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UNIT-2 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
REQUIREMENT OF EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION
Oral Communicationis the ability to talk with others to give and exchange information & ideas, such as: ask questions, give directions, coordinate work tasks, explain & persuade.How we use this skill greeting people and taking messages reassuring, comforting or persuading seeking information & resolving conflicts facilitating or leading a group Make a good set of notes you can follow at a glance, and PRACTICE your presentation. Dress for the occasion and tidy yourself up. Do something about hair that tends to fall into your face. Avoid wearing a hat or cap because it can obscure your face. Arrange the environment to suit your presentation and get rid of distractionserase needless information from the boards, turn off equipment you're not going to use, close or open windows, blinds, and doors to aid audience visibility, hearing, and comfort. Turn on enough light so people can adequately see you, your eyes, and your facial expressions. Check the operation of audiovisual equipment before your presentation. Have a backup plan in case it fails. Make sure your notes and other materials are in proper order before you begin. Get rid of any gum or food you might have in your mouth. Don't hold a pen or paper clip or anything else that you might twiddle and distract your listeners. Stand or sit up straight with your weight balanced. Avoid slumping, twisting, or leaning on the lectern, table, or computer console. Don't stand in the light from the projector. Make eye contact before you start to speak, as you normally do in beginning a conversation. Don't start with "um" or "okay." Talk to your listeners as if you are having a conversation with them.
Make plenty of genuine eye-to-eye contact with members of the audience. Avoid merely reading your presentation. Focus on sharing your ideas. Communicate. Use your voice expressively and meaningfully. Minimize the uhs, ums, likes, and y'knows. Enunciate words clearly. Don't mumble or garble them. Speak with appropriate loudness and speed. Consider audience, place, and topic. Use variations in speed, inflections, and force to enhance your meaning and hold audience attention. Avoid monotony. Use your body expressively and meaningfully. Look interested in your topic. Show your enthusiasm, sincerity, commitment. Minimize distracting mannerisms and aimlessly shifting weight or moving about. Use gesture and movement naturally to describe things, underscore transitions, and emphasize points.
REQUIREMENT OF EFFECTIVE AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATIONAt some point in your academic or professional life, youll have to stand in front of people and give a talk about a subject, and quite often, youll be asked to prepare visual materials to accompany your talk. You might prepare handouts, but odds are, youll be asked to prepare materials that you can project on a video screen.The classic version of these projected materials is the overhead transparency, a thin sheet of clear plastic that you can run through a laser printer or write on with special markers; this medium is slowly disappearing, but its still around. Sometimes, you might be able to prepare paper documents and project them to a screen via a document camera, but doc cams arent entirely common, and they can only present static images. Instead, youll usually be asked to create a dynamic presentation using software such as PowerPoint, Prezi, or Keynote. Many other programs exist, including what Google has to offer, but these are the three most common presentation programs.Each program has its own special abilities and strengths, but they all share common basic principles that you can manipulate to create memorable, effective, and interesting presentations. Here, youll learn basic principles to select an effective presentation format choose readable typefaces place visual elements onscreen choose colors select appropriate backgrounds choose visual and audio effects deliver a memorable, effective presentation
REQUIREMENT OF EFFECTIVE VISUAL COMMUNICATION10 Tips For Designing Effective Visual CommunicationWithout good design, even the best, most compelling story is lost. Follow these design best practices to ensure that your visual communication is both beautiful and effective.1. COLOR Use no more than five colors in a single layout. Color should be used sparingly to highlight important information.2. TYPOGRAPHY All fonts should be legible and appropriate for the communication style.3. LAYOUT Present content in a way that guides readers through in a logical hierarchy. Aligning the elements in a layout with each other will help maintain consistency.4. CALLOUTS Use callouts sparingly to highlight only key information.5. SPACE Keep significant negative space. When too much information is in a layout, messaging becomes cluttered and incoherent.6. ILLUSTRATION Illustration should match tone and subject matter. Only include if it enhances the content.7. ICONOGRAPHY Icons should be simple, easy to understand and universal; theyre meant to enhance comprehension, never distract.8. DATA Dont overwhelm the reader with multiple graphs of single data points when one combined will suffice.9. PROPORTION The eye can be deceiving; make sure items are appropriately sized in data visualizations so as not to skew data.10. SIMPLICITY Avoid unnecessary design, including 3D charts, ornamental illustration or extraneous elements.
REQUIREMENT OF EFFECTIVE NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
1. Pay Attention to Nonverbal SignalsPeople can communicate information in numerous ways, so pay attention to things like eye contact,gestures,posture, body movements, and tone of voice. All of these signals can convey important information that isn't put into words.By paying closer attention to other people's unspoken behaviors, you will improve your own ability to communicate nonverbally.
2. Look for Incongruent BehaviorsIf someone's words do not match their nonverbal behaviors, you should pay careful attention. For example, someone might tell you they are happy while frowning and staring at the ground.Research has shown that when words fail to match up with nonverbal signals, people tend to ignore what has been said and focus instead on unspoken expressions ofmoods, thoughts, and emotions.
3. Concentrate on Your Tone of Voice When SpeakingYourtone of voicecan convey a wealth of information, ranging from enthusiasm to disinterest to anger. Start noticing how your tone of voice affects how others respond to you and try using tone of voice to emphasize ideas that you want to communicate. For example, if you want to show genuine interest in something, express your enthusiasm by using an animated tone of voice.
4. Use Good Eye ContactWhen people fail to look others in the eye, it can seem as if they are evading or trying to hide something. On the other hand, too mucheye contactcan seem confrontational or intimidating.While eye contact is an important part of communication, it's important to remember thatgood eye contactdoes not mean staring fixedly into someone's eyes. How can you tell how much eye contact is correct? Some communication experts recommend intervals of eye contact lasting four tofive seconds5. Ask Questions About Nonverbal SignalsIf you are confused about another person's nonverbal signals, don't be afraid to ask questions. A good idea is to repeat back your interpretation of what has been said and ask for clarification. An example of this might be, "So what you are saying is that..."6. Use Signals to Make Communication More Effective and MeaningfulRemember that verbal andnonverbal communication worktogether to convey a message. You can improve your spoken communication by usingbody languagethat reinforces and supports what you are saying. This can be especially useful when making presentations or when speaking to a large group of people.7. Look at Signals as a GroupA single gesture can mean any number of things, or maybe even nothing at all. The key to accurately reading nonverbal behavior is to look for groups of signals that reinforce a common point. If you place too much emphasis on just one signal out of many, you might come to an inaccurate conclusion about what a person is trying to communicate.8. Consider ContextWhen you are communicating with others, always consider the situation and the context in which the communication occurs. Some situations require more formal behaviors that might be interpreted very differently in any other setting.Consider whether or not nonverbal behaviors are appropriate for the context. If you are trying to improve your own nonverbal communication, concentrate on ways to make your signals match the level of formality necessitated by the situation.9. Be Aware That Signals Can be MisreadAccording to some, a firm handshake indicates a strong personality while a weak handshake is taken as a lack of fortitude. This example illustrates an important point about the possibility of misreading nonverbal signals. A limp handshake might actually indicate something else entirely, such as arthritis.Always remember to look for groups of behavior. A person's overall demeanor is far more telling than a single gesture viewed in isolation.10. Practice, Practice, PracticeSome people just seem to have a knack for usingnonverbal communicationeffectively and correctly interpreting signals from others. These people are often described as being able to "read people."In reality, you can build this skill by paying careful attention to nonverbal behavior and practicing different types of nonverbal communication with others. By noticing nonverbal behavior and practicing your own skills, you can dramatically improve your communication abilities.
UNIT-1 ESSENTIALS OF GOOD ENGLISHSuffixes are placed after words to modify their meanings; like prefixes, they are groups of letters that rarely serv