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  • 1/20/12


    Nutrition Basics and Terminology

    T-Talk 1.1 By Jennifer Turley and Joan Thompson

    2013 Cengage

    Presentation Overview

    1. Terminology 2. Introduction Nutrients & Calories 3. Characteristics of a sound diet 4. Results of a sound diet 5. Health & Malnutrition 6. Factors affecting longevity & food



    Diet: The kind and amount of food consumed each day.

    Food: Anything that nourishes the body.

    Nourish: To keep alive.


    Nutrition: The study of how food keeps us alive. Includes the ingestion,

    digestion, absorption, assimilation, and excretion of food.

    Nutritional Sciences: The study of nutrition including dietary components and metabolism.

    Nutrient: Molecular substances that are nourishing or that provide nourishment to cells and thus every multicellular component of the human organism.

    Essential: The body cannot make these nutrients, they must be consumed. Without an intake, specific deficiency signs and symptom occur.

    Nonessential: The body can make these nutrients. Without an intake, nutritional deficiency signs and symptom do not occur.

    Energy Producing: Produces Calories when metabolized by the body.

    Non-Energy Producing: Do not provide Calories but have other important functions.

    Terminology Molecules to Cells to Organisms in

    the Order of Life

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    Overview of the Nutrients

    Nutrient Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Minerals

    Water X X

    Carbohydrate X X X

    Fat X X X

    Protein X X X X

    Vitamins X X X X*

    Minerals X

    * Some B vitamins contain Nitrogen

    The Six Categories of Nutrients

    Can be divided into two categories: Energy Producing Nutrients

    (Macronutrients) Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins

    Essential Non-caloric Nutrients Vitamins & Minerals

    (Micronutrients) Water

    Energy producing nutrients provide Calories

    The Kilocalorie (Calorie): The unit used to measure

    energy. It is the amount of heat energy

    required to raise one kilogram of water one degree Celsius (C) from 36o-37oC (actually a kilocalorie, Kcal or Calorie denoted with a capitol C).

    Terminology Energy Producing Nutrients

    * Fiber is a non-caloric carbohydrate

    The Kilocalorie (Calorie)

    How do we apply this definition to the energy applied to food?

    By using a Bomb Calorimeter.

    Bomb Calorimeter

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    Energy Production in the Body

    The ultimate fuel used in the body is a chemical called ATP

    ATP = Adenosine Tri-Phosphate We capture the chemical energy

    between the carbon-carbon bonds in Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein to form ATP

    Nicknames: Energy Producing Nutrients Carbohydrates are the High

    Performance Fuel Carbs are fast and best at making ATP

    Fats are the Low Level Fuel Fats are very slow to produce ATP

    Proteins are the building blocks for growth and repair Only under intense stress does protein

    provide ATP Loads of toxic waste is produced when

    protein is over consumed

    The Non-caloric Nutrients

    What does non-caloric mean? No ability to generate ATP No Calorie value Some non-caloric nutrients can be

    essential for the body Physiological failure or death

    occurs if the nutrient is withheld from the diet

    The Goal of Eating

    Food keeps us alive by providing Calories (energy) and Nutrients. The relationship between Calories and Nutrients is called:

    Nutrient Density: Refers to the amount of nutrients provided relative to the number of Calories. Foods with high nutrient density are nutritious.

    Terminology Nutrient Density

    Values shown are % DRI for a

    moderately active adult woman

    1 Large Potato vs 1 Small Order Fast Food Fries, both 210 Calories

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    Nutrient Density 1 cup plain yogurt vs cup vanilla ice cream, both 130 Calories Nutrient Density

    Characteristics of a Sound Diet Calorie Control: An appropriate amount of Calories

    are eaten to maintain a healthy body weight. Adequacy: Essential nutrients, fiber, and energy

    (Calories) are present in the diet. Balance: Food types complement one another in the

    diet. Not any one nutrient or food type is overbearing.

    Moderation: The diet does not contain an excess of unwanted substances.

    Variety: Different foods are used for the same purpose in the diet.

    Diet Results Result of a sound diet:

    Health: The state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being; not just the absence of infirmity.

    Result of a poor diet: Malnutrition: Impairment of health resulting

    from deficiency, toxicity, or imbalance of nutrient intake or body utilization (includes over-nutrition and under-nutrition).


    Philosophical Statement about Health Healthy lifestyle behaviors promote health, &

    unhealthy lifestyle behaviors promote disease. Over long periods of time the health consequences can be realized. Therefore, even though a person may be disease-free at the moment, a person that lives an unhealthy lifestyle should not be labeled as a healthy person.

    Factors Affecting Longevity

    1. Diet Poor diets promote degenerative

    diseases/conditions: such as, cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, & obesity.

    Dietary factors like Fat, Sugar, Fiber, Sodium, Alcohol, & Calcium, function in the disease process.

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    Leading Causes of Death

    Diet Related

    Non-Diet Related

    Alcohol Related



    per 1



    Factors Affecting Longevity

    2. Exercise (physical activity) Promotes health by positively influencing

    body weight/composition, metabolism, bone density, cognitive function, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and the cardiovascular system.

    Strive for 60 minutes each day.

    Factors Affecting Longevity

    3. Other Factors Smoking or tobacco use is a leading

    contributor to death of Americans Habits (lack of sleep, alcohol & drug

    use, unsafe sex) Chance (accidents) Genetics

    Factors Affecting Food Choices

    1. Hunger: The Physiological need for food. The physical body sends signals indicating a need for food.

    2. Satiety: The Physiological feedback mechanisms that terminate food intake.

    3. Appetite: The Psychological desire for food. The brain sends signals indicating a desire for food because of sensory input like seeing, smelling, or thinking about food.

    Factors Affecting Hunger, Appetite and Satiety

    Factors Affecting Food Choices

    4. Personal Preferences: The food likes and dislikes of an individual.

    5. Availability: Food supply, geographical area, climate, soil.

    6. Economics: Social status and income. 7. Social Factors: Family, friends, holidays,

    celebrations, etc. 8. Cultural Traditions: Beliefs, values, customs. 9. Advertising: TV, radio, magazines, newspaper. 10. Other: Habits, feelings, knowledge, etc.

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    Summary Diet is the collection of food consumed by an

    individual within a 24 hour period. Food nourishes the body, it contains nutrients

    that can be essential, nonessential, caloric, or non-caloric.

    Nutrition is the study of how food nourishes and affects body function throughout the day and health over several years.

    The goal of eating should be to fuel and nourish the body optimally.


    It is important to consume a healthy diet in order to promote health and prevent chronic disease.

    There are many factors affecting food choice.

    References for this presentation are the same as those for this topic found in module 1 of the textbook

  • 1/20/12


    Carbohydrates T-Talk 1.2

    2013 Cengage

    By Jennifer Turley and Joan Thompson

    An Introduction to Carbohydrates Presentation Overview

    Composition Energy Yield Categories Food Source Dietary Recommendations Alcohol

    Carbohydrate (Carbs or CHO)

    Composition: Carbohydrate is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

    Organic Compound: Carbohydrate is organic because it contains carbon. It is a compound because it has more than one element in its structure.

    The ratio of Carbohydrate is CxH2x0x.

    1 C6H1206 + 6O2 6C02 + 6H2O

    Carbohydrate: Energy Yield

    Provides 4 Calories/gram. It is the most preferred fuel for

    the body. It is high performance fuel. It produces ATP at the fastest


    Categories of Carbohydrate

    Simple versus


    Simple Sugars:

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    -D-Glucose -D-Fructose -D-Galactose





    Common Names of Sugars

    Glucose is blood sugar Fructose is fruit sugar Sucrose is table sugar Lactose is milk sugar Maltose is malt sugar

    Complex Carbohydrates

    Polysaccharides: Starch (digestible & caloric)

    Alpha linked glucose molecules in starch can be broken apart by the enzyme alpha-amylase to produce energy.

    The glucose units that are released are absorbed into the blood stream.

    Complex Carbohydrates

    Polysaccharides: Fiber (indigestible & noncaloric)

    Beta linked glucose molecules cannot be broken apart by human enzymes so no energy is produced.

    The glucose units are not released and thus fiber is not absorbed.

    Cellulose is the m