Orissa Buddhist Tourist Circuit

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A Design Report prepared as part of the Master Plan for the Department of Tourism, Government of Orissa. It includes a Circuit Development Plan for the entire State of Orissa and development plans for the Buddhist sites of Dhauli, Ratnagiri, Udayagiri and Langudi. The project report contains architectural design details for a Peace Park, a Zen garden, a Deer Park, a Spiritual Maze, a Meditation Path and Tourist cottages.

Transcript of Orissa Buddhist Tourist Circuit

MASTER PLAN for Orissa

To develop the Sacred Buddhist sites as a Tourist circuit


Kiran Keswani

kiranmkeswani@gmail.com Bangalore, INDIA mob : 99169-02049

Design Report commissioned by CRISIL Infrastructure Advisory Group Hyderabad as part of the Master Plan for the Department of Tourism Govt. of Orissa

CONTENTSpage page

Architectural Principles for the Buddhist Circuit Buddhist Circuit Development Plan for Orissa Dhauli & its environs Dhauli development Plan Peace Park & Amphitheatre Plan Elements to be used in the Peace Park Meditation Path Spiritual Maze & Lotus Pond Buddha Statue and Art & Sculpture Amphitheatre Museum & Vipassana Centre & Jataka tale dep. Nature Trail Along the trail on Dhauli hill Entrance Plaza to Peace Park Riverside Development Tourist Cottages at Dhauli Ratnagiri & its environs Ratnagiri Development Plan Buddha & Bodhi tree landscape and Display systems Zen Garden proposed at Ratnagiri Udayagiri & its environs Udayagiri Development Plan Orissan Crafts village & Campsite at Udayagiri Lalitagiri & its environs Lalitagiri development Plan Sculptors Village & Site replica at Lalitagiri

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Deer Park at Lalitagiri Langudi & its environs Langudi development plan Site Artefact facility at Langudi Relocation of a few existing buildings along the circuit Landscape Design for the Buddhist sites Landscape design Principles Landscape details Stone in Landscape Details for Accessways to the Buddhist sites Lighting details Lighting effects Existing Built-environment along the circuit Understanding the Local materials Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts Design of Gateways at entry to the Circuit Entrance Gateways to the Buddhist sites Entrance Plazas typical plans Wayside amenity Proposed Bazaar at NH5 between Cuttack & Chandikhol Approach Roads 3-Star hotel and Museum of Buddhism Signage Orissan Art in the Tourist Circuit

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The basic design concept underlying the Orissa Buddhist Circuit is a natural integration of modern facilities into the existing historic fabric and developing an design aesthetic that takes its inspiration from the prevalent Vernacular architecture of Orissa.

The tourist facilities such as Orientation Centers and Museums will be designed to harmonise with the physical and environmental setting of Jajpur & Khurda districts, where the archaelogical sites are located. The use of local building materials and construction techniques is recommended. This will involve also a natural participation from the local community in the building activity. It will generate a sense of belonging since the new development will merge beautifully with the existing built-environment. Within the new structures, the design of interiors, furniture, furnishings and graphics will utilize and propogate local craft traditions.

Most of the Indian cities now have buildings that are built with brick walls, plastered with cement concrete and finished with paint, roofs that are RCC slabs. We have therefore, streets and urban spaces that differ in character from our historic towns and cities. Towns that have developed around temples and Buddhist monasteries still have winding streets and open spaces with a tree as the focal point. In Bhubaneswar, Konark temple is built entirely in stone. The Buddhist sites of Ratnagiri, Udayagiri & Lalitagiri and others show remnants of stone & brick construction.

It is recommended that a new architectural vocabulary be developed that uses stone and also uses concrete so that an economic and aesthetic solution becomes available for the Buddhist circuit. This will require research into an understanding of local materials, knowing the existing built environment, establishing an Institute for the Revival of Traditional Building Arts such as lime plaster, stone masonry, sloping tiled roofs and so on; setting up of Brick kilns that make good quality bricks: and initiating Training Programs for Stone masonry construction for masons, architects & engineers.

General Principles The new structures must be aesthetically pleasing, functional buildings that complement the ancient structures and provide a visual and cultural continuity. Wherever possible, only low-rise structures will be used that do not disturb the ambience of the rural setting The archaelogical monuments are visible today only in part and not in whole. They do not stand in grandeur as they once did in the past. The new constructions must therefore be simple forms that do not call attention to themselves but blend with the surrounding landscape so that the Buddhist sites still stand out as the more important between the old and the new. Inspiration for the new architectural forms may come from Buddhist architecture. However, it is recommended that no attempt be made to copy the old monuments.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11Way-side eating joint CHANDIKHOL

NH-5 Gateway at Bhubaneswar Museum of Buddhism 6 Two Wayside amenities along NH-5 Way-side Two Wayside amenities along NH-5A Expressway eating joint Rural Tourist Resort at Lalitgiri village Two Wayside eating joints between NH-5 turning & the Langudi site 6 One 3-Star hotel along NH-5A 8 Budget hotel Three Budget hotels Bazaar on NH-5 between Cuttack & Chandikhol River Kelua Proposed Exhibition Pavilion on NH-5 close to Cuttack Langudi 9 Bazaar Highway Plaza


Way-side amentiy 10 km

River Brahmani

11Highway Plaza 19 km

UdayagiriWay-side amentiy

Ratnagiri11 km

3 3 4River Birupa CUTTACK Exhibition Pavilion

Way-side amentiy

8LalitagiriWay-side amentiy Budget hotel

3-Star hotel



Rural Tourist Resort

NH-5A Expressway


2Budget hotel

Museum of Buddhism

8Buddhist Circuit Development Plan for Orissa4




Gateway at Bhubaneswar

DHAULI & its environs

Stupa of Peace Pagoda

Buddhist monastery prayer hall

Steps leading to Peace Pagoda

Shiva Temple dedicated to Lord Dhavaleswara beside the Peace Pagoda

Ashokas Rock-cut edicts


Dhauli Development PlanZone of Peace Ashtamarga Meditation Path Spiritual Maze Other natural features

Water Zone

Nature Zone

Display Zone Amphitheatre Museum Entrance Plaza Sound & Light showPrayer hall

Peace Pagoda

Art Zone Zone of Learning Zone of Peace

Zone of Learning Orientation Centre Jataka tale depiction Vipassana Centre


Entrance Plaza

Nature Zone Nature trail Perennial garden HamletsDisplay Zone

Art Zone Sculpture Garden Water Zone Riverside Restaurant Cycling along River Daya Row Boating 6

Riverfront development

Peace Park & Amphitheatre Plan


Cycle Path

Entrance Plaza

Dhauli Bazaar

Tourist Cottages



Elementsto be used in

The Peace Park design is based on the principles of Japanese landscape where Buddhist thought is reflected , the permanent impermanence of life

the Peace Parkat Dhauli Water Stone Landform Planting Design

Japanese landscape design

influenced by religious beliefs symbolism

Garden for Meditation . . .

the Lotus Pond at the entry to the meditation path the water pond with the Buddha statue water basin fountains along the pathway near the amphitheatre along the meditation path, little stone or wooden bridges to cross over a rock outcrop

through which the purpose & meaning of life was revealed


Meditation PathEvery courtyard will be a Space for Contemplation to reflect upon an aspect of the eight-fold path laid out by Siddartha Gautama. As one enters each courtyard, there will be a different experience of nature, one may be a Fern Court, another a Palm Court . . .

Courtyard of Right Intention

Sketch Layout of Meditation Path within the Peace Park


Spiritual Maze

Lotus PondBuddhapadda in stone

Maze of hedge & wall with the auspicious symbols of Buddhism

the Lotus Pond is the beginning of the meditation path. 10

Buddha Statue & Pond Art & Sculpture

The meditation path takes a visitor along the eight courtyards and finally leads to the statue of the Buddha through a water pond. One walks across rock steps over the water to pay ones respects.Way to Meditation Path

Art as the sacred expression of religion is best exemplified in Buddhist art and architecture. For the sculptures, local stone such as Khondalite i.e. Balipathara or Kandapathara may be used. Also, Chlorite or Mugguni Pathara from Nilgiri, undivided Balasore district may be used. It is recommended that the art works in the Peace Park such as the mural at the entrance plaza and others use indigenous colours such as yellow of turmeric, white of shells, black of lamp black, red of haritala and green from leaves. 11

Plan showing location of Buddha statue in Peace Park

The Amphitheatre

The symbolism of the wheel is implied within the plan of the amphitheatre here, just as a Stupa plan derives its meaning from the wheel The wheel takes two forms in Buddhism : the wheel of Becoming (samsara chakra) and the wheel of the Dharma (dharma chakra)Plan of the Stupa at Nagarjunakonda

Stone archway leading to the toilets below the amphitheatre

Votive Stupas as part of the amphi