Transcript of Nalanda University
NALANDA UNIVERSITYNALANDA UNIVERSITYBY:-BY:-SRINJOY DASSRINJOY DASM.A. TOURISM ADMINISTRATIONM.A. TOURISM ADMINISTRATIONAMITY UNIVERSITY JAIPURAMITY UNIVERSITY JAIPUR
CONTENTSCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONLOCATION OF NALANDALOCATION OF NALANDAAERIAL VIEW OF NALANDAAERIAL VIEW OF NALANDALIBRARYLIBRARYSTRENGTHS OF THE STRENGTHS OF THE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITYGREAT SCHOLARS OF NALANDAGREAT SCHOLARS OF NALANDAINTERESTING FACTSINTERESTING FACTSREDISCOVERY OF THE RUINSREDISCOVERY OF THE RUINSREVIVAL OF NALANDA REVIVAL OF NALANDA UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITYWHAT TO SEE IN NALANDAWHAT TO SEE IN NALANDAOTHER PLACES OF INTERESTOTHER PLACES OF INTERESTHOW TO REACH NALANDAHOW TO REACH NALANDAACCOMODATION IN NALANDAACCOMODATION IN NALANDAOTHER AMENITIES & OTHER AMENITIES & ATTRACTIONSATTRACTIONS
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONNalanda was initially a small village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) which was then the capital of Magadha. Buddha was said to have delivered lectures in a nearby forest named Pravarik and one of his two chief disciples, Shariputra, was born in this village and also attained nirvana there. The Jain thirthankara, Mahavira, was said to have spent 14 rainy seasons at Nalanda. This association with Buddha and Mahavira tenuously dates the existence of the village to at least the 5th–6th century BCE.Nalanda (Sanskrit: नालंदा Nālandā) was an acclaimed Mahāvihāra, a large Buddhist monastery, in ancient Magadha (modern-day Bihar), India. First residential international university of the world. It is is located about 95 kilometres southeast of Patna.Founded in the 5th century A.D. by the Gupta Empire, known as the ancient seat of learning. Both Xuanzang and Prajñavarman cite Shakraditya (probably Kumaragupta I) as the founder, as does a seal discovered at the site.Became the crown jewel of the development of Buddhism in India and the world.Contribution by the King Harshvardhan, Kumaragupta(college of fine arts), Dharmpal (Brahmin scholar/tutor), Dinnaga -founder of the school of Logic. King Harshvardhan also gifted a 25 m high copper statue of Lord Buddha.Eight separate compounds & 10 temples, meditation halls, classrooms ,hostels, lecture halls, lakes and parks built in the Kushan architectural style.
LOCATION OF NALANDALOCATION OF NALANDA
The complex covered an area between 488 by 244 metres.
AERIAL VIEW OF NALANDAAERIAL VIEW OF NALANDA
LIBRARYLIBRARYThe library at Nalanda was an immense complex. Called the Dharmaganja, or Piety Mart, it was separated into three large buildings: the Ratnasagara, the Ratnadadhi, and the Ratnaranjaka. The Ratnadadhi (Ocean of Gems) was nine stories high and housed the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Samajguhya.The exact number of volumes of the Nalanda library is not known. But it is estimated to have been in the hundreds of thousands. The library not only collected religious manuscripts but also had texts on such subjects as grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine.The Nalanda library had a classification scheme which was possibly based on a text classification scheme developed by the great Sanskrit linguist Panini. Buddhists texts were most likely divided into three classes based on the Tripitaka’s three main divisions: the Vinaya, the Sutra, and the Abhidamma.The library was destroyed in c. 1197 CE – c. 1203 CE during the Muslim invasion in which Bakhtiyar Khil j i sacked it and set it to flames. It was so vast that it is reported to have burned for three months after the invaders set fire to it, ransacked and destroyed the monasteries and killed or drove the monks from the site. According to Tibetan legend, the school and library were reportedly repaired shortly after by Mudita Bhadra, a Buddhist sage. Unfortunately, the library was again burned by Tirthaka mendicants.
The remnants of the library of Nalanda, which is reported to have burned for three months after the invaders set fire to it, ransacked and destroyed the monasteries, and drove the monks from the site.
REAR VIEW OF THE STUPA OF SHARIPUTRA
ROW OF CELLS AROUND A COURTYARD
StrengthS of the UniverSityStrengthS of the UniverSityNearly 2,000 teachers and 10,000 students from all over the world.Learning was greatly encouraged as it served dual purposes: knowledge & practice.Subjects: virtually the entire range of world knowledge was then available there like Buddhist & Jain, Sacred & Secular, Foreign & Native, Science, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Philosophy, Samkhya, Yoga–Shastra, the Vedas, and the Scriptures of Buddhism etc. Nalanda was also the most global university of its times, attracting pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia, and Turkey.
greAt SChoLArS of nALAnDAgreAt SChoLArS of nALAnDANalanda was visited by both Mahavira and Buddha in 6th and 5th centuries B.C. It is also the place of birth and nirvana of Shariputra, one of the famous disciples of Buddha.The Tang Dynasty Chinese traveller and scholar, Xuanzang(Hieun-Tsang) visited Nalanda in the 7 t h century B.C., stayed for 3 years and left a vivid account of the curriculum and of the general features of the community.Some other scholars and historical figures of note associated with Nalanda are Aryabhata, Dharmapala, Dinnaga-the founder of Buddhist logic, Nagarjuna-formaliser of the concept of Shunyata, Shilabhadra-the teacher of Xuanzang & Yijing-a Chinese Buddhist traveller.A vast amount of what came to comprise Tibetan Buddhism, both its Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions, stems from the late 9th–12th century teachers and traditions at Nalanda.
intereSting fACtSintereSting fACtSRigorous oral entry examination conducted by erudite gatekeepers and many students were turned away.To study there was a matter of great pride. However, no degree was granted nor a specific period of study required.The monks measured time by a water clock.Students received explanations by discourse.Separate schools of debate were there and talented scholars distinguished conspicuously. The Muslim Emperor Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed the capital of knowledge. Khilji supposedly asked the monks before he burnt the library, “Is there any copy of the Quran in the library?” The three libraries of Nalanda were so large that they went on burning for three months.The Persian historian Minhaj-i-Siraj, in his chronicle the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, reported that thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands beheaded as Khilji tried his best to uproot Buddhism.
reDiSCovery of the rUinSreDiSCovery of the rUinS
After its decline, Nalanda was largely forgotten until Francis Buchanan-Hamilton surveyed the site in 1811–1812 CE after locals in the vicinity drew his attention to a vast complex of ruins in the area. He, however, did not associate the mounds of earth and debris with famed Nalanda. That link was established by Major Markham Kittoe in 1847 CE. Alexander Cunningham and the newly formed Archaeological Survey of India conducted an official survey in 1861–1862 CE.
revivAL of nALAnDA UniverSityrevivAL of nALAnDA UniverSity
September 1, 2014, saw the commencement of the first academic year of a modern Nalanda University, with 15 students, in nearby Rajgir. It has been established in a bid to revive the ancient seat of learning. The university has acquired 455 acres of land for its campus and has been allotted 2727 crores (around $454M) by the Indian government.It is also ₹being funded by the governments of China, Singapore, Australia, Thailand, and others.
WhAt to See in nALAnDAWhAt to See in nALAnDA Nalanda is a popular tourist destination in
the state attracting a number of Indian and overseas visitors. It is also an important stop on the Buddhist tourism circuit.NALANDA UNIVERSITY RUINS ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX.NALANDA ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM :- Exhibits the antiquities that have been unearthed at Nalanda as well as from nearby Rajgir. Displays 349 items in 4 galleries.NALANDA MULTIMEDIA MUSEUM :- It showcases the history of Nalanda through 3-D animation and other multimedia presentations.XUANZANG MEMORIAL HALL :-
An Indo-Chinese undertaking to honour the famed Buddhist monk and traveller, Xuanzang(Hieun-Tsang). A relic, comprising a skull bone of the Chinese monk, is on display in the memorial hall.
OTHER PLACES OF INTERESTOTHER PLACES OF INTEREST
Located in the nearby village of Baragaon, this ancient Surya Mandir(Sun Temple), also known as the Surajpur Baragaon, is an important pilgrimage destination twice a year in the months of “Vaisakha” & “Kartik”.
HOW TO REACH NALANDAHOW TO REACH NALANDAAIR: The nearest airport is at Patna (89 km).
RAIL: Though Rajgir (12 km) is the nearest railway station to Nalanda yet the nearest convenient rail head is at Gaya (95 km).
ROAD: Nalanda is connected by good road with Rajgir (12 km), Bodh Gaya (110 km), Gaya (95 km), Patna (90 km), Pawapuri (26 km), Bihar Sharif (13 km) etc.
ACCOMODATION IN NALANDAACCOMODATION IN NALANDA
Tourists prefer to stay at Rajgir (15 km. from Nalanda). There are a number of moderately priced hotels available at Rajgir. Tourists can stay at any of the three Tourists Bungalows of Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation, Tathagat Vihar, Ajatshatru Vihar and Gautam Vihar.
OTHER AMENITIES & ATTRACTIONSOTHER AMENITIES & ATTRACTIONSSHOPPING:- Local Arts & Craft, Stone Sculptures and Madhubani Paintings found in handicraft Shops in Main Market at Kund Area (Hot Spring) and at Aerial Ropeway.RAJGIR DANCE FESTIVAL:- Bihar State Tourism Department organizes every year, this colorful festival of classical and folk dances from October 24 to October 26.CHHATH PUJA:- Chhath puja or sun worship held twice a year in "Vaishakha" (April-May) and in "Kartika" (October - November) in Surya Temple, the Sun temple of Surajpur Baragaon.ARTS AND CRAFTS:- The places around Rajgir are famous for stone sculptures and bowls.
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