Overview of condition monitoring and vibration...

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Overview of condition monitoring and vibration transducers

    Emeritus Professor R. B. Randall

    School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    The University of New South Wales

    Sydney 2052, Australia

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Machine Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Information on condition to be brought from the inside to the outside of operating machines:

    1. Vibration Analysis 2. Oil Analysis

    This lecture concentrates on vibration analysis

    The vibration signal can be used for:

    1. Fault detection Is there a significant change?

    2. Fault diagnosis What has caused the change?

    3. Fault prognosis How much longer can the machine be operated safely?

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Three Phases of Condition Monitoring

    1. Fault detectionMust be able to detect a wide range of different possibilities from low to high frequency, with some variation in load and speed. Applied to all signals: therefore efficient. Can now be automated.

    2. Fault DiagnosisOnly applied when a significant change is detected: therefore more detailed analysis can be carried out in a narrower frequency range. Some techniques can now be automated.

    3. Fault prognosisMajor economic benefit comes from being able to predict remaining useful life (RUL). Least developed until now. Much can be achieved with data trending.

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Machine Vibration MonitoringTwo main types of transducers

    Accelerometers

    Absolute motion of bearing

    Typically velocity, can be acceleration or displacement

    Direct indicator of bearing forces

    Very wide dynamic and frequency ranges, therefore give early indication

    Proximity Probes

    Relative motion of shaft in bearing

    Parameter, displacement

    Poor indicator of bearing forces, but indicate position of shaft in bearing

    Indicate current condition

    X probe

    Y probe

    Accelerometer

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Velocity pickups Seismic transducers like accelerometers voltage proportional to velocity bulky limited frequency range (10 Hz 2 kHz)

    Laser (Doppler) transducers measure absolute surface velocity non-contacting, no mass loading of measurement object quite bulky and not very portable Possible to scan multiple points over a surface by deflecting laser beam currently very expensive

    Acoustic emission (typically 100 kHz 1 MHz) piezoelectric transducer attached to surface limited reproducibility Difficult to calibrate

    Machine Vibration MonitoringOther vibration transducers

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Torsional vibration means rotational oscillations of shafts and rotors

    Can be measured in terms of angular displacement (phase modulation), angular velocity (frequency modulation) or angular acceleration

    Rotors have torsional springlike elements (shaft sections, couplings etc) and rotary inertias (discs, impellers, flywheels etc) and so have torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes, which can be excited by input and output torque fluctuations

    Local torsional vibrations may not be damaging but carry diagnostic information (engine misfires, gear transmission error)

    Machine Vibration MonitoringTorsional vibration

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    MACHINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Velocity signal usually best indicator of condition, since all vibrations represent an oscillation between kinetic energy (velocity squared) and potential energy (strain or stress squared).

    Maximum stress normally uniform so velocity spectrum tends to be flattest with frequency

    Changes at high or low frequency have an equal chance of affecting the overall velocity level, so velocity is best criterion of vibration severity

    Acceleration sometimes useful for emphasizing faults showing up at high frequencies, such as in rolling element bearings

    Best velocity transducer is an accelerometer and integrator

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Vibration Transducers

    Prox. Probes -relative displacement

    Velocity pickup absolute velocity

    Accelerometerabsolute acceleration

    Spring

    Mass

    Base

    Mass

    Base

    Piezoelectricelements

    Spring

    Piezoelectricelements

    Probe supplied with HF signal - Induces eddy currents in shaft surface -Gap extracted by amplitude demodulation

    Seismically suspended coil in magnet or magnet in coil voltage prop. to velocity Charge prop. to acceleration

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Frequency Response of Seismic Transducer(S.S. Rao Mechanical Vibrations)

    Accelerometer Velocity pickup

    Amplitude Phase

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Frequency and Dynamic Ranges of Transducers

    ACCELEROMETERPlus Integrator

    Range shown for actual parameter Prox. probe relative displacmentVelocity pickup absolute velocityAccelerometer absolute acceleration

    Frequency range for prox. probe theoretically 10 kHz, but actually limited by dynamic range to 10 harmonics. Dynamic range shown as 40 dB, but limited to 12 dB by runout.

    Accelerometer plus integrator gives at least 60 dB over 3 decades in frequency, frequency switchable by further decade, gain by further 30 dB best velocity transducer.

  • 6

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Proximity Probes - Runout

    Runout is signal measured in the absence of vibration.

    Divided into:

    1. Mechanical runout

    deviations of the shaft surface from a true circle, concentric with the rotation axis

    eccentricity, shaft bow and out-of-roundness, and shorter components from scratches, burrs and other local damage

    2. Electrical runout

    Variations in electrical and magnetic properties of shaft surface

    Residual magnetism, residual stresses, sub-surface imperfections

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Proximity Probes - Runout

    Runout can be corrected to some extent by runout subtraction measured under slow roll

    Most valid for low harmonics (vector subtraction), but invalid when measurement point not the same through

    1. thermal expansion at operating conditions

    2. wear of thrust bearings over long period

    API 670 specifies that displayed values should not be adjusted for runout, and that max. runout can be up to 25% of max. allowable vibration ( 12 dB)

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Comparison of Prox. Probe and Accelerometer Measurements

    1X 2X80

    dB

    1X 2X

    11X22X

    33X

    44X

    6.4 kHz 6.4 kHz00

    00

    Prox. Probe:Only first three harmonics of shaft speed valid balance presumably dominated by runout (cannot be removed by synchronous averaging)Harmonics of vane pass frequency not visible

    Accelerometer integrated to disp.:Low harmonics more influenced by noise (can be removed by synchronous averaging)Four harmonics of vane pass frequency visible can be used for diagnostics

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Permanent vs Intermittent Monitoring

    The advantages of permanent monitoring are:

    1. It reacts very quickly to sudden change, and gives the best potential for protecting critical and expensive equipment.

    2. It is the best form of protection for sudden faults that cannot be predicted. An example is the sudden unbalance that can occur on fans handling dirty gas, where there is generally a build-up of deposits on the blades over time. This is normally uniformly distributed, but can result in sudden massive unbalance when sections of the deposits are dislodged.

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Permanent vs Intermittent Monitoring

    The disadvantages of permanent monitoring are:

    The cost of having permanently mounted transducers is very high can only be applied to the most critical machines in a plant.

    Where the transducers are proximity probes, they virtually have to be built in to the machine at the design stage.

    Since the reaction has to be very quick, permanent monitoring is normally based on relatively simple parameters, eg

    1. overall RMS or peak vibration level

    2. phase of low harmonics of shaft speed relative to a key phasor

    In general such simple parameters do not give much advance warning of impending failure; it is likely to be hours or days, as opposed to the weeks or months lead time that can be given by advanced diagnostic techniques

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Permanent vs Intermittent Monitoring

    A very large number of machines can be monitored intermittently with a single transducer and data logger, and the data downloaded to a monitoring system capable of carrying out detailed analysis.

    The advantages of intermittent monitoring are:

    Much lower cost of monitoring equipment.

    The potential (through detailed analysis) to get much more advance warning of impending failure - plan maintenance work and production to maximize availability of equipment.

    Applied primarily where the cost of lost production from failure of the machine completely outweighs the cost of the machine itself.

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Permanent vs Intermittent Monitoring

    The disadvantages of intermittent monitoring are:

    Sudden rapid breakdown may be missed, and in fact where failure is completely unpredictable this technique should not be used.

    The lead time to failure may not be as long as possible if the monitoring intervals are too long for economic reasons. This is in fact an economic question, balancing the benefits of increased lead time against the extra cost of monitoring more frequently

    Note that with permanently mounted transducers, intermittent detailed analysis can be made frequently to get the best of both worlds

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Vibration Severity Criteria

    Historical criteria:

    1. Rathbone (1939) Vibration Tolerance, Power Plant Engineering, 43, pp. 721 determined empirically, approx. constant velocity, tending towards constant displacement at low frequency and constant acceleration at high frequency.

    2. H.G. Yates (1949) Vibration diagnosis in marine geared turbines, Trans. North East Coast Inst. Eng. Shipbuilders reasoned that constant velocity corresponded to constant stress for given mode shape (size independent).

    3. IRD General Machinery Criterion Chart constant velocity, similar to Yates

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    General Machinery Criterion Chart (IRD)

    Difference between categories 2:1 (6dB)is significant

    Difference of 10:1 (20dB) is serious(very smooth- rough)

    Independent of machine type

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    International Standards

    Derived from VDI2056 (1957)(Verein deutscher Ingenieure German Engineers Society) Four classes of machines

    1. Small

    2. Medium

    3. Large on rigid foundation

    4. Large on flexible foundation (turbomachines)

    RMS vibration velocity 10-1000 Hz (originally based on velocity probes with this limitation)

    Adapted to ISO2372, recently updated to ISO10816, which also includes reciprocating machines

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    ISO 10816 Rotating Machines

    Class I Small machines and components, (typ. < 15 kW) Class II Medium machines without special foundations, (typ. 15-75 kW)Class III Large machines on rigid and heavy foundationsClass IV Large machines on flexible foundations, (typ. Turbomachines)Zones: A Good, B Allowable, C Just tolerable, D Not permissible

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    ISO 10816 Reciprocating Machines

    Machine vibration classification not well defined to be agreed between parties

    Includes protection of mounted auxiliary equipment

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Problems with absolute criteriaWide variation between machines, even of the same class

    eg E. Downham and R. Woods (1971) The rationale of monitoring vibration on rotating machinery in continuously operating process plant. ASME Paper 71-Vibr-96.

    Variation in acceleration impedance measured at the bearings on 14 machines in an ethylene plant all classified asturbomachines

    60 dB variation, even within running speed range

    Better to use change from standard condition

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Problems with overall RMS levelsChange in overall level depends on whether spectrum component is dominant or notAnswer base fault detection on spectrum change

    Example where failure occurred without changing overall RMS velocity

    Tooth root crack in ball mill drive in a copper mine

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Even severe local faults (cracks, spalls) do not change overall vibration levels, only give an increase in sidebands around the gearmesh harmonics

    Note that gear fault indications are at harmonics of shaft speed; therefore

    directly tied to shaft speed

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    FAULT DETECTION

    Log amplitude (eg dBs) best because:

    Most vibration criteria show that equal changes on a log scale are equally serious

    A change by x dB at the source gives the same change at all measurement points

    Log frequency scale best because:

    Covers wide frequency range, eg half shaft speed to harmonics of gearmesh and bladepass frequencies, as well as high bearing response frequencies

    Allows simple compensation for minor speed changes (eg due to load variations of induction motors)

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    PROBLEMS WITH FFT SPECTRUM COMPARISON

    Insignicant spectrum difference Significant spectrum difference (disguised)

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    SPECTRUM COMPARISON USING MASK AND LOG FREQUENCY SCALE

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    FAULT DETECTIONOil pump drive on trans-Alaska pipeline

    Comparison of 1/18-octave spectrum with a reference mask, 25 Hz 25 kHz

    Making a broadened mask from the reference spectrum means that only true changes are detected

    Largest change of 20 dB is serious, but would not affect overall velocity level

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Diagnostic analysis of this case

    Since major change was in frequency range 1-10 kHz, FFT spectra to 10 kHz were used for diagnosis. These show growth of a harmonic series spaced at just over 200 Hz.

    The cepstra on the right (a frequency analysis of the log spectra on the left) show that the time for one rotation (RPM) is exactly 4.1 the period of this phenomenon, meaning that the corresponding frequency is 4.1 the shaft speed. This corresponded to an outer race fault in a bearing.

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    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    Trending of various components

    Individual harmonics Integrated selected band

    Cepstrum component (BPFO)Cepstrum component is valuable since it integrates everything in the spectrum with a given spacing (BPFO) without regard to masking by other components

    Note that the bearing fault indicator does not increase monotonically with increasing damage not unusual for bearing fault features

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    CONCLUSIONS

    Vibration analysis a powerful tool to obtain information from inside an operating machine

    Can be used for detection, diagnosis and prognosis

    Of the three types of common vibration transducers(prox. probes, velocity pickups and accelerometers)prox. probes primarily used for online monitoring;accelerometers best for diagnosis and prognosis,even when velocity is the desired parameter

    Detection easy to automate using log frequency and log amplitude spectra diagnosis and prognosis require more detailed analysis

  • 17

    The University ofNew South WalesThe University ofNew South Wales Mlardalen U

    CONCLUSIONS (cont.)

    Fault detection of rotating machines best done on logfrequency and log amplitude (or dB) scales with compensation for small speed changes

    Permanent online monitoring primarily to protectexpensive machines

    Intermittent monitoring and analysis (possibly from anonline system) gives most diagnostic and prognosticpower through detailed analysis

    References (unlisted):R.B. Randall, (2011) Vibration-based Condition Monitoring: Industrial, Aerospace and Automotive Applications, published by Wiley (Chichester, UK) January.