board has issued orders stating that no new electroplating industry can be set up in Bangalore City limits and the existing industries should either follow environment norms or face closure.

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  • 31PlP jg | DU 2014

    A new survey of 72 borewells by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) completed in July 2013 has found that 20 of them are heavily polluted with chromium a carcinogenic heavy metal associated with lung, kidney and skin disease with some borewells recording levels 600 to 700 times the nationally permissible limit.

    While the national limit for chromium is 0.05 mg/L, borewell tests found concentrations of the chemical compound to be as high as 35 mg/L and 29 mg/L in parts of Peenya, reflecting an absence of enforcement of environmental norm in Indias largest industrial area.

    Electroplating, a process that makes metal surfaces corrosion-proof, is one of the biggest and most unorganised industrial activities in Peenya, where engineering companies manufacture everything from JCBs to watches. Companies choose to outsource electroplating to small unorganised units rather than have it in-house. The company saves money and the hassle of having to deal with toxic waste.

    In this context, I strongly recommend to have a holistic and no-nonsense approach towards this industry and the pollutants shall be dealt with firmly.

    I hereby enlist the main features of the Industry as follows:

    Most of the units are in Small and tiny sector. These entrepreneurs also have finance constraint to comply with pollution control steps.

    There is a total absence of expertise.

    Several units are operating in residential area with inadequate space for pollution control measures.

    Few units have installed captive effluent treatment plant, others depend on Common Effluent Treatment Plants

    facilities for their waste disposal. Common Effluent Treatment Plants are located far away from electroplating units, thereby increasing cost of transportation.

    Waste water handling is managed improperly with effluent collection tanks below ground level. Units also not handing over the waste regularly to Common Effluent Treatment Plants resulting in unauthorized discharges.

    No leak tests were carried out to verify the leakages from plating baths and effluent collection tanks.

    Non-maintenance of records pertaining to water consumption, surface area of plating etc. has resulted in wrong estimation of waste water generation and problems to regulating authorities to monitor.

    Poor working practices due to unskilled and untrained manpower has resulted in wastage of chemicals, water etc., there by adding to environmental problems.

    Lack of awareness in latest trends in the sector and their unwillingness to adapt good manufacturing practices has only maximized the problem.

    Usage of cyanide bearing baths during Zinc plating has created immense environmental problems.

    Unscientific design of hoods, ducts and air

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    pollution control equipments is visible all over.

    Outsourcing of plating activity is another bane. Many Large scale industries are outsourcing their activities such as Electroplating, Phosphating, Powder Coating, Painting, etc., which are significant from pollution point of view to small scale sector units. Reasons for outsourcing are lack of space, to maintain their premises green (pollution free), cost economics , labor problems etc. . The above mentioned activities are significant from pollution angle and the waste generated are to be handled scientifically to avoid any pollution related problems. Due to outsourcing, pollution problems are distributed to a wider area. This has resulted in environmental problems.

    Environmental problems resulting out of outsourcing can be enlisted as follows:

    Proper and detailed Environmental auditing of these units are not being carried out by the outsourcing industries. It appears that these outsourced units are not estimating/intimating at the time of placing order, the likely quantity of pollution generated to the job work units.

    The outsourcing units are not monitoring waste water generation quantity and handling of

    the ultimate disposal of waste.

    Outsourcing units are placing the work order solely on the cost as criteria and not on the environmental issues. This has lead to the competition & the prices paid will be adequate only for production and hardly any amount left for environmental protection .This has resulted in environmental problem .

    Apart from banning of establishment/ expansion of new surface treatment units including electroplating units in and around Peenya, Karnataka Sate Pollution Control Board has initiated several measures to resolve the pollution issues from electroplating units.

    Board has formulated FIVE basic requirements as a first step to be fulfilled by the units as a part of environmental compliance.

    Flooring shall be acid resistant in the process area.

    Plating baths shall be above ground level.

    Scrubber shall be provided as Air pollution control measure.

    Effluent collection tank shall be above ground level.

    Effluent shall be disposed off regularly to Common Effluent treatment plant.

    As a result of a intense campaign on these five issues, there is some improvement in implementation of above measures, though not remarkable. KSPCB has refused consent to many industries which have failed to comply with above said five points.

    Awareness to the entrepreneurs have been created.

    Due to the constant vigil by the officers of the KSPCB, industries using cyanide based salts during Zinc plating have shifted to

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    SAY NO TO PLASTIC

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    non cyanide salts.

    In the passivation process (prior to electroplating) trivalent chromium is being used instead of Hexavalent

    I strongly feel that the latest trends in electroplating sectors need to be studied.

    Attempts are being made in the industrial sector for more eco-friendly technologies. One such technology is Physical Vapor Deposition on metal which can be considered as an alternative to electroplating units. The coating method involves purely physical processes such as high-temperature vacuum evaporation with subsequent condensation, or plasma sputter bombardment rather than involving a chemical reaction at the surface to be coated as in Chemical vapor deposition.

    Even in continuous plating section, chemicals are recycled thereby reducing the waste water generation quantity.

    Electroplating units to ensure high quality treatment, R.O plants are being installed for treatment.

    In view of regulating environmental problems from electroplating units, Karnataka State Pollution Control Board is planning to

    Discourage new small and tiny electroplating units. No new permission for the electroplating units in residential areas.

    Encourage shifting of electroplating units operating in and around Bangalore to a designated area with proper infrastructure

    New electroplating units with facilities shall have provision for metal waste recovery and recycling of the Effluent.

    Directions to out sourcing industries

    To help job work units by providing proper infrastructure (bath, pipes, effluent collection system, Air pollution control system).

    Provide cleaner technology and provide operation manual.

    Periodical auditing (at least once in a year) of these job work units from environmental angle and to ensure that the entire pollution generated is treated.

    Impart training to the workers of the plating units in handling environmental issues.

    Giving financial incentives for best practices.

    Insist on minimising consumption of raw materials, water and energy which results in less waste.

    Installation of industry specific Common effluent treatment plants by the Board.

    Adaptation of latest /green technology from environmental angle.

    Providing of air pollution control equipments with scientifically designed hood, duct and scrubbing system.

    KSPCB is of the view that the issue can be mitigated and also resolved to a great extent only through a very high level of compliance by the industries. KSPCB is always approachable to get any technology inputs towards this effort. KSPCB is committed to the safe environment rights of every citizen in the State and will always keep a constant vigil and play its statutory role, without prejudice to anyone. I request the industries to follow a high degree of legal, technical compliance roadmap, and do ethical industrial activities.

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    KSPCB PRESENTS A SNAPSHOT ON EFFECTIVEELECTRONIC WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Discarded electronic equipment is one of the fastest growing waste streams in industrialized world, due to the growing sales and rapid obsolescence of these products. Electronic waste already constitutes a small percent of the municipal solid waste stream and is growing rapidly. Electronic equipment is also one of the largest known sources of heavy metals and organic pollutants in the waste stream. Without effective phasing out of hazardous chemicals in manufacturing activity and development of effective collection, reuse and recycling systems, highly toxic chemicals found in electronic waste will contaminate soil and groundwater as well as pollute the air.

    Electronic waste comprises of obsolete, discarded, end of life computers and peripherals, printers, fax and copiers, CDs floppies, cartridges, printed circuit boards, mother boards and components, cell phones, pagers, telephones, audio and video devices, refrigerators, washing machines, microwave ovens, air conditioners, fluorescent lamps, dry cells and batteries, industrial and house hold electronics. Generally this waste stream is also referred Waste Electronic & Electrical Equipments (WEEE)

    The reason for ever increasing WEEE is ever improving gadgets technology, instruments becoming smaller, cheaper and provide many benefits.

    Over the last several years, no product so epitomizes the problems posed by obsolete electronics as the personal computer. The focus of this paper is due to their growing waste volume, toxicity and management cost. How to address the problems posed by obsolete computers is likely to set the tone for the broader spectrum of e-waste. The volume of obsolete computers discarded or temporarily stored for later disposal

    is already a serious problem that is escalating at a rapid rate. Todays computer industry innovates very rapidly, bringing new technologies and upgrades to market on the average of every 18 months. The average life span of a personal computer has shrunk to four or five years. Currently every

    urban household owns a computer, TV etc., which one point of the other have to be disposed as e-waste. Rough estimates show that more than 1.0 to 1.5 thousand computers and TVs become obsolete every year across the state. Consumers have stored obsolete computers in their garages, storage spaces. Recycling rates for computers are low and op-portunities are virtually nonexistent for most consumers.Composition of e-waste and environmental problemsa. e-waste comprises of heavy metals like lead,

    gold, copper, platinum, mercury and other metal and non metal components, which are harmful to the man and environment, in case

    of mismanagement or unscientific handling.b. The toxic contents of e-waste such as lead,

    barium, beryllium, mercury, cadmium and brominated flame retardants can become environmental hazard, if treated by backyard practices or processing.

    c. The management of electronic waste has to be assessed in the broad frame-work of Extended Producer Responsibility and the precautionary principle, so that future policies can be made more responsive in addressing this issue. Proper organized collection transportation, segregation, value addition and disposal of e-waste is the present requirement.

    Recycling Scenario in India

    l E-Waste recycling concentrated in the informal (unorganized sector)

    l No organized collection system prevailsl Operations are mostly illegall Processes are highly pollutingl Recycling operations engage in : l Dismantling l Sale of dismantled parts l Valuable resource recovery

    Responsibilities of State Pollution Control Boards

    l Preparation of inventory of e-wastel Granting authorizationl Granting registrationl Monitoring of compliance of authorization and registration conditionsl Maintaining information on the conditions imposed for authorizationl Taking action against violations of these rulesl Ensure that collection centres do not store e-waste

    for a period exceeding 180 days.

    Concerns : Informal Recycling

    l High-risk backyard operationl Non- efficient and non-environmentally sound technologiesl Occupational and environmental hazards. Loss of resources

    due to inefficient processesl Impacts vulnerable social groups - women, children and

    migrant labourers

    Why E-Waste Management ?l Pollution of ground waterl Acidification of soill Emission of toxic fumes and gasesl Releases carcinogenic substances into the air

    Element EffectLead Damage to central nervous system, blood systems and kidney damage

    Chromium Asthmatic bronchitis DNA damage

    Cadmium Causes neural damage Accumulates in kidney and liver

    Mercury Chronic damage to brain and respiratory system.

    Plastic including Burning produces dioxins. It causesPVC reproductive problems.

    Dr. VAMAN ACHARYA, Chairman, KSPCB

    Issued in the public interest by Member SecretaryKarnataka State Pollution Control Board#49, Parisara Bhavan Church Street,Bangalore - 560 001,Ph : 080 - 25589111

    PlP gd i AiAvt AqKarnataka State Pollution Control Board

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    PlP jg | PlP gd i AiAvt AqAi iwP | Al 4 AaP 8 DU 2014 | SV gPV