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A STUDY ON “ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION” BY SIDDHARTH DHAMIJA Enrollment number- 261091119 YEAR: 2009-2011 Submitted to: Prof. ASHA DEB IN Institute of Management & Development, Institute of Management and Development Page 1
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Transcript of Od Intervention Sid

A STUDY ON

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONBY

SIDDHARTH DHAMIJAEnrollment number- 261091119 YEAR: 2009-2011

Submitted to: Prof. ASHA DEB IN Institute of Management & Development, New DelhiInstitute of Management and Development Page 1

INDEXCONTENTS: Page no. Organization Development 3 Characteristics of Organizational Development. 4 Organization Development Intervention. 5 Selecting an OD Intervention 6 Classification of OD Intervention. 8 Conclusion.. 16

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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT:Organization Development (OD) is a planned, organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness and viability. Warren Bennie has referred to OD as a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, marketing and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. OD is neither "anything done to better an organization" nor is it "the training function of the organization"; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. OD can involve interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioral science knowledge as well as organizational reflection, system improvement, planning, and self-analysis. OD is a prescription for process of planned change in an organization in which the key prescriptive elements relate to: The nature of the effort or program. The nature of the change activities. The target of the change activities. The desired outcomes of the change activities.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL EVELOPMENT: OD is planned strategy to bring about organizational change. OD always involves a collaborative approach to change. OD program include an emphasis on ways to improve and enhance performance. OD relies on a set of Humanistic values about people and organizations. OD represents a systems approach. OD is based upon scientific approaches to increase organizational effectiveness.

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OD INTERVENTIONOrganization Development InterventionThe term interventions is currently being used in several different ways. On the one hand, this seems to be due to the confusion and lack of definitions; on the other hand, it is due to the fact that it quite accurately refers to several orders of meaning in terms of level of abstraction. Is the OD intervention something that someone does to an organization, or is it something that is going on, that is, an activity? It is both. "Interventions" are principal learning processes in the "action" stage of organization development. Interventions are structured activities used individually or in combination by the members of a client system to improve their social or task performance. They may be introduced by a change agent as part of an improvement program, or they may be used by the client following a program to check on the state of the organization's health, or to effect necessary changes in its own behavior. "Structured activities" mean such diverse procedures as experiential exercises, questionnaires, attitude surveys, interviews, relevant group discussions, and even lunchtime meetings between the change agent and a member of the client organization. Every action that influences an organization's improvement program in a change agent-client system relationship can be said to be an intervention.

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SELECTING AN OD INTERVENTIONIn selecting a specific OD Technique, the consultant and the client consider a number of factors, including the nature of the problem, the objectives of the change efforts, the culture norms of the client system, and the expected degree of resistance. Selecting a technique involves comparing and testing possible intervention techniques against some criteria. There are 3 broad factors in selecting an appropriate intervention: 1. The potential results of the technique: Will it solve the basic problem? Does it have any additional positive outcome? Are any potentially negative consequences likely to occur? 2. The potential implementation of the technique: Can the proposed technique really work in a practical application? What are the actual monetary and human costs of this technique and the impact of cost upon the human system? How does estimated cost of the technique compare with the expected results i.e., cost vs. benefits?

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3. The potential acceptance of the technique: Is the technique acceptable to the client system? Is the technique adequately developed and tested? Has the technique been adequately explained and communicated to members of the client system?

These important factors should be considered prior to making a final decision on the selection of a technique. The selection of any given technique is usually a trade-off between advantages and disadvantages because there is no precise way to answer these entire question in advance. After comparing the advantages and disadvantages, a specific technique is selected for the action phase of the OD programs.

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CLASSIFICATION OF OD INTERVENTIONThe inventory of OD interventions is quite extensive. We will explore several classification schemes here to help you understand how interventions "clump" together in terms of (1) The objectives of the interventions and (2) The targets of the interventions. Becoming familiar with how interventions relate to one another is useful for planning the overall OD strategy. As we see it, the following are the major "families" of OD interventions.

1.

DIAGNOSTIC ACTIVITIES :Fact-finding activities designed to ascertain the state of the system, the status of a problem, the "way things are. Available methods range from projective devices such as "build a collage that represents your place in this organization" to the more traditional data collection methods of interviews, questionnaires, surveys, meetings, and examining organizational records.

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2.

TEAM-BUILDING ACTIVITIES :Activities designed to enhance the effective operation of system teams. These activities focus skills and resources needed to accomplish tasks, the quality of relationship among the team members or between members and the leader, and how well the team gets its job done. In addition, one must consider different kinds of teams, such as formal work teams, temporary tasks force teams, newly constituted teams, and cross- functional teams.

3.

INTERGROUP ACTIVITIES:Activities designed to improve the effectiveness of interdependent groups- groups that must work together to produce a common output. They focus on joint activities and the output of the group as considered as a single system rather than as two subsystems. When two groups are involved, the activities are designated intergroup or interface activities; when more than two groups are involved, the activities are called organizational mirroring.

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4.

SURVEY FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES:Activities that rely on questionnaire surveys to generate information that is then used to identify problems and opportunities. Groups analyze the data regarding; their performance and design action plans to correct problems.

5.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES:Activities designed to improve individuals' skills, abilities, and knowledge. Several activities are available and several approaches possible. For example, the individual can be educated in isolation from his or her own work group (say, in a T-group consisting of strangers), or one can be educated in relation to the work group(say, when a work team learns how better to manage

interpersonal conflict). The activities may be directed toward technical skills required for performing tasks or may be directed toward improving interpersonal competence. The activities may be directed toward leadership issues, responsibilities and functions of group members, decision- making, problem solving, goal setting and planning, and so forth.

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6.

TECHNO STRUCTURAL OR STRUCTURAL ACTIVITIES:Activities designed to improve the effectiveness of organizational structures and job designs. The activities may take the form of (a) experimenting with new organization structures and evaluating their effectiveness in terms of specific goals or (b) devising new ways to bring technical resources to bear on problems. these activities and label them "structural interventions" defined as "the broad class of interventions or change efforts aimed at improving organization effectiveness through changes in the task, structural, and

technological subsystems." Included in these activities are job enrichment, management by objectives, socio technical systems, collateral organizations, and physical settings interventions.

7.

PROCESS CONSULTATION ACTIVITIES:Activities that "help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events which occur in the client's environment". These activities perhaps more accurately describe an approach, a consulting mode in which the client gains insight into the human processes in organizations and learn skills in diagnosing and managing them. Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications, leader and member roles in groups, problem solving and decision making, group

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norms and group growth, leadership and authority, and intergroup cooperation and competition. '

8.

GRID ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES :Activities developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, which constitute a six-phase change model involving the total organization. Internal resources are developed to conduct most of the programs, which may take from three to five years to complete. The model starts with upgrading individual managers' skills and leadership abilities, moves to team improvement activities, Then to intergroup relations activities. Later phases include corporate planning for improvement, developing implementation tactics, and Finally, an evaluation phase assessing change in the organization culture and looking toward future directions.

9.

THIRD-PARTY PEACEMAKING ACTIVITIES:Activities conducted by a skilled consultant (the third party, designed to help two members of an organization manage their interpersonal conflict. These activities are based on confrontation tactics and an understanding of the processes involved in conflict and conflict resolution.

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10. COACHING AND COUNSELING ACTIVITIES:y Activities that entail the consultant or other organization members working with individuals to help. (a) define learning goals, (b) learn how others see their behavior, and (c) learn new behaviors to help them better achieve their goals. A central feature of this activity is non evaluative feedback others

give to an individual. y A second feature is the second exploration of alternative behaviors.

11. LIFE- AND CAREER-PLANNING ACTIVITIES:Activities that enable individuals to focus on their life and career objectives and how to go about achieving them. Structured activities include producing life and career inventories, discussing goals and objectives, and assessing capabilities, needed additional training, and areas of strength and deficiency.

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12. PLANNING AND GOAL-SETTING ACTIVITIES:y Activities that include theory and experience in planning and goal setting, problem-solving models, planning paradigms, ideal organization versus real organization "discrepancy" models, and the like. y The goal is to improve these skills at the levels of the individual, group, and total organization.

13. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES:y Activities that help key policy makers to reflect systematically on the organization's basic mission and goals and environmental demands, threats, and opportunities, and to engage in long-range action planning of both a reactive and proactive nature. y These activities direct attention in two important directions: outside the organization to a consideration of the environment, and away from the present to the future.

14. ORGANIZATIONALTRANSFORMATION ACTIVITIES:y Activities that involve large-scale system changes; y Activities designed to fundamentally change the nature of the organization. y Almost everything about the organization is changed-structure, y management philosophy, y reward systems, y the design of work, y Mission, values, and cultures.Institute of Management and Development Page 14

y Total quality programs are transformational: so are programs to create highperformance organizations or high performance work systems. y Each of these families of interventions includes many activities. They involve both conceptual material and actual experience with the phenomenon being studied. Some families are directed toward specific targets, problems, or processes. y For example, Team-building activities are specific to work teams, y While life-planning activities are directed to individuals, although these latter activities take place in-group settings. y Some interventions are problem specific: examples are the third-party peacemaking activities and the goal-setting activities. y Some activities are process specific: an example is intergroup activities that explore the processes involved in managing interfaces. y Another way to classify OD interventions is by the primary target of the intervention, y For example, individuals, dyads and triads, teams and groups, intergroup relations, and the total organization.

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CONCLUSION:OD interventions are initiated at the top and require employee participation and commitment, therefore, visionary leaders that work as change agents, developing a vision, and providing continuous and sustained support is paramount. Kanter, Stein & Jick (1992) consider that OD interventions require a strong leader role. An organization should not undertake something as challenging as large-scale change without a leader to guide, drive and inspire it. These change advocates, play a critical role in creating a company vision, motivating company employees to embrace that vision, and crafting an organizational structure that consistently rewards those who strive toward the realization of the vision.

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