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Numberjack Combinatorial Optimization in Python Barry Hurley PyCon Ireland 2014

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Numberjack

Combinatorial Optimization in Python

Barry [email protected]

PyCon Ireland 2014

Outline

Introduction to Combinatorial Optimization

Modelling

Solving Technologies

Modelling and Solving with Numberjack

Summary

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 2

Section 1

Introduction to CombinatorialOptimization

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MotivationCombinatorial optimization provides powerful support fordecision-making; many interesting real-world problems arecombinatorial and can be approached using similartechniques.

The PromiseThis tutorial will teach attendees how to develop interestingmodels of combinatorial problems and solve them usingconstraint programming, satisfiability, and mixed integerprogramming techniques.

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 4

MotivationCombinatorial optimization provides powerful support fordecision-making; many interesting real-world problems arecombinatorial and can be approached using similartechniques.

The PromiseThis tutorial will teach attendees how to develop interestingmodels of combinatorial problems and solve them usingconstraint programming, satisfiability, and mixed integerprogramming techniques.

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 4

Combinatorial Optimisation

What is Combinatorial Optimisation?Optimization problems divide neatly into two categories,those involving:

• continuous variables

• discrete variables -- these are combinatorial.

Usually we’re concerned with finding a least-cost solution to aset of constraints.

Our focus in this tutorial

• Constraint Programming

• Satisfiability

• Mixed Integer Programming

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 5

What is a Combinatorial Problem?Variables, Domains, and ConstraintsGiven a set of variables, each taking a value from a domain ofpossible values, find an assignment to all variables that satisfythe constraints.

Variables Domains Constraints

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What is a Combinatorial Problem?Variables, Domains, and ConstraintsGiven a set of variables, each taking a value from a domain ofpossible values, find an assignment to all variables that satisfythe constraints.

Variables Domains Constraints

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Well known example: Sudoku

Variables and Domains

• Each cell must take a valuefrom 1 to 9.

Constraints

• All cells in a row must bedifferent.

• All cells in a column mustbe different.

• Each 3× 3 block must bedifferent.

83 6

7 9 25 7

4 5 71 3

1 6 88 5 1

9 4

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Applications: Optical Network Design

• Configuration of thebackhaul network

• Every exchange must beconnected to a metronode

• Every exchange must bereachable along two paths

• Paths are bounded inlength

• The amount of cableshould be minimised

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Applications: Rosetta/Philae Mission

Scheduling Scientific Experiments on theRosetta/Philae MissionGilles Simonin, Christian Artigues,Emmanuel Hebrard, Pierre Lopez

Image: ESA

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price = [215, 275, 335, 355, 420, 580]apitizers = ["Mixed Fruit","French Fries","Side Salad", "Hot Wings","

Mozzarella Sticks","Sample Plate"]

quantities = VarArray(len(apitizers), 0, max_qty)model = Model( Sum(quantities, price) == 1505 )

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 10

Types of Applications

Satisfaction

• Find a single solution

• Example: conference schedule

Optimization

• Find the best/high quality solution

• Minimize/maximize: cost, time,profit Fig. 2. A domino portrait of George Boole generated by our approach using 49 sets of

“double nine” dominoes, i.e. 49⇥ 55 = 2695 individual dominoes.

Many many othersScheduling; planning; configuration; nurse rostering;timetabling; vehicle routing; electricity, water, and oilnetworks; sourcing optimization; bioinformatics; . . .

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Section 2

Modelling

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Modelling Languages

FeaturesDeclarative specification of the problem, separating (in so faras possible) the formulation and the search strategy.

A Constraint Model of the Sudoku Puzzle

matrix = Matrix(N∗N, N∗N, 1, N∗N)

sudoku = Model([AllDiff(row) for row inmatrix.row],

[AllDiff(col) for col inmatrix.col],

[AllDiff(matrix[x:x+N, y:y+N])for x in range(0, N∗N, N)for y in range(0, N∗N, N)] )

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1 6 88 5 1

9 4

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Modelling Languages

FeaturesDeclarative specification of the problem, separating (in so faras possible) the formulation and the search strategy.

A Constraint Model of the Sudoku Puzzle

matrix = Matrix(N∗N, N∗N, 1, N∗N)

sudoku = Model([AllDiff(row) for row inmatrix.row],

[AllDiff(col) for col inmatrix.col],

[AllDiff(matrix[x:x+N, y:y+N])for x in range(0, N∗N, N)for y in range(0, N∗N, N)] )

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7 9 25 7

4 5 71 3

1 6 88 5 1

9 4

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Basic Process

Problem

Human

Model

Solver

Solution

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Modelling

• This is onemodel, not themodel of the problem.

• Many possible alternatives

• Not always clear which is the bestmodel

• Often: not clear what is the problem

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More Realistic

Problem

Human

Model

Solver

SolutionHangs Wrong Solution

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Modelling Frameworks

Benefits

• High-level, solver independent model

• Use of multiple back-end solvers

• Automatic translation for each solver

Some Modelling Frameworks

• Numberjack (Insight, Ireland)

• Savile Row (St Andrews, UK)

• Minizinc (NICTA, Australia)

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Framework Process

Problem

Human

Model

Compile/Reformulate

CP MIP SAT Other

Solution Solution Solution Solution

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Section 3

Solving Technologies

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Solving a Combinatorial Problem

Many possibilities

• Constraint Programming (CP)

• Satisfiability (SAT)

• Mixed Integer Programming (MIP)

• Local Search -- heuristic guess with heuristic repair

• Large Neighbourhood Search -- systematic and localsearch

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Solving a Combinatorial Problem

Many possibilities

• Constraint Programming (CP)• Satisfiability (SAT)• Mixed Integer Programming (MIP)• Local Search -- heuristic guess with heuristic repair

• Large Neighbourhood Search -- systematic and localsearch

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Constraint Programming (CP)In a nutshell

• Domains typically represented as integers (others: realvalued, set, graph)

• Typically solved using backtracking-search

• Polynomial-time inference reduces the size of the searchspace

Inference/PropagationThe All-Different constraint specifies that variables must beassigned distinct values.x1 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x2 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x3 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x4 ∈ { 2, 3, 4 }x5 ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

x1 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x2 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x3 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x4 ∈ { 3, 4 }x5 ∈ { 3, 4 }

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Constraint Programming (CP)In a nutshell

• Domains typically represented as integers (others: realvalued, set, graph)

• Typically solved using backtracking-search

• Polynomial-time inference reduces the size of the searchspace

Inference/PropagationThe All-Different constraint specifies that variables must beassigned distinct values.x1 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x2 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x3 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x4 ∈ { 2, 3, 4 }x5 ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

x1 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x2 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x3 ∈ {1, 2, 5}x4 ∈ { 3, 4 }x5 ∈ { 3, 4 }

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 21

Sudoku: simple example of CP propagation

83 6

7 9 25 7

4 5 71 3

1 6 88 5 1

9 4

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

Initial domains withpreset clues.

83 6

7 9 25 7

4 5 71 3

1 6 88 5 1

9 4

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

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1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

1 2 34 5 67 8 9

After propagating thepreassigned cells.

8 1 2 7 5 3 6 4 99 4 3 6 8 2 1 7 56 7 5 4 9 1 2 8 31 5 4 2 3 7 8 9 63 6 9 8 4 5 7 2 12 8 7 1 6 9 5 3 45 2 1 9 7 4 3 6 84 3 8 5 2 6 9 1 77 9 6 3 1 8 4 5 2

Complete solution aftersearch.

Core IdeaRemove inconsistent values from domains which cannot bepart of a solution.

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Satisfiability Problem (SAT)

• Set of Boolean variables x1, x2, . . . , xn

• A literal is a variable x1 or its negation ¬x1

• A clause is a disjunction of literals (x2 ∨ ¬x3)

• Formula e.g. (x1 ∨ x3 ∨ ¬x4) ∧ (x4) ∧ (x2 ∨ ¬x3)

• A clause is satisfied when at least one of its literals is true.

• A formula is satisfied when all clauses are satisfied.

• Goal: Find an assignment to the variables that satisfiesthe formula

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SAT Solving

• Backtracking search• 1st decision: a

• (¬a ∨ ¬b)• 2nd decision: c

• (b ∨ ¬c ∨ d)• (¬d ∨ e)

• 3rd decision: f• (b ∨ ¬f ∨ g)• (¬a ∨ ¬f ∨ h)

• Conflict-driven clause learning• (¬d ∨ ¬i)

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Mixed Integer Programming

Standard MIP Model has the following form

min cx + dy (1)s.t. Ax + By ≥ 0 (2)

x , y ≥ 0 (3)y integer (4)

InformallyThe objective function is linear, e.g. a weighted sum,expression over the variables. Each constraint is linear. Somevariables take integer values, other can take real values.

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MIP Solving

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2

x1

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MIP Solving

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2

x1

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MIP Solving

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2

x1

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MIP Solving

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2

x1

Fractional solution

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MIP Solving

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2

x1

Fractional solution

Cut

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CP, SAT, MIP: choice is good!

Operationally different

• Algorithms are different• CP: Constraint propagation + Search• SAT: Unit propagation + Clause Learning + Search• MIP: Linear relaxation + Cutting planes + Branch & Bound

• Often not clear which is best for a problem

• Encodings matter

Numberjack

• Write a single model in Python

• Numberjack constructs: union of SAT, MIP, and CP

• Encoded depending on the choice of solver

• Rapidly evaluate different solvers and paradigms

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Summary of Solving Technologies

Core goal

• The user states the problem and a general purpose solveris used to find a solution

• Generic tools to solve a broad range of applications

Solving Approaches

• Multiple complimentary approaches: CP, SAT, MIP

• Often not clear which is best for a particular problem

• Choice is good, modelling frameworks allow to try manypossibilities

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Section 4

Modelling and Solving with Numberjack

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Numberjack Overview

What is Numberjack?

• A Python platform for combinatorial optimization

• Open source project (Github, LGPL)

• Common platform for diverse paradigms (CP, SAT, MIP)

• Fast backend solvers

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Backend Solvers Available

CP Solvers

• Mistral v1 & v2

• Toulbar2

SAT Solvers

• MiniSat

• Walksat

• Lingeling

• CryptoMiniSat

• Glucose

• . . . any CNF solver

MIP Solvers

• IBM ILOG CPLEX

• Gurobi

• SCIP• Through COIN-OR OpenSolver Interface:• COIN-OR CBC• COIN-OR CLP• COIN-OR DyLP• COIN-OR SYMPHONY• COIN-OR Volume Algorithm• GNU LP Toolkit

• Soplex

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Installation

Python Package Index (PyPI)

pip install Numberjack

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Subsection 1

Modelling Constructs

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Variables in Numberjack

Different Variable constructors

Constructor DescriptionVariable() Boolean variableVariable(’x’) Boolean variable called ’x’Variable(N) Variable in the domain of [0 . . .N − 1]Variable(N, ’x’) Variable in the domain of [0 . . .N − 1] called ’x’Variable(l,u) Variable in the domain of [l . . . u]Variable(l,u, ’x’) Variable in the domain of [l . . . u] called ’x’Variable(list) Variable with domain specified as a listVariable(list, ’x’) Variable with domain as a list called ’x’

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More Variables in Numberjack

Similarily for arrays and matrices

Constructor DescriptionVarArray(N) Array of N Boolean variablesVarArray(N, u) Array of N variables with domains [0 . . . u − 1]VarArray(N, l, u) Array of N variables with domains [l . . . u]

...Matrix(N, M) N ×M matrix of Boolean variablesMatrix(N, M, u) N ×M matrix of variables with domains [0 . . . u − 1]Matrix(N, M, l, u) N ×M matrix of variables with domains [l . . . u]

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 39

Constraints in Numberjack

Constraints can be specified by arithmetic operators ofvariables

x > yy <= zx != zx + y == z

x + 4 > z ∗ 3z == (x < y)z <= (x < y)(x == y) != (a == b)

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Hello World Example

from Numberjack import ∗

x, y, z = VarArray(3, 5) # 3 variables with domains 0..4model = Model(

x != y, x != z, y != z,x == y + z,z > y,

)

solver = model.load("Mistral") # Load the model into a solversolver.solve() # Tell the solver to solve

print x.get_value(), y.get_value(), z.get_value()

Output:

3 1 2

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Hello World Example

from Numberjack import ∗

x, y, z = VarArray(3, 5) # 3 variables with domains 0..4model = Model(

x != y, x != z, y != z,x == y + z,z > y,

)

solver = model.load("Mistral") # Load the model into a solversolver.solve() # Tell the solver to solve

print x.get_value(), y.get_value(), z.get_value()

Output: 3 1 2

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Global Constraints

Many benefits

• Constraints over multiple variables• More concise modelling• More expressive• Often specialized algorithms to achievehigher levels of inference.

All-DifferentEach variable must take a distinct value.

#We should write:AllDiff([w, x, y, z])

# instead of:w != x, w != y, w != z, x != y, x != z, y != z

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Concise Models

VarArray and Matrix allow for concise modelling.

Rows and Columns

for row inmatrix.row:m += AllDiff(row)

for col inmatrix.col:m += AllDiff(col)

SlicesGiven a 9× 9 Sudoku matrix, wecould get a 3× 3 cell:

AllDiff( matrix[x:x+3, y:y+3] )

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1 6 88 5 1

9 4

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Global Constraints: Sum

Sum(row) == 1

Sum([a, b, c, d]) >= e

Weighted Sum

2∗a + b + 0.5∗c + 3∗d == e

Sum([2∗a, b, 0.5∗c, 3∗d]) == e

Sum([a,b,c,d], [2, 1, 0.5, 3]) == e

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Global Constraints: Element

ElementAllows indexing into a variable array (at solve time) by thevalue of another variable. Useful modelling construct.

Numberjack

x == Element(VarArray(10, 1, 10), Variable(10))

y == myvararray[myvariable] # Element

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Custom ConstraintsEasy to define your own custom constraints for modelling purposesand add custom decompositions for solvers which don’t support it.

Example

classMyAllDiff(Expression):

def decompose(self):return [var1 != var2 for var1, var2 in pair_of(self.

children)]

class NoOverlap(Predicate):

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Optimizing: Minimize and Maximize

Objectives

• Finding the best/good solutions.

• e.g. minimise cost, wastage, loss, time; maximize profit.

Numberjack

Minimize(2∗x + 3∗y)

Maximize(objectivevariable)

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Subsection 2

Solving

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Framework Process

Problem

Human

Model

Compile/Reformulate

CP MIP SAT Other

Solution Solution Solution Solution

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 49

One Model, Many Solvers

Constraint Solvers

MIP Solvers

SAT Solvers

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Configuring the Solver# Search strategies (solver specific)mistral.setHeuristic("DomainOverWDegree", "Lex")mistral.setHeuristic("Impact")

# Set Limitssolver.setTimeLimit(60) # Secondssolver.setNodeLimit(1000000)

# Solvesolver.solve()

# Find all solutionssolver.getNextSolution()

# Feasibility?solver.is_sat()solver.is_opt()solver.is_unsat()

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Complete solving example -- Sudokufrom Numberjack import ∗N = 3matrix = Matrix(N∗N, N∗N, 1, N∗N)model = Model(

[AllDiff(row) for row in matrix.row],[AllDiff(col) for col in matrix.col],[AllDiff(matrix[x:x+N, y:y+N])

for x in range(0, N∗N, N) for y in range(0, N∗N, N)] )

solver = model.load("Mistral") # Load the model into a solversolver.solve() # Tell the solver to solve

if solver.is_sat(): # Found a solutionprint matrix

elif solver.is_unsat(): # Solver proved that no solution existsprint "Unsatisfiable"

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 52

Subsection 3

Modelling Examples

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Magic Square

• N × N grid

• Contains numbers 1 to N2

• Sum of rows, columns, anddiagonals equal the same value.

N × (N2 + 1)2 1

16611

413710

152125

14398

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 54

Magic Square

The Model

# N x N matrix of variables from 1..N^2

square = Matrix(N,N,1,N∗N)

model = Model(

AllDiff(square),

[Sum(row) == sum_val for row in square.row],

[Sum(col) == sum_val for col in square.col],

Sum([square[a][a] for a in range(N)]) == sum_val,

Sum([square[a][N−a−1] for a in range(N)]) == sum_val)

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 55

N-Queens

Problem DefinitionPlace N queens on an N × N chessboard so that no queenattacks another. A queen attacks all cells in horizontal, verticaland diagonal direction.

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

Q

One solution for N = 8

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Basic N-Queens Model

Cell based model

• A 0/1 variable for each cell to say if it is occupied or not

• Constraints on the rows, columns, and diagonals toenforce no attach

• N2 Boolean variables, 6N − 4 constraints

Column (row) based model

• Each column (row) must contain exactly one queen

• A 1..N variable for each column representing the positionof the queen in the column

• N variables, 3 global constraints (or N2/2 binaryconstraints)

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 57

N-Queens Model

# One variable for each queen (one per column) representing# the row in which that queen is placed.queens = VarArray(N, N)

model = Model(# Queens must be placed in different rowsAllDiff(queens),

# Queens are not on the same diagonalsAllDiff([queens[i] + i for i in range(N)]),AllDiff([queens[i] − i for i in range(N)])

)

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 58

Golomb Ruler

Problem definition

• Place N marks on a ruler

• Distance between each pair of marks is different

• Goal is to minimise the placement of the last mark

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Golomb Ruler

Create the Variables

marks = VarArray(nbMarks, rulerSize)

• Each variable represents the position of a mark

Now the model

• Modelling choices are important

• We will illustrate this with a series of models

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First Model

Naive Model

model = Model(Minimise( Max(marks) ),AllDiff(marks),AllDiff([first− second for first, second in pair_of(marks)])

)

• Each mark must be at a different position

• Each pair of distances must be different

• Minimise the position of the last mark

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 61

First Model Analysis

This is not a very good model!

• The marks must all be different

• But they can also be totally ordered

• Instead of marks[0] being any mark on the ruler we canconstrain it to be the first mark

• Then we just have to minimise the position of the lastmark in the marks array

model = Model(Minimise( marks[−1] ),[marks[i] < marks[i+1] for i in range(nbMarks−1)],AllDiff([first− second for first, second in pair_of(marks)])

)

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First Model Analysis

This is not a very good model!

• The marks must all be different

• But they can also be totally ordered

• Instead of marks[0] being any mark on the ruler we canconstrain it to be the first mark

• Then we just have to minimise the position of the lastmark in the marks array

model = Model(Minimise( marks[−1] ),[marks[i] < marks[i+1] for i in range(nbMarks−1)],AllDiff([first− second for first, second in pair_of(marks)])

)

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Why does this work?

These extra constraints improve the speed

• These constraints reduce both the time taken and nodessearched

• Stronger constraints reduce the search space

• Still maintain (a set of) solutions

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What can we reason about the first mark?

• It must always be at zero

• Proof: Any solution with the first mark at position n canbe be shifted n positions to the left while maintaining allthe constraints and reducing the objective function

• Obvious to us but not to the solver

model = Model(marks[0] == 0,Minimise( marks[−1] ),[marks[i] < marks[i+1] for i in range(nbMarks−1)],AllDiff([first− second for first, second in pair_of(marks)])

)

Insight Centre for Data Analytics PyCon Ireland 2014 Slide 64

Where are we searching?

What are the decision variables?

• By default the solvers will search on all variables in aproblem

• In the Golomb ruler most of these will be auxiliaryvariables representing the distance between the marks

• These are functionally dependent on the positions of themarks

• So why bother searching on these!?

• Tell the solver what variables to search on

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Modelling and Solving Summary

Modelling

• Many possible modelling alternatives

• Not always clear which is the best model

• Often: not clear what is the problem

Solving

• Often not clear which solving technology to use

• Try each alternative, easy in a modelling framework

• Search strategy can have a huge impact on performance

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Map Colouring Demo

Demo

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Map Colouring Demo

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Summary

Numberjack

• A Python platform for combinatorial optimization

• Common platform for diverse paradigms (CP, SAT, MIP)

• Practical, easy to use, and intuitive

• Fast backend solvers

• Open source (Github, LGPL)

http://numberjack.ucc.ie

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Acknowledgements

This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) Grant10/IN.1/I3032.The Insight Centre for Data Analytics is supported by SFI GrantSFI/12/RC/2289.

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• Much more which we cannot cover here• ECLiPSe ELearning Coursehttp://4c.ucc.ie/~hsimonis/ELearning/index.htm

• Discrete Optimization on Coursera

Research

• Insight Centre for Data Analyticshttps://www.insight-centre.org

• UCC Research Vacancieshttp://www.ucc.ie/en/hr/vacancies/research/

Industrial Collaborations

• Chrys Ngwa, Business Development Manager, [email protected]

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Exercise: Send More Money

A Crypt-Arithmetic Puzzle

• Each character stands for a digit from 0 to 9

• Numbers are built from digits in the usual, positionalnotation

• Repeated occurrence of the same character denote thesame digit

• Different characters denote different digits

Problem Definition

A Crypt-Arithmetic PuzzleWe begin with the definition of the SEND+MORE=MONEYpuzzle. It is often shown in the form of a hand-writtenaddition:

S E N D+ M O R EM O N E Y

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