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NGfL CYMRU GCaD FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 2 NGfL CYMRU GCaD The floor coverings discussed in this presentation relate only to commercial buildings. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 3 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Floor coverings can be considered to be of either an applied, in-situ or timber finish. Applied finishes are derived from products such as:- - Quarry or ceramic tiles. - Linoleum. - Carpet, whether on a roll or in tile form. - Paint. In-situ finishes are formed during construction. Examples are concrete floors commonly found in industrial warehouses. Timber floors can be made from timber blocks, boards or sheet. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 4 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Quarry tiles are square in shape, and are manufactured from clay. They are impervious to water and spillage and are hard wearing. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 5 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Threshold strips are used to cover the interface between different floor coverings. The strip shown above is made from aluminium. The white coloured material between the tiles is known as grout. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 6 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Top image: quarry tiles being laid during the construction of a new building. After being laid, the tiles are protected from damage as shown in the bottom image. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 7 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Ceramic tiles are manufactured from limestone, and are fired twice during the manufacturing process. The first firing forms the tile, and the second forms the tiles surface to provide a finish. The next slide shows ceramic tiles being laid. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 8 NGfL CYMRU GCaD 1 3 2 1)Adhesive spread on concrete floor. 2)Tile positioned in adhesive. 3)Excess adhesive wiped off FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 9 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Linoleum can be applied in either tile or sheet form. Non-slip linoleum is suitable for areas such as shower rooms, service corridors, kitchens etc. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 10 NGfL CYMRU GCaD In wet areas, such as showers or commercial kitchens, an upstand turns up vertically against a wall. The upstand prevents water from getting underneath, or behind the linoleum. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 11 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Where large areas of linoleum are laid, joints between sheets are heat welded together to form one continuous piece of linoleum. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 12 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Skirting boards can be sealed to provide a finish at the interface of linoleum and walls. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 13 NGfL CYMRU GCaD To cover areas such as stairs, strips of linoleum are cut to shape as shown right. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 14 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Stair nosings (left) cover the edge of stair treads, and edge trims (right) cover the sides (known as the string). Stair nosings are of a different colour to that of the stair covering. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 15 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Right: powder coated stair nosings fitted to a staircase with quarry tiles. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 16 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Above: carpet tiles fitted in a modern office building FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 17 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Carpet tiles being laid on a raised floor. A water-based tackifier compound is laid on the raised floor 20 minutes before the carpet tiles are fitted. This does not adhere the tiles to the base, but will provide enough tack for the tiles stay in place. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 18 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Once new carpets are laid, they are sometimes covered for protection until the building is handed over to the owners. The above image shows recently-laid carpet tiles in a University building, a few weeks before handover. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 19 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Different coloured carpet tiles can be used to form walkways and access routes. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 20 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Lecture theatre being prepared for laying of carpet tiles. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 21 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Stair nosing being installed FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 22 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Carpet tiles laid around ventilation ducts FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 23 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Adhesive is used to fix carpet tiles. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 24 NGfL CYMRU GCaD The carpet tile is then cut to the required size. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 25 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Nosings are then fitted to the intersection of the step (going) and the riser. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 26 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Carpet tile fitting in a lecture theatre nearing completion. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 27 NGfL CYMRU GCaD IN-SITU FINISHES FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 28 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Composite steel and concrete floors are widely used. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 29 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Steel decking is fixed to a structural frame. Steel mesh is laid on the steel deck. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 30 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Fresh concrete is placed around the mesh. The concrete is compacted to form a continuous structure. Concrete compaction ensures that any air in the concrete is removed, and that the concrete attains full strength. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 31 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Once the concrete begins to harden (known as curing) a machine called a power float is used to smooth the surface of the concrete. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 32 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Concrete floor after power floating FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 33 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Additives can be introduced into concrete to provide increased hardness to the surface. This technique is frequently used in factories and warehouses. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 34 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Specialist paint can be used on concrete to mark walkways, safe areas around machinery and storage areas. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 35 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Floor screed can also be used as a floor covering: a mixture of water, sand and cement forms screed also known as semi- dry. The minimum thickness required is 50mm. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 36 NGfL CYMRU GCaD TIMBER FINISHES FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 37 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Areas such as mezzanine floors can be covered with medium density fibreboard. FLOOR COVERINGS Slide 38 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Other areas can be covered with timber floor boards, which are fitted to joists. FLOOR COVERINGS