Notable Literary Works

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NOTABLE LITERARY WORKSNoli Me TangereEl FilibusterismoBiag ni Lam-angIbong AdarnaFlorante at LauraDoctrina Christiana

Noli Me TangereNoli Me Tangere is a latin phrase that Rizal took from the Bible, meaning Touch me not. It has been also noted by French writer D. Blumenstihl that Noli Me Tangere was a name used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids. That as an ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact is suggested in his dedication, To My Country.

El FilibusterismoEl Filibusterismoalso known by its English alternate titleThe Reign of Greed,is the second novel written byPhilippinenational heroJos Rizal. It is the sequel toNoli me tangereand, like the first book, was written inSpanish.The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying the character Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos. The novel, along with its predecessor, was banned in some parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. These novels along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and eventualexecution. Both the novel and its predecessor, along withRizal's last poem, are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces.

Biag ni Lam-angBiag ni Lam-ang(The Life of Lam-ang) is anepic poemof theIlocano peoplefrom theIlocosregion of thePhilippines. Recited and written in the originalIlocano, the poem is believedto be a composite work of various poets who passed it on through the generations, and was first transcribed around 1640 by a blind IlocanobardnamedPedro Bucaneg.

Ibong AdarnaIbong Adarnais anepicwritten in the 17th Century about an eponymous magical bird. The title's longer form during theSpanish Era was "Korrido at Buhay na Pinagdaanan ng Tatlng Principeng Magkakapatid na anak nang Haring Fernando at nang Reyna Valeriana sa KahariangBerbania" ("Corridoand Life Lived by the Three Princes, children of King Fernando and Queen Valeriana in the Kingdom of Berbania"). The author of the largely known epic was claimed to be Jos de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw", but until now the real author was never known.

Florante at LauraFlorante at Laura(full title:Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Florante at Laura sa Kahariang Albanya: Kinuha sa madlang cuadro histrico o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyayari nang unang panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya, at tinula ng isang matuwain sa bersong Tagalog) by Francisco Balagtasis considered as one of the masterpieces ofPhilippine literature. Balagtas wrote theepicduring his imprisonment.He dedicated to his sweetheart Mara Asuncion Rivera, whom he nicknamed "M. A. R." and is referenced to as "Selya" in the dedication "Kay Selya".

Doctrina ChristianaTheDoctrina Christianawas an early book ofRoman CatholicCatechism, written in 1593 by FrayJuan de Plasencia, and is believed to be one of the earliest books printed in thePhilippines.