MTD GERMAIN

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TEXTEENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT, NATURE CONSERVATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY Research Report 200 94 329 UBA-FB 000325/e

14 03ISSN 0722-186X

Texte

Best Available Techniques in Textile Industry

by Dr. Harald Schnberger Gottenheim Dr. Thomas Schfer EnviroTex GmbH, Augsburg

On behalf of the Federal Environmental Agency

UMWELTBUNDESAMT

Publications by the Federal Environmental Agency in the TEXTE series are available subject to advance payment of 10,00 Euro by bank transfer, crossed cheque or paying-in form to Account number 4327 65 - 104 at the Postbank Berlin (Sorting Code 10010010) Fa. Werbung und Vertrieb Ahornstrae 1-2 10787 Berlin

At the same time please direct your written order to the Firma Werbung und Vertrieb naming the volume number from the TEXTE series, and the name and address of the orderer.

The publisher does not accept responsibility for the correctness, accuracy or completeness of the information, or for the observance of the private rights of third parties. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the official opinions.

Publisher:

Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) Postfach 33 00 22 14191 Berlin Tel.: +49/30/8903-0 Telex: 183 756 Telefax: +49/30/8903 2285 Internet: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de Section III 2.5 Dr. Horst Fischer Berlin, March 2003

Edited by:

Report Cover Sheet1. 4. Report No. 2. UBA-FB-000325 Report Title Best Available Techniques in Textile Industry Autor(s), Family Name(s), First Name(s) Schnberger, Harald; Schfer, Thomas Performing Organisation (Name, Address) Schnberger, Harald; Carl-Frey-Str. 3, D-79288 Gottenheim EnviroTex GmbH; Provinostr. 52, D-86153 Augsburg 10. 11. 7. Sponsoring Agency (Name, Address) 12. Umweltbundesamt, Postfach 33 00 22, D-14191 Berlin 13. 14. 15. Supplementary Notes No. of Reference 281 No. of Tables, Diagrams 149 No. of Figures 116 8. 9. 6. 3.

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Report Date 12.06.2002 Publication Date 20.08.2002 UFOPLAN-Ref. No. 2000 94 329 No. of Pages 362

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Abstract This report is the German contribution to the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry (BREF Textiles Industry) which is the final product of the exchange of information on BAT according to Article 16.2 IPPC-Directive. These BREFs are drafted by the European IPPC Bureau (see http://eippcb.jrc.es). For preparing this report, the concerned available knowledge in Germany in this field has been collected and documented as far as possible. To this purpose, all relevant experts from textile industries, textile research institutes, suppliers of textile machinery, suppliers of dyestuffs and textile auxiliaries, suppliers of measurement and control equipment, suppliers of environmental technology, associations and authorities) have been contacted and involved. The structure of this report concerns the instructions given for the BREF Textiles Industry. Accordingly it has following chapters: Chapter 1: General information Chapter 2: Applied processes and techniques Chapter 3: Present emission and consumption level Chapter 4: Techniques to consider in the determination of BAT Chapter 5: Best available techniques Chapter 6: Emerging techniques Out of 53 techniques described in chapter 4, according to the laid down approach, in chapter 5, 46 techniques have been selected and identified to be BAT.

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Keywords Textile industry, textile finishing, textile chain, wastewater, waste gas, solid waste, energy consumption, best available techniques, integrated pollution prevention and control, IPPC Directive, information exchange, apllied processes and techniques, emission and consumption levels, emerging techniques Best available techniques reference document, BREF Price 19. 20.

Berichts-Kennblatt1. 4. Berichtsnummer 2. UBA-FB 000325 Titel des Berichts Beste verfgbare Techniken in Anlagen der Textilindustrie Autor(en), Name(n), Vorname(n) Schnberger, Harald; Schfer, Thomas Durchfhrende Institution (Name, Anschrift) Schnberger, Harald; Carl-Frey-Str. 3, D-79288 Gottenheim EnviroTex GmbH; Provinostr. 52, D-86153 Augsburg 10. 11. 7. Frdernde Institution (Name, Anschrift) 12. Umweltbundesamt, Postfach 33 00 22, D-14191 Berlin 13. 14. 15. Zustzliche Angaben Literaturangaben 281 Tabellen und Diagramme 149 Abbildungen 116 8. 9. 6. 3.

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Abschludatum 12.06.2002 Verffentlichungsdatum 20.08.2002 UFOPLAN-Nr. 2000 94 329 Seitenzahl 362

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Kurzfassung Der vorliegende Bericht ist der deutsche Beitrag fr das Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for theTextiles Industry kurz BREF Textiles Industry genannt-, das im Rahmen des Informationsaustausches nach Artikel 16.2 der IVU-Richtlinie vom EuropeanIPPCBureau (siehe http://eippcb.jrc.es) erstellt wird. Fr die Erarbeitung des vorliegenden Beitrages wurde das deutsche Know-how auf diesem Gebiet so weit wie mglich erfasst und dokumentiert. Dazu wurden alle wesentlichen Akteure (Textilindustrie, textile Forschungs-, institute, Textilmaschinenbau, Farbmittel- und Textilhilfsmittelhersteller, Hersteller von Mess- und Regeltechnik, Hersteller von Umwelttechnologie, Verbnde und Behrden) angesprochen und einbezogen. Die Struktur des deutschen Berichtes entspricht den Vorgaben fr das BREF Textiles Industry. Danach besteht es aus folgenden Kapiteln: Kapitel 1: Allgemeine Informationen Kapitel 2: Angewandte Produktionsverfahren und Techniken Kapitel 3: Gegenwrtige Emissions- und Verbrauchsniveaus (Input/Output) Kapitel 4: Beschreibung von Techniken, die bei der Bestimmung der Besten Verfgbaren Techniken zu bercksichtigen sind Kapitel 5: Definition der Besten Verfgbaren Techniken Kapitel 6: Neue, in der Entwicklung befindliche Techniken Von den 53 in Kapitel 4 beschriebenen Techniken sind 46 im Kapitel 5 nach einem dargelegten Ansatz als BVT definiert.

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Schlagwrter Textilindustrie, Textilveredlung, textile Kette, Abwasser, Abluft, Abfall, Energieverbrauch Beste verfgbare Techniken, integrierter Umweltschutz, IVU-Richtlinie, Informationsaustausch, Angewandte Prozesse und Verfahren, Emissions- und Verbrauchswerte, zukunftsweisende Technologien Best available techniques reference document, BREF Preis 19. 20.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 11.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

GENERAL INFORMATION..............................................................9Overall production of textiles in Germany................................................................. 9 Number of textile finishing industries in Germany and the geographical distribution.................................................................................................................. 11 Employment and investments in the German textile finishing industry ............... 11 Economic situation...................................................................................................... 12 Environmental relevance of the textile finishing industry ...................................... 14 References ................................................................................................................... 19

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APPLIED PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES .................................20

2.1 General information................................................................................................... 20 2.1.1 Fibre production................................................................................................ 23 2.1.1.1 Man-made fibres............................................................................................... 23 2.1.2 Spun yarn production........................................................................................ 24 2.1.3 Fabric formation............................................................................................... 25 2.1.3.1 Weaving............................................................................................................ 25 2.1.3.2 Knitting............................................................................................................. 25 2.1.3.3 Nonwovens ....................................................................................................... 26 2.1.3.4 Tufting .............................................................................................................. 26 2.1.3.5 Braiding ............................................................................................................ 26 2.1.4 Finishing (Overview)........................................................................................ 26 2.1.5 Make-up ............................................................................................................ 27 2.2 Input 2.2.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.3 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 2.2.3.2 materials............................................................................................................ 27 Textile raw materials ........................................................................................ 27 Cotton............................................................................................................... 28 Wool................................................................................................................. 28 Man-made fibres............................................................................................... 28 Auxiliaries and chemicals ................................................................................. 31 Dyes .................................................................................................................. 40 Classification of dyestuffs ................................................................................ 40 Dyestuff specific ecological loads .................................................................... 40

2.3 Processes in finish