North Africa & The Middle East. What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important? ...
Transcript of North Africa & The Middle East. What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important? ...
North Africa & The Middle East
What is North Africa and the Middle East? Why is it important? What: North Africa and the Middle East (or
Mid-East) is the nations of the northern part of Africa, the Arabian peninsula and the western part of Asia.
Why: Familiarity with the culture and beliefs of this
region will help our understanding of its current issues
Ancient African civilizations flourished at a time when Europe was in decline with the ending of the Roman Empire
Middle East and North Africa
Vocabulary Make certain that you have the
Essential Vocabulary done-posted on my website.
Do Chapter 11 Vocabulary. List on page 395. Must do all 3 sections (12 words). Look up definitions in the glossary.
Let’s Refresh Our Memory The Roman Empire (western) fell in 476 AD. By
550 AD, the Western Roman Empire had completely faded away.
With the fall of Rome, trade with the East-China, India, etc.- was cut off.
With the cutting off of major trading routes between East and West, information and knowledge shared between the two spheres began to disappear.
European civilization went into decline (more about this later); Eastern civilization thrived. We have already looked at China-now we will look at North Africa and the Middle East.
Pre-Islamic Arabian Civilizations One of the areas in which diverse civilizations
took root was the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Peninsula is the Peninsula which
lies between Africa and Asia. Notice that we call it a Peninsula because it is
surrounded by water on 3 sides and connects Africa and Asia. The western side is bordered by the Red Sea,
the eastern side by the Persian Gulf and the southern side by the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean)
Life in Early Arabia Most of the Arabian peninsula is desert
with very intense heat, water found only in oases, and very often blinding sandstorms
Survival dictated that people band together to face the elements-and criminal elements Groups to clans to tribes loyal to one
another and headed by a sheikh
Life In Early Arabia Bedouins- desert herders who constantly traveled the
desert, going from oasis to oasis Trade & Towns
Many people lived in small villages near sources of water- which allowed for farming and raising animals
Some people were merchants which transported goods across the desert in caravans
Eventually, they handled all the trade between India and the Mediterranean Sea and built towns along the trade routes
Richest town/city was Makkah (Mecca)-crossroads for traders and the center of early Arabian religious life
Religion in Early Arabia Polytheistic-worshipped many gods
Most important was Allah Makkah-the center of religion in early
Arabia Home of the Kaaba- a low stone building
surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses with a great stone inside that they believed came from heaven
Many people traveled to Makkah to pay homage at the Kaaba
Teachings of Islam Muslims believe in one God Muslims believe this one God holds all
power and created the universe Believe God determines right and wrong People are expected to obey God’s law
if they want to be blessed in afterlife Mohammad is seen as the last prophet
(after Abraham, Moses, etc.); he is not seen as divine.
The Quran Messages that Muhammad said he
received from Allah are written down in the Quran-the Muslim holy book
Contains moral teachings that instruct Muslims how to live Must be honest, treat others fairly Honor parents, show kindness to neighbors Give generously to poor Murder, lying, stealing prohibited Should not eat pork, drink liquor, or gamble Also contains rules for family life, business
practices, and property rights
Five Pillars of Islam Muslims must fulfill the Five Pillars of
Islam-the main acts of worship required of all Muslims Belief-Muslims must declare that there is
no god but Allah and that Mohammad is his prophet
Prayer-Muslims must pray five times a day facing toward Makkah
Charity-Muslims must give to the poor Fasting-Muslims must not eat from dawn
to dusk during the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage-Muslims must visit Makkah
once in their life
The Night Journey According to Islamic tradition, Mohammad took
a journey sometime in the year 621 AD in one single night.
Mohammad is said to have taken a trip on a magical (flying) animal that took him from Mecca to the temple at Jerusalem (some 766 miles).
Once he worshipped at the temple, his faithful steed took him to heaven, where he meets other prophets and received instruction from God.
The Night Journey According to Islamic tradition, God tells
Mohammad to pray 50 times a day. As Mohammad leaves, he talks to Moses who
tells him to go back and ask for a reduction which is granted (-10).
This happens several times until the number of daily prayers is reduced to 5.
This is where the Muslim tradition of praying 5 times a day comes from
Mohammad also receives the instruction that Muslims are to wash before praying.
Veteran’s Day Why is Veteran’s Day celebrated on
November 11? What is the difference between
Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day?
Veteran’s Day Set aside to honor all veterans- all those
who have ever served in our nation’s Armed Forces
Originally was called Armistice Day Armistice signed between Germany and
the Allied Powers to end World War I Went into effect on the 11th hour of the
11th day of the 11th month of 1918
Questions When was the Armistice signed? When did it go into effect? What was the attitude of Allied
commanders towards the Germans? Who was the last American casualty of
World War 1? When did he die? How many lives were lost on the last day? Why?
Essential Questions What ways did Muslims use to spread
their religion? Which way was the most successful? Were Muslims united after the death of
Suppose… …that a member of your family built a
powerful business empire. Upon their death, a sharp division occurred among members of the family over who should be the rightful successor and control this business empire.
What do you think would happen to the empire? To the family?
Division of Islam After Mohammad’s death, Muslims had a
major disagreement over who should be caliph. Eventually this lead to the division of Islam-which continues to this day. Shiite-believed that Ali, Mohammad’s son-
in-law, should succeed him and that all future caliphs should be Ali’s descendants. They rejected the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus
Sunni-accepted the Umayyad caliphs as rightful rulers of Islam. Sunni more numerous than Shiite
Over time the Sunni and Shiite developed different religious practices and customs
Further Struggles Within Islam
The Abbasids Dynasty that ruled the Muslim world after
the Umayyads, from 750-1258 Built new capital at Baghdad (Iraq) Brought Persian influence into the empire
The Seljuk Turks Nomads from central Asia, first hired as
soldiers by the Abbasids who then took power for themselves.
Were content to let the Abbasid caliph remain as religious leader
Became sultan-the holder of government and military power
Later Muslim Empires-Read &Respond Read Pages 384-386 Create a T-chart or Venn diagram contrasting the
Ottoman Empire and the Mogul Empire Must have a minimum of 5 facts for each; the
more, the better What are the main features of each (life,
government)? Are there things in common? What are the main differences?
Write a 1 page (3-5 paragraphs) response: What would a visitor to the Ottoman Empire
observe? To the Mogul Empire? Are all people treated equally? Are there any injustices (wrongs) being committed
against any group of people? What are they? What is the purpose? Why is this accepted?
Due at beginning of class tomorrow (25 points)
Word Bank EgyptSaudi Arabia Israel Lebanon Syria Jordan Cyprus Turkey Iraq Armenia Azerbaijan Iran Yemen Oman Kuwait Qatar Turkmenistan Pakistan Afghanistan Uzbekistan United Arab Emirates (UAE) Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan
Focus Question What impact did Islam have on
Hinduism? What are some examples of the impact
Islam had on Hinduism?
Islam vs. Hinduism As we have already discussed, Islam spread
rapidly because of conquests. As you have learned, this led to the
establishment of Muslim Empires. As you have also learned, Muslims used a
variety of methods to persuade non-Muslims to convert in the areas they conquered.
Some of these methods included: higher taxes, marrying of non-Muslim princesses (& other young ladies) to Muslim men and princes, forcing young Christian men to convert to Islam and become soldiers, etc.
Islam vs. Hinduism When the Mogul Empire conquered India,
it came into contact with Hinduism. At first, the same tactics were used Akbar the Great, whom you have learned
about, removed a lot of the discriminatory practices against non-Muslims
Akbar believed and treated all religions as equals.
His views were not widely accepted, and the Mogul Empire returned to its prior treatment of non-Muslims
Islam’s Impact on Hinduism Akbar’s influence, however, is still felt
within Hinduism today. 2 examples:
The Taj Majal The division of India into India and
Pakistan India is Hindu, Pakistan is Muslim
Focus Questions: How was early Muslim society
organized? What are the main reasons for this type
of societal organization? How is this societal organization
represented in the modern world?
Early Muslim Society Pyramid structure based on wealth and
power Government leaders, landowners, and
traders- most wealth and power Government and religious leaders could be
the same, but could also be separate. Artisans, farmers, and workers- common
people with little access to wealth or power Slaves. Muslims could not be enslaved, so
non-Muslims were brought from other areas, often as prisoners of war.
Early Muslim Society Important Things To Know
Generally, the Quran teaches equality-all Muslims are treated the same.
Distinctions are made for the following: Non-Muslims- are not considered equal with
Muslims. There are different passages within the Quran which state seemingly contradictory ways in which non-Muslims were to be treated, from acceptance to violence
Women-are seen as equal in some ways, non-equal in others. Basically, men are seen as stronger, women as weaker.
Early Muslim Society Men
Ran government, were in charge of business and society
Women Helped run Muslim families, could inherit
wealth and own property. Many places also had laws requiring
women to cover their faces and wear long robes in public-hijab.
Focus Questions How does the use of Sharia law help to
create order in Islamic nations? Think back to our study of China; how
did both ancient Chinese society and Islamic society use religion to help create order in society?
Sharia Law What is Sharia Law? What are some examples of Sharia Law? Who uses Sharia Law? Who doesn’t? What is the reasoning for either using or
not using Sharia law?
Sharia Law Sharia Law is the moral code and
religious law of Islam. Sharia Law deals with practically all
matters- crime, politics, economics, personal hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting.
Often considered the infallible word of God, although the interpretation is not.
Where strictly implemented, Sharia is essentially religious law, with court officials often being high officials from the local mosque
Examples of Sharia Law Five Pillars of Islam- no pork, prayer,
fasting Non-Muslims -not equal to Muslims, may
not display pork, display/recite scriptures, openly celebrate their religious holidays, attempt to convert Muslims
Leaving the Muslim faith is the crime of apostasy and is punishable by death
Blasphemy-speaking against the Muslim faith- is also punishable by death
Requires the wearing of hijab by women Thieves can be punished by flogging
(public beating) and even amputation of limbs
Countries Implementing Sharia Law Historically, all Muslim countries used
Sharia law Today, most Muslim countries apply
only a few aspects of Sharia Law-generally in the area of family law.
A few countries employ the entire code. Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Iran,
Afghanistan, and Pakistan Some nations have chosen to no longer
employ Sharia at all Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,
Reasons for Using Sharia Law Cultural and historical connection with
Islamic history Helps to create order in society
Hierarchy of order, stability and control Used as a hedge against the changing
nature of the modern world
Reasons for Not Using Sharia Law Pressure from western nations Observation that the Sharia code is
unfair in many ways Realization that Sharia often does not
provide stability and security-the opposite is often true
Desire to be like and accepted by western nations
African Geography When done with the Sharia Law Activity: Read pp. 445-446 Complete the “Understanding Charts”
Activity on pg. 446 Keep until tomorrow
Examples of Sharia Law Thieves can be punished by flogging
(public beating) and even amputation of limbs
Consumption of alcoholic beverages are expressly forbidden
Some interpretations of Sharia law prescribe jihad (holy war) against all non-Muslims. Killing non-Muslims in a jihad is not a crime.
Sharia also dictates marriage and divorce laws- a woman in violation can face death by stoning