New and Converging Technologies New and Traditional Media Coming Together. Dr Marianne Hicks

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Transcript of New and Converging Technologies New and Traditional Media Coming Together. Dr Marianne Hicks

  • Slide 1
  • New and Converging Technologies New and Traditional Media Coming Together. Dr Marianne Hicks
  • Slide 2
  • Print Newspapers, Magazines, Books, etc. Audio - Radio Audio-visual Television, Cinema. One-way encoding-decoding model Educational Ideal Representative, Discursive or Advocacy? Fourth Estate
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  • Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters' Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more important than them all. It is not a figure of speech, or a witty saying; it is a literal fact,.... Printing, which comes necessarily out of Writing, I say often, is equivalent to Democracy: invent Writing, Democracy is inevitable...... Whoever can speak, speaking now to the whole nation, becomes a power, a branch of government, with inalienable weight in law-making, in all acts of authority. It matters not what rank he has, what revenues or garnitures: the requisite thing is that he have a tongue which others will listen to; this and nothing more is requisite. Thomas Carlyle The Hero as Man of Letters. Johnson, Rousseau, Burns [Lecture V, May 19, 1840], On Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History available in Project Gutenberg [] Accessed 25 February 2008.
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  • New Media = Digital Media Information and Communication Technology Internet Social Networking Software YouTube iTunes, MySpace LAN and gaming environments Web 2.0 Mobile Phones Satellite TV
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  • New Media = Convergence Participation (Participatory Culture) Production + Consumption = Prosumer Concentration & Dispersion
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  • The fragmentation and proliferation of media, and the consolidation of media ownership soon to be followed by a wholesale unbundling. The erosion of mass markets. The empowerment of consumers who now have an unrivaled ability to edit and avoid advertising... A consumer trend toward mass customization and personalization. Steven J. Heyer, President, Coca-Cola, quoted in Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2006, 68.
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  • History of the Internet 1965 the first networked computers two of them, and they constantly crashed. 1969 ARPANET - Advanced Research Projects Agency Network text based funded by the US Military. 1974 The term internet was first used. 1980s An increasing number of networked computers worldwide and first ISPs (Internet Service Providers) emerge for the commercialisation of the web. 1990s The internet emerges as a space for commercial activities.
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  • Convergence technological, industrial, cultural and social changes in the way media circulates within our culture. Some common ideas referenced by the term include the flow of content across multiple platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, the search for new structures of media financing and the migratory behavior of audiences who would go almost anywhere in search of the kind of entertainment experiences they want. Perhaps most broadly, media convergence refers to a situation in which multiple media systems coexist and where media content flows fluidly across them. Convergence is an ongoing process and not a fixed relationship. Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2006, 282.
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  • Convergence = one screen The current platforms: television, radio, newspapers, can all converge on screen with broadband on the net. And we're looking towards perhaps having one screen which can do everything. I know people have talked forever about convergence, about having screens all around your house and you can operate them, you'll call up your television and your radio, which by the way I already do in Britain on one screen, but next you'll also have the internet on that screen too. I think that's where we're heading; I think you'll get everything, virtually everything, through the net. Roy Greenslade on The Media Report, Radio National, 36747.htm
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  • Traditional media (newspaper, radio and television corporations) meet new media (online news sites, with multimedia words, images, sound bites and video)
  • Slide 11 syndication (RSS)">
  • Web 1.0 --> Web 2.0 DoubleClick --> Google AdSense Ofoto --> Flickr Akamai --> BitTorrent --> Napster Britannica Online --> Wikipedia personal websites --> blogging evite --> and Eventful domain name speculation --> search engine optimization page views --> cost per click screen scraping --> web services publishing --> participation content management systems --> wikis directories (taxonomy) --> tagging ("folksonomy") stickiness --> syndication (RSS)
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  • How new media is used to create change in society: Monitoring: Online identity (your boss and Facebook) Societal changes: Digital divide (distance between the haves and have nots) Access to information (full participation) Collective intelligence: Wikis Identity construction: Social Networking Software (Facebook & MySpace etc)
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  • ... technology is always, in the full sense, social. It is necessarily in complex and variable connection with other social relations and institutions, although a particular and isolated technological intervention can be see, and temporarily interpreted, as if it were autonomous. R. Williams, Contact: Human Communication and Its History. Thames and Hudson, 1981, 227.
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  • Uses of New Media in the West: Challenge to traditional news media corporations (citizen journalism & Blogosphere) Challenge to traditional entertainment corporations (BitTorrent, Napster & piracy) Reducing the tyranny of distance (Skype, Twitter) Access to information (Google & Wikipedia) Building online communities (Facebook & MMORPGs)
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  • Uses of New Media in Africa: Building online communities (Facebook, MMORPGs) Cell Phone Banking (Wizzit) Open Source Software (Linux Ubuntu) Cell Phone Text Messaging (Getting news out - Zimbabwe) Sharing information (Freedom Toaster, Creative Commons) Building offline communties (Township TV, Digital Doorway) Its less a question of catching up than one of using our context to shape our uses of the new media to which we have access. Its about adaptation.
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  • Fractals Not an add-on a paradigm shift
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  • Using New Media in the Classroom: New Media to access Traditional Media: Newspapers online (SAMedia; SAPA; U.S. national newspaper abstracts) Internet Radio (both online and traditional radio broadcasts; podcasts) Online TV (SABC News; video podcasts; other databases) How else?
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  • New Media to access New Media: Internet, Cell phones, alternative infrastructure (Digital doorway, Township TV) Outcomes: Lowering the threshold to civic engagement Creating Global Citizens Ethical and Responsible Participation Create the critical capacity to understand the way in which media shapes perceptions of the world
  • Slide 19
  • Core social skills for Media Education Play the capacity to experiment with your surroundings as a form of problem-solving Performance the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation Simulation the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real world processes Appropriation the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content Multitasking the ability to scan ones environment and shift focus as needed to salient details Distributed Cognition the ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand mental capacities
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  • Collective Intelligence the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal Judgment the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources Transmedia navigation the ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities Networking the ability to search for, synthesize and disseminate information Negotiation the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms. From Henry Jenkins, "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture, 56.
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  • Activities? Creating wikis Recognising each others knowledge Group Ownership and vandalism Using hyperlinks to connect ideas Collective intelligence Creating class and individual blogs Individual Ownership and plagiarism Interaction Clarity of expression Play as a means of learning (gaming) Communication, self-confidence, problem solving, logical thinking, lateral thinking etc. Media Literacy and critical understanding Being critical of professional looking sites Cell-phone access Adapting our material for their platform (libraries and coursework) How else?
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  • Using the ideas of New Media offline: Applying Web 2.0 Collective intelligence and the Wiki model. We all have some knowledge to contribute, we all share in the knowledge produced collectively. Participatory Culture We learn more if we are involved in the making and doing. Prosumers those who both produce and consume cultural artifacts. How else?
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  • Youth do their best work when engaged in activities that are personally meaningful to them Jenkins, "Confronti