Normal discomforts and danger
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Normal Discomfort and Complications in Pregnancy
Transcript of Normal discomforts and danger
- Normal Discomforts and Danger Signs of Pregnancy
- Nausea and Vomiting Nausea is refer as a morning sickness. Nausea and vomiting may be due to physiological changes during pregnancy or to emotional factors.
- Heartburn This is a painful burning in the chest, caused by indigestion.
- Constipation This is the difficulty in emptying the bowels due to the pressure of the growing fetus.
- Flatulence This is too much gas in the stomach or bowels.
- Shortness of breath This is due to the rising upward movement of enlarging fetus.
- Backache This is the dull pain in the back.
- Varicose vein or varicosity This happens when there is interference with the return flow of blood in the feet and legs.
- Swelling of the Feet This is due to seepage of fluid through the walls of the distended veins of the legs but disappears following night rest.
- Leg Cramp It is caused by tension and circulatory impairment resulting from pressure of the gravid uterus on the pelvic veins over of stretching muscles or lack of calcium in the diet.
- Complications of Pregnancy
- 0 Complications of pregnancy are the symptoms and problems that is associated with pregnancy. 0 They are both routine problems and serious. 0 Serious problems can cause both maternal death and fetal death if untreated.
- 1. TOXEMIA This is caused by poison that accumulates in the blood. It causes high blood pressure , headache, blurred vision and vomiting.
- 2. German Measles This is caused by a virus which produces a mild disease characterized by rashes.
- 3. Hemorrhage or Bleeding
- a. Placenta Previa placenta is located near the internal opening of the cervix instead of the upper portion of the anterior or posterior of the uterus. This is the most common bleeding disorder of the third semester.
- Types of Placenta Previa
- Complete or Total Placenta Previa The placenta completely covers the internal os (opening of the cervix into the body of the uterus) when the cervix is fully dilated.
- Partial Placenta Previa the placenta partially covers the internal os (opening of the cervix in the body of uterus)
- .Marginal Placenta Previa the edge of the placenta is lying at the margin of the internal os (opening of the cervix in the body of uterus)
- Low Lying Placenta Previa the placenta implants near the internal os. Its edges can be felt by examining finger on the internal examination. (IE)
- Causes of Placenta Previa 1. Multiparity 2. Multiple pregnancy 3. Advance of Maternal Age-over 35 years old 4. Smoking 5. Previous Caesarian section and abortion 6. Uterine incisions
- b. Abruptio Placentae This is the separation of the placenta from the uterus before the babys birth. It is also called placental abruption and accidental hemorrhage.
- Causes of Abruptio Placentae 1. Uterine anomalies 2. Multiparity 3. Preeclampsia 4. Previous Caesarian delivery 5. Renal or Vascular disease 6. Trauma to the Abdomen 7. Previous Third Trimester Bleeding 8. Abnormally Large Placenta 9. Short Umbilical Cord
- Types of Abruptio Placentae Covert or Central abruptio placentae separation begins at the centerof placenta attachment resulting in blood being trapped behind the placenta, bleeding then is internal and not obvious. Overt or Marginal abruptio placentae- separation begins at the edges of placenta allowing blood to escape from the uterus cavity. Bleeding is external.
- Classification is based on extent of separation and location of separation (like marginal vs. central)
- c. Abortion pregnancies that terminate before the age of viability.
- d. Ectopic Pregnancy
- d. Ectopic Pregnancy This is pregnancy which takes place outside the uterus. It is caused by conditions that hinder or prevent the fertilized ovum from passing into the uterine cavity This is the second leading cause of bleeding in early pregnancy.
- Types of Ectopic Pregnancy 1. Tubal 6. Tubo-uterine 2. Ovarian 7. Tubo-abdominal 3. Cervical 8. Tubo-ovarian 4. Abdominal 9. Heterotypic 5. Broad ligaments pregnancy
- e. Pelvic abnormality This means that pelvic bones of the mother are too small in relation to the head of the unborn child so that the passage of the child proves to be difficult.
- f. Abortion 1. Expulsion of the fetus before it is viable 2. May be spontaneous or induced 3. The most common bleeding disorder of early pregnancy 4. Occurs in 15 to 20% of recognized pregnancy.
- 4. Hyperemesis Gravidarum A. severe , persistent vomiting during pregnancy Excessive nausea and vomiting which leads to electrolyte metabolic, and nutritional imbalances in the imbalances in the absence of other medical problems.
- 5. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy developing after 20 weeks gestation and characterized by edema, hypertension , and proteinuria
- 6. Gestational Diabetes Diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy. It is a disorder of late pregnancy caused by increased pancreatic stimulation associated with pregnancy.
- 7.Anemia ( Iron Deficiency) It is most common during pregnancy affecting 15 to 50% Also called physiologic anemia Has a hemoglobin value of less than 11 mg/dL or hematocrit value less than 33% durng the 2nd and 3rd trimester.
- 8. Hydatidiform Mole A benign disorder characterized by degeneration of the chorion and death of the embryo The chorionic villi rapidly proliferate and become grape-like vesicles that produce large amount of HCG.
- 9. Incompetent Cervix Characterized by painless dilation of the cervical os without contraction of the uterus. Commonly occurs at about 20th week of pregnancy.
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