NGS-HSM_700bl_Module 4_01062009

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    www.ngs.edu | 800.838.2580

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    HSM 700bl Principles and

    Applications in HomelandSecurity & Defense

    Module 4:

    This material is protected by United States copyright laws. You must treat this publication like any other proprietarymaterial. No part of this material may be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or reduced to any electronicmedium by individuals or organizations outside of the National Graduate School without prior written consent fromthe National Graduate School. For information, please call 800.838.2580 or visit www.ngs.edu.

    HS&D Performance Measures & Targets & QSM Applications (Benchmarking, HS&D Six

    Sigma Analysis, HS&D Metric Development), HS&D Intra-agency Cooperation,

    Coordination, Communication & Measuring Success

    http://www.ngs.edu/http://www.ngs.edu/
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    Process of the Benchmarking Class

    Understand process of benchmarking:

    Secondary vs. Primary; Internal vs. External; Strategic, and Operational

    Fast Cycle Benchmarking

    Organize for benchmarking, plan for secondary benchmarking;

    using library and electronic resources and APA Style; Benchmarking

    Code of Conduct

    Complete Secondary Benchmarking,

    Review Integron case study; design

    data collection instrument

    Reach out; Apply Creative Benchmarking;

    Continued planning for benchmarking

    Present plan for Primary

    Benchmarking

    Module

    1

    Module

    2

    Module

    3

    Module

    4

    Module5

    andbeyond

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    Benchmarks

    Benchmark: A standard of excellence or achievement against which

    other products or services can be measured andcompared.

    Can be used to spur exploration into reasons fordifferences, to motivate planning and implementation ofchanges, and to seek continuous improvement.

    Typically, there is not one benchmark, but a set ofbenchmarks or measurements for a product or service.Those metrics can be used to compare a best process,product, or service to your own.

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    Benchmarking

    Benchmarking: A method for identifying, analyzing, and using

    information and experience of other organizations inorder to improve your own business processes,products, or services.

    Note that benchmarking can lead to benchmarks, but thelatter

    metrics can also result from routine reporting in

    an industry, such as cost per unit or revenue perdollar spent.

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    Benchmarking

    Basic Benchmarking Definitions

    Primary Benchmarking-- Comparison of one ormore of an organizations processes directly with

    another organization. Secondary Benchmarking-- Information about

    a best practice obtained through a review ofliterature or using a third party as a resource.

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    Benchmarking

    Sources of Benchmarking Data Internal -- Comparisons of processes, products, or

    services with others within the same organization.

    Competitive -- Products, services and processes ofcompetitors compared with the organizations operations

    data. Functional -- Focus on practices of a specific type

    (marketing/manufacturing) not necessarily specific to thecompany/organizations industry. Cross-industrycomparisons.

    Generic -- Comparison of processes with those of a world-class company not part of the same industry, but withsimilar processes.

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    Types of Benchmarking

    Operational Comparison of a work process orfunctional area to determine enablers or bestpractices

    Strategic Strategies used by organizations(strategic plan). An example would be theinnovative ideas from any of the seven Baldrigecategories, or a companys continuousimprovement targets.

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    Strategic

    planning

    Continuousprocess

    improvement

    efforts

    Operations

    performancereview

    Observations

    of other

    companies

    spur ideas

    1.0 Launch

    Investigations into

    Possibilities

    2.0 Organize for

    Benchmarking

    4.0 Assimilate the

    Information

    5.0 Act on the

    Information

    Define the

    opportunity or

    problem

    Select the projectteam

    Set expectations

    Target the process

    or the function

    Identify customers

    needs

    Analyze process flow

    and metrics

    Enlist sponsors and

    mgmt support

    Identify process

    inputs and outputs

    Develop hypotheses

    to investigate bybenchmarking

    Conduct secondary

    benchmarking

    3.0 Reach Out

    Collect baseline

    data

    Determineperformance

    measures of interest

    Develop plan for

    collecting primarydata

    Select organization

    to benchmark

    Analyze the

    secondary data

    Analyze the primary

    data

    Compare

    performance levels,

    present and future

    Target new

    performance levels

    and compare to

    earlier objectives

    Analyze processesand practices of

    partner organization

    Develop

    recommendations

    for change

    Seek agreement

    among all involved

    in the changes

    Plan the

    implementation

    Implement

    Monitor and

    adjust as needed

    Drivers

    Benchmarking

    Team CharterDeliverables

    Full benchmarking plan Comparative

    analysis

    Recommended

    improvement

    Implementation

    NGS Model for Benchmarking

    Initiation teamoperates here

    Benchmarking project team operates here

    Conduct primary

    benchmarking

    Develop survey

    or interview guide

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    Force Field Analysis

    Force Field Analysis is a method for listing, discussing,

    and evaluating the various forces for and against aproposed change. When a change is planned, Force Field Analysis helps

    you look at the big picture by analyzing all of the forces

    impacting the change and weighing the pros and cons. By knowing the pros and cons, you can develop

    strategies to reduce the impact of the opposing forces

    and strengthen the supporting forces.

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    Force Field Analysis Forces that help you achieve the change are called

    "driving forces." Forces that work against the change are called

    "restraining forces." Force Field Analysis can be used to develop an action

    plan to implement a change. Specifically it can . . .

    1.Determine if a proposed change can get neededsupport

    2.Identify obstacles to successful solutions

    3.Suggest actions to reduce the strength of the

    obstacles

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    Rationale for Using Force Field Analysis

    Indentifies forces/factors that:1. support change

    2. work against change

    So that:

    1. Positives can be reinforced

    2. Negatives can be eliminated or reduced

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    Reasons for Using Force Field Analysis

    Provides comparison of positives and negatives

    Illustrates all factors influencing change

    Provides method to identify priorities for/againstchange

    Stimulates discussion about the real problem andhow to solve it.

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    Steps in Using Force Field Analysis

    1. Write out the change issue

    2. Brainstorm the reasons why people/organizations/etc.will be for/against the change

    3. Prioritize:

    1. Issues that can be strengthened

    2. Issues that, if removed/mitigated, would create the greatestacceptance of the change.

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    What does it look like?

    + -Issue: _____________________

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    Measuring Progress

    Progress may be defined differently by terrorists. In a search for meaningful measurement criteria,

    measurements need to be clearly defined andlinked to goals and objectives.

    Existing methodologies for measuring progress incombating complex social phenomena such asdrug trafficking and crime provide solid examples

    for HS&D Metrics.

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    Framework for Measurement:Incidents

    Past measurements included Number of attacks. In attempting to measure incidents, some in the United

    States tend to define success in familiar ways: body

    counts and numbers.

    A common pitfall is overreliance on quantitative data at theexpense of its qualitative significance. In previous years Patterns of Global Terrorism reports,

    incidents were counted equally without regard to their

    broaderimpact.

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    Framework for Measurement:Incidents

    To the degree that terrorist constituencies are not fromwestern cultures, their mindsets may not necessarily place

    a