North Africa & The Middle East. What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important? ...

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North Africa & The Middle East

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Page 1: North Africa & The Middle East. What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important?  What: North Africa and the Middle East (or Mid-East)

North Africa & The Middle East

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What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important? What: North Africa and the Middle East (or

Mid-East) is the nations of the northern part of Africa, the Arabian peninsula and the western part of Asia.

Why: Familiarity with the culture and beliefs of this

region will help our understanding of its current issues

Ancient African civilizations flourished at a time when Europe was in decline with the ending of the Roman Empire

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Middle East

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Middle East and North Africa

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www.maps.com/games/quiz-middle.aspx

http://www.rethinkingschools.org/just_fun/games/mapgame.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yAL7QqwItGk

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Vocabulary Make certain that you have the

Essential Vocabulary done-posted on my website.

Do Chapter 11 Vocabulary. List on page 395. Must do all 3 sections (12 words). Look up definitions in the glossary.

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Let’s Refresh Our Memory The Roman Empire (western) fell in 476 AD. By

550 AD, the Western Roman Empire had completely faded away.

With the fall of Rome, trade with the East-China, India, etc.- was cut off.

With the cutting off of major trading routes between East and West, information and knowledge shared between the two spheres began to disappear.

European civilization went into decline (more about this later); Eastern civilization thrived. We have already looked at China-now we will look at North Africa and the Middle East.

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Pre-Islamic Arabian Civilizations One of the areas in which diverse civilizations

took root was the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Peninsula is the Peninsula which

lies between Africa and Asia. Notice that we call it a Peninsula because it is

surrounded by water on 3 sides and connects Africa and Asia. The western side is bordered by the Red Sea,

the eastern side by the Persian Gulf and the southern side by the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean)

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Life in Early Arabia Most of the Arabian peninsula is desert

with very intense heat, water found only in oases, and very often blinding sandstorms

Survival dictated that people band together to face the elements-and criminal elements Groups to clans to tribes loyal to one

another and headed by a sheikh

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Life In Early Arabia Bedouins- desert herders who constantly traveled the

desert, going from oasis to oasis Trade & Towns

Many people lived in small villages near sources of water- which allowed for farming and raising animals

Some people were merchants which transported goods across the desert in caravans

Eventually, they handled all the trade between India and the Mediterranean Sea and built towns along the trade routes

Richest town/city was Makkah (Mecca)-crossroads for traders and the center of early Arabian religious life

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Religion in Early Arabia Polytheistic-worshipped many gods

Most important was Allah Makkah-the center of religion in early

Arabia Home of the Kaaba- a low stone building

surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses with a great stone inside that they believed came from heaven

Many people traveled to Makkah to pay homage at the Kaaba

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Teachings of Islam Muslims believe in one God Muslims believe this one God holds all

power and created the universe Believe God determines right and wrong People are expected to obey God’s law

if they want to be blessed in afterlife Mohammad is seen as the last prophet

(after Abraham, Moses, etc.); he is not seen as divine.

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The Quran Messages that Muhammad said he

received from Allah are written down in the Quran-the Muslim holy book

Contains moral teachings that instruct Muslims how to live Must be honest, treat others fairly Honor parents, show kindness to neighbors Give generously to poor Murder, lying, stealing prohibited Should not eat pork, drink liquor, or gamble Also contains rules for family life, business

practices, and property rights

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Five Pillars of Islam Muslims must fulfill the Five Pillars of

Islam-the main acts of worship required of all Muslims Belief-Muslims must declare that there is

no god but Allah and that Mohammad is his prophet

Prayer-Muslims must pray five times a day facing toward Makkah

Charity-Muslims must give to the poor Fasting-Muslims must not eat from dawn

to dusk during the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage-Muslims must visit Makkah

once in their life

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The Night Journey According to Islamic tradition, Mohammad took

a journey sometime in the year 621 AD in one single night.

Mohammad is said to have taken a trip on a magical (flying) animal that took him from Mecca to the temple at Jerusalem (some 766 miles).

Once he worshipped at the temple, his faithful steed took him to heaven, where he meets other prophets and received instruction from God.

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The Night Journey According to Islamic tradition, God tells

Mohammad to pray 50 times a day. As Mohammad leaves, he talks to Moses who

tells him to go back and ask for a reduction which is granted (-10).

This happens several times until the number of daily prayers is reduced to 5.

This is where the Muslim tradition of praying 5 times a day comes from

Mohammad also receives the instruction that Muslims are to wash before praying.

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Veteran’s Day Why is Veteran’s Day celebrated on

November 11? What is the difference between

Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day?

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Veteran’s Day Set aside to honor all veterans- all those

who have ever served in our nation’s Armed Forces

Originally was called Armistice Day Armistice signed between Germany and

the Allied Powers to end World War I Went into effect on the 11th hour of the

11th day of the 11th month of 1918

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Questions When was the Armistice signed? When did it go into effect? What was the attitude of Allied

commanders towards the Germans? Who was the last American casualty of

World War 1? When did he die? How many lives were lost on the last day? Why?

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Essential Questions What ways did Muslims use to spread

their religion? Which way was the most successful? Were Muslims united after the death of

Mohammad?

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Suppose… …that a member of your family built a

powerful business empire. Upon their death, a sharp division occurred among members of the family over who should be the rightful successor and control this business empire.

What do you think would happen to the empire? To the family?

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Division of Islam After Mohammad’s death, Muslims had a

major disagreement over who should be caliph. Eventually this lead to the division of Islam-which continues to this day. Shiite-believed that Ali, Mohammad’s son-

in-law, should succeed him and that all future caliphs should be Ali’s descendants. They rejected the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus

Sunni-accepted the Umayyad caliphs as rightful rulers of Islam. Sunni more numerous than Shiite

Over time the Sunni and Shiite developed different religious practices and customs

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Further Struggles Within Islam

The Abbasids Dynasty that ruled the Muslim world after

the Umayyads, from 750-1258 Built new capital at Baghdad (Iraq) Brought Persian influence into the empire

The Seljuk Turks Nomads from central Asia, first hired as

soldiers by the Abbasids who then took power for themselves.

Were content to let the Abbasid caliph remain as religious leader

Became sultan-the holder of government and military power

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Later Muslim Empires-Read &Respond Read Pages 384-386 Create a T-chart or Venn diagram contrasting the

Ottoman Empire and the Mogul Empire Must have a minimum of 5 facts for each; the

more, the better What are the main features of each (life,

government)? Are there things in common? What are the main differences?

Write a 1 page (3-5 paragraphs) response: What would a visitor to the Ottoman Empire

observe? To the Mogul Empire? Are all people treated equally? Are there any injustices (wrongs) being committed

against any group of people? What are they? What is the purpose? Why is this accepted?

Due at beginning of class tomorrow (25 points)

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Word Bank EgyptSaudi Arabia Israel Lebanon Syria Jordan Cyprus Turkey Iraq Armenia Azerbaijan Iran Yemen Oman Kuwait Qatar Turkmenistan Pakistan Afghanistan Uzbekistan United Arab Emirates (UAE) Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan

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Focus Question What impact did Islam have on

Hinduism? What are some examples of the impact

Islam had on Hinduism?

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Islam vs. Hinduism As we have already discussed, Islam spread

rapidly because of conquests. As you have learned, this led to the

establishment of Muslim Empires. As you have also learned, Muslims used a

variety of methods to persuade non-Muslims to convert in the areas they conquered.

Some of these methods included: higher taxes, marrying of non-Muslim princesses (& other young ladies) to Muslim men and princes, forcing young Christian men to convert to Islam and become soldiers, etc.

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Islam vs. Hinduism When the Mogul Empire conquered India,

it came into contact with Hinduism. At first, the same tactics were used Akbar the Great, whom you have learned

about, removed a lot of the discriminatory practices against non-Muslims

Akbar believed and treated all religions as equals.

His views were not widely accepted, and the Mogul Empire returned to its prior treatment of non-Muslims

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Islam’s Impact on Hinduism Akbar’s influence, however, is still felt

within Hinduism today. 2 examples:

The Taj Majal The division of India into India and

Pakistan India is Hindu, Pakistan is Muslim

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Focus Questions: How was early Muslim society

organized? What are the main reasons for this type

of societal organization? How is this societal organization

represented in the modern world?

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Early Muslim Society Pyramid structure based on wealth and

power Government leaders, landowners, and

traders- most wealth and power Government and religious leaders could be

the same, but could also be separate. Artisans, farmers, and workers- common

people with little access to wealth or power Slaves. Muslims could not be enslaved, so

non-Muslims were brought from other areas, often as prisoners of war.

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Early Muslim Society Important Things To Know

Generally, the Quran teaches equality-all Muslims are treated the same.

Distinctions are made for the following: Non-Muslims- are not considered equal with

Muslims. There are different passages within the Quran which state seemingly contradictory ways in which non-Muslims were to be treated, from acceptance to violence

Women-are seen as equal in some ways, non-equal in others. Basically, men are seen as stronger, women as weaker.

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Early Muslim Society Men

Ran government, were in charge of business and society

Women Helped run Muslim families, could inherit

wealth and own property. Many places also had laws requiring

women to cover their faces and wear long robes in public-hijab.

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Focus Questions How does the use of Sharia law help to

create order in Islamic nations? Think back to our study of China; how

did both ancient Chinese society and Islamic society use religion to help create order in society?

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Sharia Law What is Sharia Law? What are some examples of Sharia Law? Who uses Sharia Law? Who doesn’t? What is the reasoning for either using or

not using Sharia law?

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Sharia Law Sharia Law is the moral code and

religious law of Islam. Sharia Law deals with practically all

matters- crime, politics, economics, personal hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting.

Often considered the infallible word of God, although the interpretation is not.

Where strictly implemented, Sharia is essentially religious law, with court officials often being high officials from the local mosque

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Examples of Sharia Law Five Pillars of Islam- no pork, prayer,

fasting Non-Muslims -not equal to Muslims, may

not display pork, display/recite scriptures, openly celebrate their religious holidays, attempt to convert Muslims

Leaving the Muslim faith is the crime of apostasy and is punishable by death

Blasphemy-speaking against the Muslim faith- is also punishable by death

Requires the wearing of hijab by women Thieves can be punished by flogging

(public beating) and even amputation of limbs

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Countries Implementing Sharia Law Historically, all Muslim countries used

Sharia law Today, most Muslim countries apply

only a few aspects of Sharia Law-generally in the area of family law.

A few countries employ the entire code. Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Iran,

Afghanistan, and Pakistan Some nations have chosen to no longer

employ Sharia at all Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,

Uzbekistan-among others

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Reasons for Using Sharia Law Cultural and historical connection with

Islamic history Helps to create order in society

Hierarchy of order, stability and control Used as a hedge against the changing

nature of the modern world

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Reasons for Not Using Sharia Law Pressure from western nations Observation that the Sharia code is

unfair in many ways Realization that Sharia often does not

provide stability and security-the opposite is often true

Desire to be like and accepted by western nations

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African Geography When done with the Sharia Law Activity: Read pp. 445-446 Complete the “Understanding Charts”

Activity on pg. 446 Keep until tomorrow

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Examples of Sharia Law Thieves can be punished by flogging

(public beating) and even amputation of limbs

Consumption of alcoholic beverages are expressly forbidden

Some interpretations of Sharia law prescribe jihad (holy war) against all non-Muslims. Killing non-Muslims in a jihad is not a crime.

Sharia also dictates marriage and divorce laws- a woman in violation can face death by stoning