Neo - Colonialism New Forms of Old Control. What is it? "As long as imperialism exists it will, by...
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Neo - ColonialismNew Forms of Old Control
What is it?"As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neo-colonialism."Che Guevara, Marxist revolutionary, 1965
OriginsThe idea corresponds with the growth of globalisation.After World War Two, the major European countries could no longer go back to the way it was.They were weakened politically, economically, and militarily In this relaxed state, many colonies developed nationalist / independence movements
Starts in theMid 1950s.Accelerates in the 1960s
How Economic Imperialism WorksPowerful economic states maintain a continuing presence in the economies of former colonies, especially where it concerns raw materials. Stronger nations are charged with interfering in the governance and economics of weaker nations to maintain the flow of such material, at prices and under conditions which unfairly benefit developed nations and trans-national corporations.Most multinational companies will sell their expertese in developing the resource, and in return keep a % of the profit.
But what was there Before???Before the Second World War, the world was much smaller in the sense that there were m any fewer nations then today. Europeans, and to a lesser extent the Americans, dominated the world through direct and indirect control of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. This system of control was good old fashioned Imperialism.
ImperialismGetting What You Need
Colonialism: Kickin it Old SchoolWhen Europeans first travelled the globe they saw the need to exploit the territories they claimed.The territories were controlled and colonised. Europeans sought to replicate their culture and society around the world. American Colonies. From 1600 to 1850, this was the preferred style of development. In this period the major colonisers were: British, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch.During the 1700s, wars fought in Europe were transposed into these colonies. Namely, the British waged war on their enemies colonies to economically cripple them. It was immensely successful!By the first quarter of the nineteenth century, Britain was the dominate colonial power.
What Changed in a Century
An Uneasy FeelingThe success of the British in creating a huge colonial system also coincided with more powerful forced Victorianism Morality and Liberalism.They did not always work together, but instead helped created a distorted sense of right and wrong and sense of equity. They did not want to take over the territory, but would stay for a little while.Imperialism: The economic, political control of a nation / region through indirect control.
The BreakThe shift away from colonialism to imperialism was not a gradual process. For the British, it was the Indian Mutiny of 1857.The British had defeated the rival French and Dutch colonies in India by 1757 (War of Austrian Succession) and consolidated power through the East India Company. The Company, like the Hudsons Bay Company, existed on a Royal Charter to trade in the name of the British Monarchy. They were not subject to local, or even most British laws. The Company set up its own administration, its own offices, recruited people to immigrate and built its own army. In 1857, units from the Indian Army led a violent and bloody rebellion against the British
OutcomeThe British brutally suppressed the rebels and re-imposed order.Queen Victoria blamed the older system of colonialism and advocated a direct transfer of power over to the British Government. The British did not take direct control, or try to impose British culture on the Indians.They looked for local rulers and western trained administrators to run the show while they held power through the head of the government (Governor) and the military. The local people were free as long as the British Government let them.Nigeria= pop 20 mil, 400 white administratorsSudan = pop 9 mil, 140 white administratorsLooking at this shift the French also adopted the same approach. They did not need to send people to settle, they only had to control the mechanisms of power.
The Scramble for AfricaThe shift marks a renewed interest in Africa.Before 1850, it was mainly colonised along the coast, not the interior.The British needed to maintain a chain of coaling stations from Europe to IndiaStarting in the 1870s, the European powers had internalised the idea that a great nation needed foreign territory.The reason was namely trade.The industrialisation of Europe meant that there was an increased need for raw resources to be sent back to Europe and a market to dump all their finished goods.
LegacyIn their effort to create an empire the Europeans redrew the map of Europe.When the Scramble for Africa was over, 10,000 identifiable ethnic, religious and cultural groups had been pushed into 40 states or protectorates.Rwanda, Congo, Sudan, South Africa
As part of their power struggle, pieces of Africa were traded around by the Europeans National boundaries were straight lines drawn on a map, disregarding terrain or ethnicity. Long time enemies are together Uganda, Chad, Sudan, NigeriaGroups divided arbitrarily = Congo, Somaliland
IndiaWas controlled by Great Britain - the jewel in the Crown from 1750s 1940sTo rule the local population, the British developed a political elite administration.By the early 1900s these people coalesced into the Indian National Congress The INC increasingly played a key role in decolonization and the end of empire.The actual drive to independence was led by Mohandas K. Gandhi: He became a leader of the movement after World War One with a focus on passive resistance (civil disobedience)By the end of the Second World War the political leader of the INC, Jawaharlal Nehru, led the actual negotiations for independenceClement Attlee and the Labour Party wished to phase its presence out, but other crisis and Indian pressure caused them to pull the union flag down in India in 1947Before they left the British tried to solve a major dilemma.They divided India into two nations: India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim)
ChinaEuropeans sought to develop trade relations with China as far back as the 1500sThe Chinese kept them in check, restricted trade and access.In the Anglo - Chinese Wars (1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860)British force China to trade with them and allow them to set up their own unrestricted trade centres (Hong Kong)
In the early 1900s the Empress tried to use the Boxers to attack and drive out the Europeans, and by now the Americans.It backfired and led to increased pressure to modernise.In 1911, nationalist forces push the emperor off his throne and declare a republic under Sun Yat Sen
Starting the late 1920s the Communist forces led by Mao Zedong put pressure on the Nationalist forces led by Chang kai-shekMao took over China in 1949He immediately severed any external influences
Arab NationalismArab nationalism was originally a loosely united group opposed to colonialism and subsequently to migration of Jews to PalestineAs part of the Versailles Treaty, the British agreed to uphold the Balfour Declaration in 1917The British hoped to weaken the Ottomans by pledging support for the creation of Jewish national home in PalestineAfter the Second World War, the British could no longer contain the influx of European Jews. Great Britain announced its withdrawal from Palestine in 1948.This angered and emboldened regional groups to attack the colonists. The Soviet Union was especially willing to help. Egypt in the 1950s
New Ties to BindWith direct control lostCritics of Globilisation argue that the IMF and World Bank are promoting a new version of control.Often referred to as Economic ImperialismInstead of direct military-political control, neocolonialist powers employ financial, and trade policies to dominate less powerful countries. This amounts to a de facto control over less powerful nations