OSU PSEP Private Applicator Training 2013. OSU PSEP Private Applicator Certification Current Cycle...
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OSU PSEP Private Applicator Training 2013 Slide 2 OSU PSEP Private Applicator Certification Current Cycle expires 12/31/13 Next Cycle will expire 12/31/2018 Open Book Test Answer all 50 questions on score sheet Only mark one correct answer on score sheet Mail score sheet along with License Application and $20 to the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry (ODAFF) in the provided envelope. If a minimum score of 70% is achieved then you should receive Private Applicator Card in 1 to 2 weeks Slide 3 OSU PSEP Section I Pest & Pest Control IPM Types of Pest Control Insects Plant Diseases Weeds Vertebrate Pests Pesticides Slide 4 OSU PSEP Pests A pest is anything that: competes with humans, domestic animals, or crops for food, feed, or water, injures humans, animals, crops, structures, or possessions, spreads disease to humans, domestic animals or crops. annoys humans or domestic animals. Pests can be placed in four main categories: insects (and related animals), plant disease agents, weeds, and vertebrates. Slide 5 OSU PSEP Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated pest management (IPM) has evolved to develop management strategies that incorporate all aspects of the crop and pest ecosystem to economically manage the crop. In the integrated management approach, management strategies such as resistant varieties, crop rotation, cultural practices and use of beneficial organisms need to be considered before considering chemical control. Slide 6 OSU PSEP Economic Thresholds & Economic Injury Level The economic injury level is defined as the point at which a pest population begins to cause economic damage The point that induced control measures must be applied to prevent the pest from reaching the economic injury level is call the economic threshold or action level. Slide 7 OSU PSEP Types of Pest Control Methods Host Resistance Biological Control Cultural Control Mechanical Control Sanitation Chemical Control Slide 8 OSU PSEP Insects All insects in the adult stage have two physical characteristics in common. They have three pairs of jointed legs, and they have three body regions - the head, thorax, and abdomen. Slide 9 OSU PSEP Insect Like Pests Mites, ticks, spiders, sowbugs, pillbugs, centipedes, and millipedes resemble insects in size, shape, life cycle, and habits, but are not insects. Pest species usually can be controlled with the same techniques and materials used to control insects. Slide 10 OSU PSEP Plant Diseases A plant disease is any harmful condition that makes a plant different from a normal plant in its appearance or function. Plant diseases caused by biological agents (pathogens) are of primary interest to pesticide applicators because they often can be controlled with fungicides or bactericides. Pathogens include: fungi, bacteria, viruses mycoplasmas nematodes. Wheat Leaf RustSclerotinia Blight Slide 11 OSU PSEP Plant Diseases Pathogens that cause plant disease are parasites that live and feed on or in host plants. They can be passed from one plant to another. Three factors are required before a pathogenic disease can developa susceptible host plant, a pathogenic agent, and an environment favorable for development of the pathogen. This is called the disease triangle Take-all of Wheat Frog Eye Leafspot Soybeans Slide 12 OSU PSEP Weeds Any plant can be considered a weed when it is growing where it is not wanted. Weeds are a problem because they reduce crop yields, increase costs of production, and they reduce the quality of crop and livestock products. In addition, some cause skin irritation and hay fever, and some are poisonous to man and livestock. Weeds also can spoil the beauty of turf and landscape plants. Some weeds are host to insect pests and plant diseases. Slide 13 OSU PSEP Life Cycles of Weeds Annuals winter and summer Biennials Perennials Simple, bulbous, and creeping Winter AnnualSummer Annual Slide 14 OSU PSEP Weed Classification Grasses Sedges Broadleaves Slide 15 OSU PSEP Vertebrate Pests As in insect pest control, techniques for control of vertebrate pests depend on whether the pest problem is indoors or outdoors. Indoor vertebrate pest control usually is aimed at preventing pest entrance and eradicating pest infestations. Nearly all indoor vertebrate pests are rodents, but others, such as bats, birds, and raccoons, also may require control. Outdoors, the strategy usually is to suppress the pest population to a level where the damage or injury is economically acceptable. Slide 16 OSU PSEP Pesticides Pesticides are chemicals used to destroy, prevent, or control pests. They also include chemicals used to attract or repel pests, and chemicals used to regulate plant growth or remove or coat leaves. Slide 17 OSU PSEP Types of Pesticides Insecticide: controls insects and other related pests such as ticks and spiders. Miticide: controls mites. Acaricide: controls mites, ticks, and spiders. Nematicide: controls nematodes. Fungicide: controls fungi/plant diseases. Bactericide: controls bacteria. Herbicide: controls weeds. Rodenticide: controls rodents. Avicide: controls birds. Piscicide: controls fish. Molluscicide: controls mollusks, such as slugs and snails. Predacide: controls vertebrate pests. Repellent: keeps pests away. Attractant: lures pests. Plant Growth Regulator: stops, speeds up, or otherwise changes normal plant processes. Defoliant: removes unwanted plant growth without killing the whole plant immediately. Desiccant: dries up plant leaves and stems and insects. Antitranspirant: coats the leaves of plants to reduce unwanted water loss (transpiration). Slide 18 OSU PSEP How Pesticides Work Protectants: applied to plants, animals, structures, and products to prevent entry or damage by a pest. Sterilants: makes pests unable to reproduce. Contacts: kills pests simply by contacting them. Stomach poisons: kill when swallowed. Systemics: taken into the blood of an animal or sap of a plant. They kill the pest without harming the host. Translocated herbicides: kill plants by being absorbed by leaves, stems, or roots and moving throughout the plant. Fumigants: gases that kill when they are inhaled or otherwise absorbed by the pest. Anticoagulants: prevent normal clotting of blood. Selective: more toxic to some kinds of plants or animals than to others. Nonselective: toxic to most plants or animals. Pheromones: affect pests by changing their behavior. Slide 19 OSU PSEP Factors That Affect Pesticide Activity Soil Factors Climatic Factors Resistance Slide 20 OSU PSEP End of Section I 1 Slide 21 OSU PSEP Section II Pesticide Formulations Types of Formulations Adjuvants Compatibility Slide 22 OSU PSEP Formulations The active ingredients in a pesticide are the chemicals that control the target pest. The pesticide product you purchase is rarely made up only of active ingredients. Usually the pesticide is diluted in water or a petroleum solvent, and other chemicals are added before the product is offered for sale. These other chemicals may include wetting agents, spreaders, stickers, extenders, or diluents. They usually make the product safer, easier to apply, more convenient to handle, and more accurate to measure. This mixture of active and inert (inactive) ingredients is called a pesticide formulation. Some formulations are ready for use. Others must be further diluted with water, a petroleum solvent, or air by the user before they are applied. Slide 23 OSU PSEP Liquid Formulations Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E) Ultra Low Volume Concentrate Solutions (ULV) Low Concentrate Solutions (S) Flowables (F or L) Slide 24 OSU PSEP Dry Formulations Dusts (D) Baits (B) Granules (G) Pellets (P or PS) Wettable Powders (WP or W) Soluble Powders (SP) Water-Dispersible Granules (Dry Flowables) Slide 25 OSU PSEP Adjuvants An adjuvant is an inert material added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to increase the effectiveness of the active ingredient. Most pesticide formulations contain at least a small percentage of additives. Some applicators add additional adjuvants while mixing for special applications. Some product labels may caution the user against adding adjuvants. Slide 26 OSU PSEP Adjuvants Wetting agentsallow wettable powders to mix with water and stick on plant or animal surfaces. Emulsifiersallow petroleum-based pesticides (EC's) to mix with water. Invert emulsifiersallow water-based pesticides to mix with petroleum carrier. Spreadersallow pesticide to form a uniform coating layer over the treated surface. Stickersallow pesticide to stay on the treated surface. Penetrantsallow the pesticide to get through the outer surface to the inside of the treated area. Foaming agentsreduce drift. Thickenersreduce drift by increasing droplet size. Safenersreduce phytotoxicity of pesticide to protected crop. Compatibility agentsaid in combining pesticides effectively. Buffersallow mixing of pesticides of different acidity or alkalinity. Anti-foaming agentsreduce foaming of spray mixtures that require vigorous agitation. Slide 27 OSU PSEP Compatibility Two or more pesticides that can be mixed together to control a wider range of pests with a single application are said to be compatible with each other. Sometimes the pesticides are formulated together by the manufacturer, but the applicator often must mix separate formulations in the tank. It is important to remember that not all pesticides work well in combination. Pesticides that are not compatible can cause: loss of effectiveness against the target pest, injury to the treated surface (phytotoxicity in plants, toxicity in treated animals, stains or corrosion on treated surfaces), separation of ingredients into layers or settling out of solids. Some pesticide labels list other pesticides with which the product is compatible. Pesticide publications, land grant universities, and independent experts can supply information based on local experience. Slide 28 OSU PSEP Tank Mix Compatib