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NEWSPAPERS VS NEW MEDIA HND MEDIA PRODUCTION HNCM 001 CONTEXTUAL STUDIES FOR CREATIVE MEDIA PRODUCTIONHNCM 001 CONTEXTUAL STUDIES FOR CREATIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION Week 5 Tutor: Anna Gabali Slide 2 Learning Objectives: 1 Understand the institutional context of creative media production and its influence on production 2 Understand creative media products in the context of their reception Slide 3 Remember You are required to critically analyse media: You must understand media in their social context: Historical context Relationships between media and audience Structure of the media Ideologies Culture narratives This involves: Defining the problem/research question Review of related literature Planning the research What methodology will you use? What data do you want to use/produce? How feasible is your research approach? Ethical considerations. Slide 4 Media Technologically Constructed Evolution of media Technology trough the years: Print (Industrialisation)- (Since 18th century daily News Papers) Newspapers readership The Times is the oldest News Paper on Record (1785), at the time news papers audience was the Elite, but the rise of the middle and the French revolution created a demand for more accessible news and information Telegraph (Communication) Telephone Radio Television And Now New Media (News Papers biggest competitor) Slide 5 British Press Introduction The growth of mass circulation news-papers in Britain was a direct result of the process of industrialisation during the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century, newspaper readership had been largely confined to the upper classes and wealthier sections of the middle class In the early years the newspaper industry was subject to a great deal of govern-mental control Slide 6 British Newspapers British Press is essentially cultural Newspaper readership is culturally ruled by Class Education Cultural background It is important to consider very carefully how an audience might react to, or engage with a text. Slide 7 Press also uses demographics A Top management, bankers, lawyers, doctors and other professionals B Middle management, teachers, many 'creatives' e.g. graphic designers etc C1 Office supervisors, junior managers, nurses, specialist clerical staff etc C2 Skilled workers, tradespersons (white collar) D Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers (blue collar) E Unemployed, students, pensioners, casual workers Audiences are also looked at in other categories:- age gender race Location Social class Slide 8 British Press landscape Quality papers -- Top end of the market - a high proportion of Oxbridge graduates Telegraph, Independent, Guardian, The Times, Financial Times, Sunday Telegraph, Observer Popular papers --Sun, Mirror, Express, Mail, Star, News of the World, Sunday Mirror, Sunday Express, Mail on Sunday, Sunday People, News on Sunday Slide 9 British Press landscape Freedom of Press: British newspapers are free from government control and censorship and can print what they like; But this year events have changed the landscape What are the events The Official Secret Act (legal Act): A legal act that stipulates that government information is kept secret, and any newspaper breaking this act would be fined, and prison sentence (for the writer) The Advertising Code. Newspapers must ensure all advertisements are legal, respect the principles of fair competition. Slide 10 The British press landscape Not legally obliged to retain standards of decency, taste, accuracy and balance. Page 3 Paparazzi Slide 11 Ownership of the British Press Commercial media ownership has increasingly becoming merged. News International ( Rupert Murdoch), also owns other media productions companies (Sky) giving him global control and ownerships Slide 12 Product flow in the newspaper and magazine supply chains Newspaper publishers typically print their newspapers by using a small number of print centres spread throughout the UK. Some of the print centres are owned directly by publishers and others provide printing services to the publisher on an agency basis. Source: /reports/comp_policy/oft1028.p df /reports/comp_policy/oft1028.p df Slide 13 News Papers Market (UK) News International (Rupert Murdoch) Sun, Times, Sunday Times, News of the World 35% Trinity Mirror plc Mirror, Sunday Mirror, People, Daily Record 25% Trinity Mirror plc Mirror, Sunday Mirror, People, Daily Record 25% Viscount RothermerDaily Mail and General Trust Mail, Mail on Sunday 19% Northern & Shell (Richard Desmond) Express, Express on Sunday, Star 14% Telegraph Group (Barclay brothers) Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph, The Business 7% Telegraph Group (Barclay brothers) Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph, The Business 7% Guardian Media Group (Scott Trust) Guardian Guardian, Observer 3% Pearson plc Financial Times 1% Slide 14 Free Press because of new media Evening Standard Metro Slide 15 Journalists Code of Ethics Self-restraint is better than Censorship Seek truth and report it Be honest, fair and courageous Minimize Harm Treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings and deserving of respect Act independently Be fee of any obligation to interest groups other than the publics right to know Be accountable Be Accountable to readers, listeners, viewers and each other (See chapter 14, page 438, Media Now, Straubhaar & LaRose) Slide 16 Criticism of the Press Profit only? Newspapers are profitable businesses Quality only? Public service is the primary objective Both quality and profit? Make a profit as well as serve the people How does this apply to other media? Broadcast Television the exception? Why? Slide 17 Criticism of the press Manipulation Suppression by omission Attack and destroy (the target) Labeling as discrimination Face-value transmission False balancing Framing Image manipulation Publish first Slide 18 Criticism of the press Fear of lawsuits prevents tackling controversial subjects Tendency to have patriotic bias Focus on crime, particularly murder Concerned with ratings and profit Less respectful of human rights, particularly privacy Less concern with jeopardizing legal process Slide 19 Criticism of the press Stereotypes Generalizations about ethnic group, race class or gender without much thought Knowledge of motivation critical to interpretation: careless or insulting or simple misrepresentation? Need for accurate and detailed description: character development to correct Question: are the portrayals of persons realistic? Believable? Authentic? Danger is superficial belief or acceptance: development of negative attitudes and behaviors Slide 20 What to look with arguments with stereotyping What ethnic culture/race/gender is being portrayed? Is this culture unique? Is their treatment . Stereotypical? Exploitative? Demeaning? Complimentary? Affirming? Accurate? Can you identify with it from your viewpoint? Does it seem natural and authentic? Who has the power? Are there victims? Is there justice or equity in treatment? Perpetrators? Is there conflict? How is it resolved? Slide 21 The Press affects us in different ways Strongly (over estimation) Gradually (subconsciously) Indirectly (over time) Selectively, (over time) It depends on what the source is. It depends on the audiences background. It depends on the consumers beliefs & values Not at all? (under estimation) Slide 22 Using theories with the Press Convergence Theory: communication media have varying capacities for resolving ambiguity, negotiating varying interpretations, and facilitating understanding. This theory is good to demonstrate how the new media is offering more that on sided version of the press. Global, Interactive, cheap, everyone is involved Interaction and feedback. The only issue is digital divide Medium Medium B Medium Medium C Movement over time enables communication and sharing Mutual understanding and cooperation Sharing and cooperation possible though digitization Slide 23 Using Theory with the press Slide 24 Using theory with Press ECONOMIC DETERMINISM Shiller & BagdikianProfit is the motivation throughout the system Factory Warehouse r Wholesaler Retailer Consumer Media Mass production 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ad Agency Slide 25 Using Theory with the Press USES AND GRATIFICATION: Beliefs and values lead to consumption of particular media which reinforce beliefs and values over time Beliefs and Values Consumption media Media Media Media Reinforcement over time Particular programs Gratification Slide 26 Using theory with the press Agenda setting theory Bernard Cohen (1963) stated: The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about. Slide 27 Using theory with the press Core: In medium theory, a medium is not simply a newspaper, the Internet, a digital camera and so forth. Rather, it is the symbolic environment of any communicative act. Media, apart from whatever content is transmitted, impact individuals and society. McLuhans thesis is that people adapt to their environment through a certain balance or ratio of the senses, and the primary medium of the age brings out a particular sense ratio, thereby affecting perception. Statement: Some of the metaphors used by McLuhan are: The medium is the message! The medium is the massage. We live in a mess-age. The content of a new medium is an old medium. Slide 28 Using Theory with the Press In fundamentalist Marxism, ideology is 'false consciousness', which results from the emulation of the dominant ideology by those whose interests it does not reflect. From this perspective the mass media disseminate the dominant ideology: the values of the class which owns and controls the media. According to adherents of Marxist political economy the mass media conceal the economic basis of class struggle; 'ideology becomes the route through which struggle is obliterated rather than the site of struggle' (Curran et al. 1982: 26). Slide 29 What is New Media? New media represents a convergence of two separate historical trajectories: compu0ng and media technologies. (Lev Manovich;2001 ) Slide 30 Before new media The media audience relationship was: One way Slide 31 Now with New Media The Media There is a change: Convergence theory Good because we make the news and have a say in what is happening in the world. Affiliations Bad because a Digital Divide (some countries are not included). For example Turkey and China have strict rules. Also we also loose our right to privacy, and have issues with copyright infringements. Slide 32 So, in digital times Consumers are also producers The means of media production is: Global Social Cheap Ubiquitous Slide 33 Starter Session: Something to think about Facebook was the catalyst in the 11/12 Egyptian revolution. In April 08 two young activists started a group called Day of Rage, which gained popularity amongst young Egyptians. The group was able organise protests around the country in an attempt to change their society. Lets discuss different issues: In your opinion, is social media a powerful tool? What is Digital divide in this case? What did the government do to shut down western involvements (social media). To what extent social media has power? And just for the sake of it; Did we social media and Web scholars beat the Media (News, Press) in spreading the news on the global scale? Was the media able to manipulate the news? Slide 34 Multitasking audience Slide 35 What are the implications for the old media? Digital journalism is quicker Digital journalism is cheaper Digital journalism can be more expansive Digital journalism is interactive Consumers may also be producers There is more choice Old media are losing not just sales but, crucially, advertising revenue Slide 36 Changing Mass Media Newspapers Meaner and leaner Profit driven On line Paperless? Electronically composed/edited More graphic Competitive Entertainment oriented Slide 37 Research Social Media is a communication technology that helps develop networks of friends (relationships become commodities) Research the different types of social networks and explain how they can be used in media: Professional social network (linkedin) Micro blogging (Twitter) Personal blogging (Facebook, Myspace) Blogging Geo tags (Blackberry) I am giving you a example : in 2010, Facebook helped generating hundred thousand votes (or more) in the 2010 American congressional elections. How? if I post about my vote, it is likely that my friends will vote too.