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    AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA- US RELATIONS, 1999-2009

    BY

    Ogbodo Stephen.

    PG/MSC/08/ 50180

    A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL

    SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

    THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF SCIENCE DEGREE

    (MSC) IN POLITICAL SCIENCE (Political Economy)

    JUNE, 2012

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    TITLE PAGE

    AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA- US RELATIONS, 1999-2009

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    APPROVAL PAGE

    This Project report is original and has been approved by the Department of Political Science,

    University of Nigeria Nsukka for the award of Master of Science.

    _________________________ _____________________

    Dr. Aloysius – Michaels Okolie Date

    (Supervisor)

    Professor, Obasi Igwe _____________________

    (Heads of Department) Date

    Professor, E. O. Ezeani _______________________

    (Dean of Faculty) Date

    _______________________________

    External Examiner

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    DEDICATION

    This project report is dedicated to God Almighty.

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I am ever indebted to God Almighty for his goodness to my family and my well

    wishers. In the same light I am grateful to my supervisor Dr. Aloysius -Michaels Okolie, for

    his guidance and commitment to research.

    To all my lecturers most worthy of mention here are Professor Miriam Ikejiani- Clark,

    Professor J Onuoha, Dr. K Ifesinachi and Ezeibe Christian; you were outstanding and more

    dedicated than I thought. My special thanks goes to my brother for his moral support and

    encouragement. To all my siblings, I love you all.

    Finally, I appreciate all my colleagues who have contributed in one way or the other to

    make this programme a success.

    Ogbodo Stephen

    Department of Political Science

    University of Nigeria Nsukka.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Title Page………………………………………………………………………….ii

    Approval Page……………………………………………………………………...iii

    Dedication…………………………………………………………………….……iv

    Acknowledgement………..…………………………………………………………v

    Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………..vi

    List of Tables………………………………………………………… …………viii

    Abstract……………………………………………………………………………ix

    CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION - - - - 1

    1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 4 1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - -- 6 1.4 Significance of the study - - - - - - 7 1.5 Literature review - - - - - - - 7 1.6 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 15

    1.7 Hypotheses - -- - - - - - - 18

    1.8 Method of Data Collection/ Analysis - - - - - 19

    CHAPTER TWO: OVERVIEW OF NIGERIA- UNITED STATES ECONOMIC

    RELATION - - - - - - - - - 20

    2.1 First era (1960-1967): The Era of Emerging Economic Alliance -- 20 2.2 Second Era. (1967-1970): Era of Nigerian Civil War - - 21

    2.3 Third Era (1970-1983) Era of Oil Boom - - 22

    2.4 Fourth Era (1983-1993) Era of Structural - - - 24

    2.5 Fifth Era: (1993-1999) Era of Embargo on Nigeria oil - 25

    2.6 Sixth era: (1999-2006) The Contemporary Era - - 26

    CHAPTER THREE:OIL AS THE CENTRE- PIECE OF NIGERIA-UNITED

    STATES ECONOMIC RELATION - - - - - - -28

    3.1 Dependency in Oil as source of revenue - - - - 28

    3.2 US Oil Investments in Nigeria - - - - - - 29

    3.3 US-Nigeria trade relation from 1999-2009 -- - - 31

    3.4 US response to conflicts in Nigeria: Variations in Oil related

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    and non-Oil related - - - - - - - 32

    3.5 Linking Oil and US- Nigeria bilateral military ties - - - 36 3.6 Nigeria’s Investment on the Military/Security in readiness to Protect

    the oil region - - - - - 38

    CHAPTER FOUR: NIGERIA - US ECONOMIC RELATIONS AND ECONOMIC

    DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA - - - - - - - 42

    4.1 Issues of Domination - -- - -- -- - 42

    4.2 Issues of Security - - - - - - 43

    4.3 Issues of dependency - - - - - 44

    4.4 Issues of Foreign Direct Investment and technology transfer - -45

    4.5 Issues of Terms of Trade - - - - - 46 4.6 Issues of repatriation of looted funds - - - - 56 4.7 Issues of environmental crimes of oil transnational corporation

    in the Niger Delta - - - - - - - - 57

    CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION -- - - - 64

    5.1 Summary - - - - - - - 64

    5.2 Conclusion - -- - - - - - - 64

    5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 65

    BIBLOGRAPHY - - - - - - - - 70

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    LIST OF CHARTS AND TABLES

    Chart 3.1: Nigeria‘s Export to US 1999- 2006 - - - - 32

    Chart 4.2: Nigeria-US Trade 1999- 2006 - - - 48

    Table 4.1 : 2011 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 48

    Table 4.2 :2010 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria -- - - 49

    Table 4.3 :2009 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - 49

    Table 4.4 :2008 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - 50

    Table 4.5 :2007 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 50

    Table 4.6 :2006 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 51

    Table 4.7 :2005 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 51

    Table 4.8 :2004 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 52

    Table 4.9: 2003 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 52

    Table 4.10: 2002 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 53

    Table 4.11: 2001 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - -53

    Table 4.12: 2000 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 54

    Table 4.13: 1999 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 54

    Table 4.14: 1998 : U.S. trade in goods with Nigeria - - - 55

    Table 4.15 Population living under poverty in Nigeria 1980-2010 - -57

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    ABSTRACT

    This study examines the political economy of Nigeria –United States relations between 1999

    and 2009. This study has both broad and specific objectives. The broad objective of this study

    is to examine the political economy of Nigeria –United States relations between 1999 and

    2009. The specific objectives are as follows: To ascertain whether oil is the centerpiece of

    Nigeria –United States economic relation between 1999 and 2009; To find out if Nigeria –

    United States economic relations enhanced economic development in Nigeria within the

    periods under study. Though political economic framework could explain almost every situation

    in interaction of states, the theoretical framework for the analysis of Nigeria - US economic

    relations between 1999 and 2009 will be rooted on the dependency theory. This is because it

    enables us capture at a glance the dependent status of Nigeria in her economic relation with US.

    We validated the following hypotheses Oil is the centerpiece of Nigeria –United States

    economic relation between 1999 and 2009; Nigeria –United States economic relations has not

    enhanced economic development in Nigeria within the periods under study. The method of data

    collection for this study is observation of documentary evidence that deals with Nigeria –US

    relations. We heavily relied on secondary sources such as books, journals, articles, periodical,

    government reports and publications, magazines, unpublished manuscript, commentaries, and

    conference papers. Other data were collected through electronic sources such as television news

    broadcasting and radio news broadcasting and Internet materials. Again, we relied essentially on

    descriptive qualitative method as our methods of data analysis in this study. We also use simple

    percentages and tables graphs to buttress the arguments in this study.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.6 Background of Study

    Nigeria-United States relations remain a critical aspect of Nigerian foreign policy. The

    demands, challenges and competition of this 21 st century have made it pertinent that Nigeria

    review her relation with United States in order to benefit maximally from their relation. One

    would have thought that Nigeria-US economic relation since 1960 would have moved Nigeria

    from being a Third world nation to at least a Second world nation but like the story of any other

    developing econo