Nitrogen Pollution and The Future of Long Island By Prof. Christopher Gobler
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How does excessive nitrogen loading effect the health and resiliency of Long Islands coastal ecosystems?
Christopher J. Gobler
Nitrogen is the critical limiting factor to primary producers in Long Island coastal marine waters Dr. John Ryther, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute,Science Magazine, 1971
Population, Suffolk County, NY, USAPopulation
New York CityLong Island>25,000,000 lbs of nitrogen per year from human waste
Water table / aquiferNitrogenIn Suffolk County:70% of homes have septic tanks or cesspools.~70% of N loads come from septic tanks and cesspools.
Loading of wastewater nitrogen to coastal waters
Changes in groundwater nitrogen levels in Suffolk County40% increase200% increaseSuffolk County Comprehensive Water Resources management plan, 2010
N loads to Great South Bay from watershed~70% of N entering Moriches and Shinnecock Bay is from wastewater (Gobler et al, in progress for NYSDOS).Kinney and Valiela, 2011Septic tanks, cesspoolsAtmosphereFertilizer
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206Groundwater nitrogen concentrations, Eastern BaysTotal N mg L-1Moriches BayShinnecock BayQuantuck Bay
Groundwater N and buildingsTotal N mg L-1Moriches BayShinnecock BayQuantuck Bay
Groundwater N and agricultureTotal N mg L-1
Pine BarrensMoriches BayShinnecock BayQuantuck Bay
South shore bay nitrogen loads compared to other water bodies
NYSDEC assessment of Long Island coastal waters
ImpairedMinor impactsNo known impacts
What impairments are brought about by excessive nitrogen loading?Loss of critical habitats: Eelgrass, salt marshesLow dissolved oxygen levels, hypoxiaAcidification, low pHMacroalgal blooms: Sea lettuce, UlvaToxic algal blooms: Red, rust, brown tidesLoss or depletion of shellfisheries and finfisheries
The vital role of salt marshes in coastal ecosystems and communities
Salt marsh ecosystems
Salt marshes protect coastlinesChris Bason, Delaware Center for the Inland Bays
and they proivde some physical protection from storms.
This is some photographic evidence of the wave-dampening services of coastal wetlands. It is a photograph taken during a Noreaster off of the coast of Delaware in May 2008.
You can see where the white caps stop abruptly thats the edge of the marsh.
By dampening wave energy, lowering water velocities and reducing erosion, wetlands protect coastlines both during storms and during the times in between.
Salt marshes protect coastlines
Vegetated wetlands protect developed shorelines from energy every day - not just during big storm events.
This is a photo of the south shore of Long Island that shows the heavily developed coastlines that are protected everyday by this bay of marsh islands. 16
Healthy marshNitrogen loaded marshCoastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss, Deegan et al 2012, NatureDense, strong rootsNutrient weakened, roots
Our salt marsh monitoring work to assess whether marshes are keeping pace with sea level rise was expanded to include a collaboration with EPA which looked at the root mass of salt marsh
And what is being found is that in some areas, nitrogen pollution is getting in the way of salt marshes keeping pace with sea level rise
EPA research found excessive nitrogen loads decrease below ground roots, accelerate below ground decomposition, increase edge erosion and conversion to bare mud
What you see in the field is a slumping away of marsh edges from too much nitrogen, which is consistent with findings recently reported in the scientific journal Nature
Loss of wetlands on Long Island, since 1974NYSDEC survey dataNassau County, North ShoreSuffolk County, North ShoreEast endSuffolk CountySouth ShoreNassau CountySouth Shore
Salt marsh loss, Jamaica Bay
Flooding during Hurricane Sandy
Flooding in Mastic Shirley during Hurricane SandySalt marshSalt marshEach point is a home.
Flooding in Mastic Shirley, sea level rise
Salt marshEach point is a home.Flooding scenarios will worsen significantly with weakened or destroyed salt marshes.Salt marsh
Eelgrass: Critical benthic habitat
NYS seagrass, 1930 - 2030NYSDEC Seagrass Taskforce Final Report, 2010; Suffolk County assessment, 201490% lossExtinction in NY
Increasing Nitrogen Loading
Take a deep breath
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
PhytoplanktonCH2O + O2 CO2 + H2O
Nitrogen loading leads to low oxygen and high CO2
Dissolved oxygen (mg L)
pCO2 (atm)Long Island Sound, August 2013
The Forge River, NY, USA
Effects of high CO2 and low O2 on fish survival
Larval Inland SilversidesHigh CO2Low O2High CO2, low O2
Samples for eelgrass genetic analyses
Harmful algal blooms across Long Island
PSP, DSPPSP, DSPBrown tideCochlodiniumCochlodiniumCochlodiniumPSP
Brown tideCochlodiniumPSP, red tideDSP, red tide
Toxic blue green algae
Toxic blue greensToxic blue greens
Samples for eelgrass genetic analyses
AureococcusBrown tideCochlodiniumRust tideAlexandriumRed tide PSPDinophysisRed tide DSP
Enhanced nutrient loading more intense &/or toxic HABsGobler et al 2012Gobler et al 2011;Gobler and Sunda 2012Hattenrath et al 2010Hattenrath-Lehmann 2014MicrocystisBlue green algaeHarke and Gobler, 2013
Alexandrium red tides and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
Presence of PSP-producing Alexandrium in NY: 2007-2013= cells not detected
= < 100 cells L-1= > 1,000 cells L-1
= 100 - 1,000 cells L-1
**circles represent the highest observed densities at each site** Alexandrium found at 47 of 63 sites samples (75%)
Here the dots represent the highest concentrations of Alexandrium found at each site during the four year study. There a couple of things I want to highlight on this slide: 1) We found Alexandrium was present at 30 sites across LI and CT. 2) Alexandrium was found at low concentrations in CT even in areas like Mumford Cove which has had PSP closures in the past. 3) There are areas on the Eastern end of LI that have low to moderate levels of Alexandrium and it is undetermined were these cells densities are from (local population vs. possible advection from GoM bloom). And 4) Areas like Mattituck and Northport have the highest bloom concentrations
Sewage-derived nitrogen loading promotes intense and toxic Alexandrium blooms.
Nitrogen impacts on shellfishLandings of clams and scallops have declined 99% since 1980.
Linkages to nitrogen driven HABs, habitat loss, and water quality degradation.
Hard clam landings (bushels) in Great South Bay
Conclusion: Excessive nitrogen loading leads toLoss of critical habitats: Salt marshes, eelgrassLow dissolved oxygen levels, hypoxiaAcidification, low pHMacroalgal blooms: Sea lettuce, UlvaToxic algal blooms: Red, rust, brown tidesLoss or depletion of shellfisheries and finfisheries