Nursery Pests

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Nursery pests 1. Thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis Symptoms of damage Laceration of the tender leaves and suck the plant sap Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base It causes damage both in nursery and main field

Initial - inward rolling

Silvery streakTop

Identification of insect pest Adults - are dark brown in colour

Nymph

AdultTop

Management Spray any one of the following in nursery stage Phosphamidon 40 SL Monocrotophos 36 SL Endosulfan 35 EC 50 ml 40 ml 80 ml Top 2. Green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens, Symptom of damage Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards. Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowing

Yellowing

Rice tungro virusTop

Identification of insect pest Adults - are green with black spot and black patch on wings.

Adult - Green leaf hopper

Top

Management Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46. Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose The vegetation on the bunds should also be sprayed with the insecticides Set up light traps Top 3. Rice case worm, Nymphula depunctalis Symptom of damage Caterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish papery Tubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leaves Floating of tubular cases on the water

Case tubes

Top Identification of insect pest Larva - Pale translucent green with orange head. It has filamentous gills on the sides of the body Adult: Moth is delicate white moth with pale brown wavy markings

Larva

Adult Top

Management Drain the water Dislodge the cases running rope Nursery - Mix 100 ml kerosene in standing water and spray endosulfan 35 EC 30 ml / 8 cents Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha Top 4. Paddy stemborer: Scirpophaga incertulas Symptom of damage Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip. Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller Causes drying of the central shoot known as dead heart Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried white ear.

Dead heart

White earTop

Identification of insect pest Egg - Laid in a mass and covered with buff coloured hairs. Larva - Pale yellow with dark brown head. Pupa - White silken cocoon. Adult Female moth - bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot possess a tuft of yellow hairs. Male moth - Smaller with pale yellow forewings without black spot.

Egg

Larva

AdultTop

Management Resistant varieties: Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6. Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation Pull out and destroy the affected tillers Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on twice @ 5 cc/ha/

(followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT) Apply Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki and neem seed kernel extract

Spray any one of the following insecticides o o o Monocrotophos Endosulfan Quinalphos 36 SL 35 EC 25 EC 1000 ml/ha 1000 ml/ha 1000 ml/ha

o o

Phosphamidon Profenophos

40 SL 50 EC

600 ml/ha 1000 ml/ha Top

5. Swarming caterpillar, Spodoptera mauritia Symptom of damage Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field. They feed gregariously and march from field to field.

Identification of insect pest Egg - Laid in masses on leaves and covered with grey hairs Larva - Caterpillar is cylindrical dark to pale green with lateral lines along the body

larva

Adult

Pupa - Pupates in an earthen cocoon in soil Adult - Moth is medium sized stoutly build. Dark brown with a conspicuous triangular spot on fore wings. Top

Management Kerosenate the water while irrigation suffocation Allow ducks into the field

Nursery Drain the water Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 80ml or endosulfan 35 EC 80ml + 20 lit of water for 8 cents Top

II. Main field pests 1. Paddy stemborer: Scirpophaga incertulas Symptom of damage Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip. Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller Causes drying of the central shoot known as dead heart Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried white ear.

Dead heart

White earTop

Identification of insect pest

Egg - Laid in a mass and covered with buff coloured hairs. Larva - Pale yellow with dark brown head. Pupa - White silken cocoon. Adult Female moth - bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot possess a tuft of yellow hairs. Male moth - Smaller with pale yellow forewings without black spot.

Egg

Larva

Adult

Management Resistant varieties: Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6. Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation Pull out and destroy the affected tillers Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on twice @ 5 cc/ha/

(followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT) Apply Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki and neem seed kernel extract

Spray any one of the following insecticides o o o o o Monocrotophos Endosulfan Quinalphos Phosphamidon Profenophos 36 SL 35 EC 25 EC 40 SL 50 EC 1000 ml/ha 1000 ml/ha 1000 ml/ha 600 ml/ha 1000 ml/haTop

2. Gall midge, Orseolia oryzae Symptom of damage Maggot feeds at the base of the growing shoot Causing formation of a tube like gall that is similar to onion leaf or Silver-shoot. Infested tillers produce no panicles.

Tuber gallTop

Identification of insect pest Egg: Reddish, elongate, tubular eggs just near the ligule of the leaf blade Larva: Maggot is pale to red colour feeds inside the gall. Pupa: pupates at the base of the gall and moves to tip of the gall Adult: Adult is orange coloured mosquito like fly

Egg

Adult

Top Management Early ploughing Resistant varieties: MDU 3, Shakthi, Vikram and Sureka Harvest the crop and plough immediately Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early) Use early maturing varieties Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer

Setup light trap and monitor the adult fliesTop

3. Swarming caterpillar, Spodoptera mauritia Symptom of damage Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field. They feed gregariously and march from field to field.Top

Identification of insect pest Egg - Laid in masses on leaves and covered with grey hairs Larva - Caterpillar is cylindrical dark to pale green with lateral lines along the body

larva

Adult

Pupa - Pupates in an earthen cocoon in soil Adult - Moth is medium sized stoutly build. Dark brown with a conspicuous triangular spot on fore wings.Top

Management Kerosenate the water while irrigation suffocation Allow ducks into the field

Nursery Drain the water Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 80ml or endosulfan 35 EC 80ml + 20 lit of water for 8 centsTop

4. Rice skipper, Pelopidas mathias Symptom of damage Edges of the leaves are fastened with webbing. Backward rolling of leaves, caterpillar feeds from margin to inwardsTop

Identification of insect pest Larva: Pale green with constructed neck. Adult: Butterfly with brown coloured wings and curved antenna

Caterpillar

AdultTop

Management

Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / haTop

5. Leaf folder (or) leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis mainsails / Marasmia patnalis Symptom of damage Leaves fold longitudinally and larvae remains inside. Larvae scrapes the green tissues of the leaves and becomes white and dry. During severe infestation the whole field exhibits scorched appearance

Longitudinal folding

larva inside the fold

white and dried leavesTop

Identification of insect pest

Egg - Flat, oval in shape and yellowish white in colour. Larva - Greenish translucent Adult - Moth is brownish with many dark wavy lines in centre and dark band on margin of wings

Larva

Adult

Top

Management Resistant varieties: TNAU LFR 831311, Cauveri, Akash, TKM 6 Clipping of the affected leaves Keep the bunds clean

Avoid excessive nitrogenous fertilizers Light traps to attract and kill moths Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 1, 25,000/ha thrice Spray NSKE 5 % or carbaryl 50 WP 1 Kg or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ ha.Top

6. Rice horned caterpillar, Melanitis ismene Damage Larva feeds on leaf blades of rice. Leaves are defoliated from the margin or tip irregularly.Top

Identification of insect pest Egg - White eggs singly on the leaves is green, Larva - Lightly flattened with two red horns processes on the head Two yellow processes in the anal end Pupa - Chrysalis, which suspends from the leaf. Adult - dark brown with large wings having a black yellow eye like spot one on each of the fore wings.

Caterpillar

AdultTop

Management

Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha Top

7. Yellow hairy caterpillar, Psalis pennatula Symptoms of damage

Caterpillar causes defoliation

Top Identification of insect pest Larva

Caterpillar is yellowish brown with red stripes Orange head and tufts of hairs all over the body. Pupa - pale white cocoon of silk and frass attached to the leaf Adult - Moth is stout with straw coloured forewings.Top

Management Spra