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  • Nonverbal CommunicationDefinitionComponentsPower and functions of nonverbalTypes of nonverbal comm.

  • DefinitionOral or nonoral messages expressed by other than linguistic means (Adler & Rodman, 2003, p. 150).

  • Nonverbal can bePerceived by sender or receiver, orIntended as a message by the sender, orInterpreted by the receiver as intended.(Trenholm & Jensen, 2000)

  • Characteristics of Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal Communication ExistsYou can interpret others feelingsNo formal training needed to do thisNonverbal Behavior Has Communicative ValueYou cannot not communicate (think about this)We arent always aware of what we are communicating nonverballyNot everyone can interpret nonverbal clues

  • Characteristics of Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal communication assists with:Identity managementthe Presenting SelfHow we want others to view usDefining relationshipsConveying emotions Difficult to convey ideas nonverbally

  • Components, cont.Nonverbal comm. is ambiguousDifficult to interpret accuratelySome emotions are easier to decode accurately than othersSADFISH & LSadnessAngerDisgustFearInterestSurpriseHappinessLove

  • Components, cont.Better senders of nonverbal messages are better receiversDecoding ability can be learnedExtroverts better than dogmaticsWomen better than menNo one has 100% accuracy

  • Components, cont.Considerations when decoding NVCContext (situation)History of relationship with senderOthers mood at the timeYour feelingsNV messages are CLUES not fact

    Nonverbal comm. is culture bound

  • Verbal vs. NonverbalNonverbal communication operates on multiple channelsNonverbal communication is continuous and never endingNonverbal communication can be unconscious

  • The Power of Nonverbal Codes (Trenholm & Jensen, 2000)Nonverbal codes are given more credence and are more trusted than verbal codes.Nonverbal codes are more emotionally powerful.Nonverbal codes express more universal meaning.Nonverbal codes are continuous and natural.Nonverbal codes occur in clusters.

  • Functions of NonverbalRepeatingEmblems: deliberate nonverbal behaviors that have precise meanings known to everyone within a culture group. Wave or NodSubstitutingEmblems can replace a verbal messageComplementingNonverbal behavior matches verbal message-Sincere apologyTone of voice and appropriate facial expressionIllustratorsScratching head when trying to think of something

  • Functions of NonverbalAccentingPointing your finger at someone when making a pointRegulatingTaking turns speaking has a pattern that we understand when it is our turn to talk, e.g. pauses, tone of voice ContradictingMixed messagesNonverbal message is believed more than verbal messageDeceivingNot all deception is self-serving or malicious Face savingHigh self-monitors are usually better at deceptionPeople whose jobs require them to act differently than they feel are better at it: actors, lawyers, diplomats, salespeople

  • Types of Nonverbal Comm.PostureKinesics: the study of body movements, gesture and posture.Mirroring posture makes good impressionPosture reveals ones vulnerability to violenceGesturesFundamental behavior that even people blind from birth use gesturesManipulators: Movements in which one part of the body touches another body partUsing manipulators is often a sign of discomfort but not alwaysAlso used when one is relaxed and lets guard down

  • Types of Nonverbal, cont.FaceVery complicated to discern facial expressionsHigh number of facial expressionsFacial expressions change quicklyAffect blends: showing two emotions simultaneouslyFearful and surprisedDisgusted and angryEyesEye ContactThe Window to the SoulCultural differences

  • Types of Nonverbal, cont.VoiceParalanguage: nonverbal vocal messages that reinforce or contradict our wordsToneSpeedPitchVolumePauses: Number and lengthDisfluencies (stammering, fillers Like)Sarcasm

  • Types of Nonverbal, cont.Toucha.k.a. HapticsBabies died from lack of touching Disease called Marasmus means wasting awayTouch increases a childs mental functioning and physical health

  • Types of Nonverbal, cont.Physical AttractivenessPeople prefer others who they find attractiveBeauty is in the eye of the beholderThree year olds already have opinionsWhat can we do to be perceived as more attractive?PostureGesturesFacial expressionsPhysical fitnessChoice of clothing

  • Types of Nonverbal, cont.ClothingConveys economic status, education level, social status moral standards, athletic ability and/or interests, belief system, level of sophisticationWe make assumptions about people based on clothing choicesFlying on airplanes and courtesy of airline personnelInterviewsDates

  • DistanceProxemics: the study of the way people and animals use spaceIntimate distance: Skin to 18 inchesPersonal distance: 18 inches to four feetSocial distance: 4 feet to 12 feetPublic distance: 12 feet to 25 feet

  • Types of nonverbal, cont.TimeChronemicsCultural rulesPolychronicMonochronicGeographic or Situational rules

  • Types of nonverbal, cont.TerritorialityFixed Space (room, house, neighborhood, country)Not all territory is permanent library, computer labPower and status relationshipsKnocking before enteringMore and/or better space is expected for higher status personnel

  • Types of nonverbal, cont.EnvironmentalReflects InteractionResearch: Photos of upper-middle-class homesCommunicated accurate information about the homeowners: intellectualism, politeness, maturity, optimism, tenseness, willingness to risk, family orientations, and reservednessHome exteriors: Artistic interests, graciousness, privacy and quietness

  • Types of nonverbal, cont.EnvironmentalShapes InteractionResearch: Workers feel better and are more productive in attractive environmentBuilding design shapes communication Cubicles, Open Space, OfficesUse of space tells much about a personWant privacyOpen to others