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Transcript of Mythic Structure
Mythic StructureBased on Joseph Campbells The Hero with a Thousand FacesAnd Chris VoglersThe Writers Journey
Storytelling and MythCarl JungStrong correspondence between dreams and mythologyBoth come from a deeper source in the collective unconscious of the human race.Repeating characters such as young hero, wise old man or woman, shapeshifter, shadowy antagonist same as those who appear in our dreams.
Storytelling and MythThis is why myths and stories based on myths have a ring of psychological truth.Deal with childlike universal questions such as:Who am I? Where did I come from? What happens when I die? What is good? What is evil? What can I do about it? What will tomorrow be like? What is time?
Heros JourneyHeros story is always a journey. Leaves comforts of home to venture into a challenging, unfamiliar world. Can be outward journey (actual place)Inward journey (of the mind, the heart, the spirit.)
Heros Journey12 StagesOrdinary worldCall to AdventureRefusal of the CallMeeting with the MentorCrossing the First ThresholdTests, Allies, EnemiesApproach to the Inmost CaveOrdealReward (Seizing the Sword)The Road BackResurrectionReturn with the Elixir
Heros JourneyAct OneDeparture and SeparationOrdinary worldCall to AdventureRefusal of CallSupernatural Aid (mentor)Crossing the First Threshold
Heros JourneyAct TwoDescent, Initiation, PenetrationRoad of Trials (Tests, Allies, Enemies)Ordeal (Meeting with the Goddess, Woman as Temptress, Atonement with Father, Apotheosis)Reward
Heros JourneyAct ThreeReturn (The Road Back)Refusal of the ReturnMagic FlightRescue from WithinCrossing the ThresholdReturnResurrection (Master of the 2 Worlds)Return with the Elixir (Freedom to Live)
1. Ordinary WorldTaking hero from ordinary world (mundane) to special world. Fish out of water - Wizard of Oz, Trading Places, Star Wars.
2. Call to AdventureProblem is presented. Can no longer remain in the comfort of the Ordinary World. Star Wars - Princess Leias holograph. Central question. Will Luke rescue the princess? Will they fall in love?
Refusal of the Call(Reluctant Hero)Fear! Terror of unknown.Need some other influence to convince her -- change in circumstances, more disruption, encouragement of the Mentor. (Star Wars- Aunt and Uncle killed)
4. MentorIntroduction of Merlin-like characterCommon in mythology and rich in symbolic value. Bond between parent/child, teacher/student, god/man.Coach in Rocky, Obi Wan/Yoda, Lou Grant.
5. Crossing the First ThresholdHero commits to adventure.Story takes off/ Central question is clear and looks hard to solve.Turning point between Act One and Act Two.Axel Foley decides to defy his bosss order in Beverly Hills Cop.
6. Tests, Allies and EnemiesBegin to learn the rules of the Special World.Saloons, seedy bars, Ricks Caf in Casablanca, Cantina in Star Wars (meets Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt).Tests continue in Star Wars when Obi Wan teaches Luke about the Force.
7. Approach to the Inmost CaveHero at edge of danger where the object of quest is hidden. The most dangerous spot in the Special World.Crosses Second Threshold to enter this dangerous place. Approach.Land of the Dead in mythology (Orpheus descending into Hell to rescue loved one), Arthurian stories - Chapel of Perilous, the chamber containing the Grail. Star Wars - ?
8. The OrdealFortunes of hero hit the bottom - confrontation with greatest fear.Star Wars - Trapped in giant trashmasher, ET - dies on operating table - death of a relationship in romance--things look bleak. Initiation.
9. RewardSurvived death, take possession of treasure, reap reward. Hero becomes hero.Sword = knowledge, experience, understanding, reconciliation.Star Wars - Rescue Leia, capture plans of Death star - keys to defeating Vader.Return of Jedi - Reconciliation with Darth Vader/father.
10. Road BackNot out of woods yet. Deal with consequences of confronting the dark forces. Great chase scenes here.Luke and Leia pursued by Vader. Moonlight bicycle ride in ET. Decision to return to the Ordinary World. (Turning Point to Act Three)
11. ResurrectionPurification, Rebirth, Cleansing before returning to the Ordinary World.Almost replay of Ordeal. Final shot of Death and Darkness. Final test.Final battle scene in Star Wars movies.Beverly Hill Cop - Axel Foley rescued by Beverly Hills police.
12. Return with the ElixirThe Return to the Ordinary World has meaning because of the Elixir hero brings back - treasure, lesson learned, knowledge, love. ET - friendship, Star Wars - end of Vader, peace. Journey must be repeated if no Elixir.
Heros JourneyHeroes introduced in ORDINARY WORLD, whereThey receive the CALL TO ADVENTURE.They are RELUCTANT at first (REFUSE THE CALL), butAre encouraged by a MENTOR toCROSS THE THRESHOLD and enter Special world, whereThey encounter TESTS, ALLIES, AND ENEMIES.
Heros Journey7. They APPROACH THE INMOST CAVE, crossing a second threshold8. Where they endure the ORDEAL.9. They take possession of their REWARD and10. Are pursued on THE ROAD BACK to the Ordinary World.11. They cross the third threshold, experience a RESURECTION and are transformed by the experience.12. They RETURN WITH THE ELIXIR, a boon or treasure to benefit the Ordinary World.
Mythic structure of Horror FilmsBe Afraid, Be Very Afraid. Plays with our fears for one effect: to terrify, horrify and sometimes just gross out the audience. Audience expects to experience a horrifying journey. Relish a good scare.
Mythic structure of Horror FilmsRoot of horror: PowerlessnessSometimes not the known monster but the Shadow that cannot be apprehended. Force of chaos must be defeated.
3 Types of Horror StoriesMan battles outside monster - vampires, diseases, aliens, sharks.Man creates the monster - Frankenstein, The Fly.Man is the Monster. Man confronts the dark side of his nature. - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Halloween, Silence of the Lambs.
Silence of the LambsScreenplay by Ted TallyBased on book by Thomas HarrisDirected by Jonathan Demme1991Starring Jody Foster and Anthony Hopkins
Silence of the LambsDr. Hannibal Lecter. Brilliant. Cunning. Psychotic. In his mind lies the clue to a ruthless killer. - Clarice Starling, FBI. Brilliant. Vulnerable. Alone. She must trust him to stop the killer.
The JourneyOrdinary World - FBI Academy
Clarice aspires to work for jack Crawford in the FBIs Behavior Science Division after graduation - her Outer Problem. She worshipped her father, a town marshal, and felt abandoned when he was murdered. Her Inner Problem is to come to terms with his death.
The JourneyCall to Adventure - Convince convicted serial killer Hannibal Lecter to fill out a questionnaire - help catch Buffalo BillRefuse the Call (Reluctant) - Clarice is enthusiastic until warning from Crawford Dont want Hannibal Lecter in your headMentor - Crawford encourages but warns her. Lecter is a Shadow MentorCross the Threshold - On case to solve Buffalo Bill murders.
The JourneyTests, Allies and Enemies - Test - locate the Your Self Storage Discovers a car and headless mannequin plus mans head in a jar. More tests - autopsy, finds insect pupa in victims mouth. Allies: entomologists find clue - rare Deaths Head Moth.
The Journey7. Approach Inmost cave (cross second threshold) - Catherine Martin is kidnapped by Buffalo Bill. Stake are raised, Crawford and Clarisse need to make a deal with Lecter--a room with a view in exchange for a profile of Buffalo Bill. Lecter accepts on condition that Clarice answers his questions (quid pro quo). She must allow Lecter to get into her mind. She accepts and tells of her fathers death.
The JourneyOrdeal - Dr. Chilton reveals that the FBIs deal is bogus, ruining the relationship between Clarice and Lecter.
Resurrection - Clarice give Lecter back his drawings and stands up to him, demanding the truth.Lecter gives some information, but demands one more Ordeal - forces her to tell about her nightmare of the spring lambs an dhow saving Catherine would silence the screaming.
The JourneyClarisse presses Lecter to reveal Buffalo Bills name, but Chilton interrupts. Clarice breaks free, grabs case file from Lecters outstretched hands. His fingers linger on hers. THIS IS A VERY TENSE ORDEAL! - SHE TOUCHES DEATH AND HE SETS HER FREE.Reward - Buffalo Bill knew his victims.Road Back - Discovers diamond shaped darts in dress, phones Crawford. He already knows identity of Buffalo Bill. She is asked to stay to find a connection between Buffalo Bill and latest victim.
The Journey11. Resurrection - FBI looks in wrong spot. Clarice stumbles upon actual home and sees the Deaths Head Moth, leading to Clarices resurrection sequence. Clarice pursues Buffalo Bill into house, discovers Catherine, finds skinning room, lights go out. Surrounded by darkness and death, clarice is unaware that Gumb pursues her with infrared goggles. He taunts her, points gun at her. Clarice hears the metallic click of gun, turns and shoots--Resurrection complete.
The JourneyReturn with Elixir - Several ElixirsCase is solvedBuffalo Bill is deadCatherine is rescuedClarice graduatesEarns Crawfords respectMentor Crawford tells Clarice her father would be proud.Phone call from another proud Mentor - LecterLecter tells Clarice she is safe (Elixir of Life)
ArchetypesCharacters that populate the world - ancient patterns of personality that are the shared heritage of the human race.Change throughout a story