M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

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2 nd Global Conference on Biofortification Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai Kigali, Rwanda, 1 April 2014 Biofortification and the Zero Hunger Challenge

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Professor M.S. Swaminathan presents "Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification" at The 2nd Global Conference on Biofortification: Getting Nutritious Foods to People in Kigali, Rwanda. April 1, 2014

Transcript of M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

  • 2nd Global Conference on Biofortification Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai Kigali, Rwanda, 1 April 2014 Biofortification and the Zero Hunger Challenge
  • United Nations Secretary-Generals Vision (2012) Source: www.un.org 2025 : Target Year for Achieving Zero Hunger Challenge
  • UK Prime Ministers Initiative On 12 August 2012, the closing day of the London Olympics, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, launched, a programme designed to rescue 25 million children from malnutrition-induced stunting by 2016, when the next Olympics will take place at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Biofortification is an important pathway for achieving this goal speedily and economically.
  • South Asian Enigma o Extraordinary economic growth in South Asia o Population largely dependent on agriculture o Yet, 2 out of 5 children stunted 39% of children are stunted in South Asia UNICEF 2013
  • 61.7 11 9.6 8 7.5 6 Top 6 countries with highest number of stunted children (millions) UNICEF 2013 o Region with the largest number of children with stunted growth o First 1000 days critical. Low Birth Weight Babies 1 in 4 o Under-nutrition reduces a nations economic advancement by 8% (Lancet 2013) South Asian Enigma
  • Source : IFPRI AFRICAN ENIGMA Prosperity of Nature but Poverty of People
  • AFRICA Halving hunger : it can be done M S Swaminathan & Pedro A Sanchez UN Millennium Project 2005
  • Source: FAO, US Energy Administration and www.indexmundi.org and http://quotes.post1.org/historical-crude-oil-price-chart/ (data updated as on March 14, 2014) The Future Belongs to Nations with Grains and not Guns Price Volatility
  • Hunger Chronic Hidden Transient Food Security : Availability Access Absorption Awareness Analysis - Action MSSRF / WFP : Food Insecurity Atlas
  • CALORIE DEPRIVATION PROTEIN DEFICIENCY MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY Picture Source: Google images Three major dimensions of hunger Biofortifcation answers all three dimensions
  • Comparison of woo-gen (right) and dee-geo- woo-gen strains, the latter containing the sd1 mutation The effects of different Rht alleles on plant height in wheat (cv. April Bearded). The wild-type contains Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a, which are homoeologous (corresponding) genes on the B and D genomes. Rht- B1c is a more severe allele at the Rht-B1 locus Source: http://5e.plantphys.net/ Overcoming Undernutrition: The Green Revolution in Wheat and Rice
  • Green Revolution Symphony (1968) o Technology o Services o Public Policies o Farmers enthusiasm Indian farmers achieved as much progress in wheat production in four years (196468), as during the preceding 4000 years. Major Components Synergy among Scientific skill, Political will and Farmers toil
  • Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway o World requires 50% more rice in 2030 than in 2004 with approximately 30% less arable land of today o Mainstreaming ecology in technology development and dissemination is the road to sustainable agriculture
  • Prodn.x 9 Yield x3 Area x 2.5 1960-61- 11.0 MT 1965-66 10.4 MT 1973-74 - 20.8 MT An Evergreen Revolution in Wheat Goal for 2030 : 150 million tonnes of wheat from 30 million ha Prerequisites : Soil & Plant Health Care & Remunerative Market
  • No Time to Relax : Major Challenges Ahead o Avoiding Food losses and Food Waste o Climate change, temperature, precipitation, and sea level o Shrinking per capita land and water resources o Expanding biotic and abiotic stresses o Adverse cost-risk-return structure of farming o Market volatility o Reluctance of youth to take to farming : Lack of Demographic Dividend
  • Biofortification and Zero Hunger Challenge : 3 Major approaches 1. Naturally occurring biofortified plants like moringa, sweet potato, nutri-millets and fruits and vegetables. 2. Biofortified varieties selected by breeding and selection, eg, iron rich pearl millet and zinc rich rice 3. Genetically biofortified crops like Golden Rice and iron rich rice (after appropriate regulatory clearance) Cultivate and Consume
  • 25 x iron in spinach 17 x calcium in milk 15 x potassium in bananas 10 x vitamin A in carrots 9 x protein in yogurt National Geographic, November 2012 Role of Agro-forestry in Biofortification Moringa Oleifera Agro- forestry : Common land use in Africa
  • Breadfruit Can Be Manna o The Breadfruit Institute has found that the perennial trees produce more food in dry weight per hectare than corn, rice, or wheat o A fruit rich in iron, potassium, and Vitamin A precursors Source: Science Vol 342 18 October 2013
  • Rich source of Vitamin C Phyllanthus emblica Picture Source: Google images
  • Rich in Nutrition; Climate Smart Culinary Diversity
  • Source : http://foodtank.com/news/2014/03/california-drought-time-to-rethink-forgotten-grains Combating California drought again : Revive Dying Wisdom and Vanishing Crops Convert Calamity into an Opportunity
  • Science, Vol 325, 31 July 2009 Gene Banks for a Warming Planet
  • The National Horticulture Mission of India aims to provide horticultural remedies to nutritional maladies. As a result of this Mission, the production of fruits and vegetables has reached a level of 270 million tonnes in India during 2013-14. Develop Safe Storage Facilities
  • Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Rich in Beta carotene
  • Quality Protein Maize
  • Biofortification through breeding: High-iron Pearl Millet ICTP 8203 ICRISAT-bred OPV (70-74 ppm Fe) With 10% Higher Yield 86M86 Pioneer hybrid (54-64 ppm Fe) Marketed by NIRMAL SEEDS
  • Worlds first high-zinc rice released in Bangladesh Source : Rice Today, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol12, No.4
  • 19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of 2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban market Dioscorea alata 1. Inchikachil I & II` 2. Kuzhikavithu I 3. Kuzhikavithu II 4. Quintalkachil I 5. Quintalkachil II 6. Anakomban 7. Kaduvakkayyan 8. Urulan kachil 9. Kuppathottikizhangu 10. Elivalankachil 11. Neendi/Veetukizhangu 12. Vella kachil I & II 13. Chorakachil/cherakachil/chuvappukachil/ Neela kachil I, II & III Dioscorea esculenta 14. Nanakizhangu 15. Vella Enchi kachil 16. Mullan Kachil Dioscorea rotundata 17.Africankachil 18. Thoonankachi Dioscorea bulbifera 19. Erachikachil/Adathappu Life Saving Crops in Wayanad Leveraging Agro-forestry for Nutrition
  • Kolli Hills Biofortified Multiple Cropping System
  • o 3500 rice accessions (rice landraces of CG, Orissa, TN), 100 popular rice cultivars and 650 advanced breeding lines have been screened o 14 genotypes with high Zn content in polished grains with 35-40 ug/g have been identified o Selection and phenotyping of 40 rice genotypes are under multi-location trials Rice Breeding for High Zinc Rice Source : MSSRF & IGAU, Raipur
  • Marker Assisted Breeding IR 38 x Jeerige sanna BI 33 x Jeerige sanna Azucena x Moromutant Five mapping populations have been developed and purified. Molecular markers for genes associated with iron uptake, transport and accumulation have been designed. Marker Assisted Selection is eligible for organic certification Source : Indian Biofortification Network
  • Back cross derived lines in Swarna background using Kaybonet-GR2-R event as donor Swarna Golden Swarna Source : IARI, New Delhi Genetic Modification : Golden Rice
  • 780 bp Line 4 Homozygous plants NT P (b) 650bp Line 12 Homozygous Transgenic plants H2O M NT P (a) Tissue specific expression of ferritin gene from mangrove in rice for iron fortification Avicennia marina Transgenic Rice lines Stable inheritance of transgenics Am Fer Am Fer Am Fer Genetic map of Am Fer in transgenics Source : MSSRF
  • 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Series Polished rice with stable expression of 21-28ppm Iron (a) (b) (c) (d) Expression of Iron in Rice Endosperm
  • Golden Rice : Trial Site Vandalized in Bicol, Philippines Source: Rice Today, IRRI, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol.12, No.4 Establish Regulatory system which inspires public, professional, political and media confidence
  • FSN involves the introduction of agricultural remedies to the nutritional maladies prevailing in an area, through the mainstreaming of nutritional criteria in the selection of the components of a farming system involving crops, farm animals and where feasible, fish. While finalizing the components of a farming system, the gender and age dimensions of human nutritional needs are kept in view, such as the special needs of pregnant women and nursing mothers, and new born babies during the first 1000 days after conception and birth. Biofortified crop varieties are introduced in FSN wherever available. Farming System for Nutrition (FSN)* *Designed by MSS for LANSA
  • Take it to the Farmer (Dr Norman Borlaug) Lab to Lab: All India Coordinated Research Project Lab to Land National Demonstrations Krishi Vigyan Kendras (Farm Science Centre) Village Knowledge Centres Dairy Cooperatives Fisher Friend Applications Land to Lab Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Sites Land to Land National Tonnage Club of Farmers Farm Schools (Farmer to Farmer Learning) Bridging the gap between scientific know-how and farmers do how
  • Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (NVA) Fellows Celebration of the Core Competence of Rural India
  • Role of Community Hunger Fighters in Biofortification o Become well-versed on the causes and cures for the endemic and hidden hunger prevailing in the village / town through a nutrition literacy programme o Identify and introduce agricultural remedies to nutritional maladies based on gender and age o Introduce in the farming system biofortified crops and varieties
  • Fighting Poverty induced Chronic Hunger National Food Security Bill of India, 2013 Goal : To provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices Special Features : o Life Cycle approach with emphasis on the 1000 days of a childs life o The senior most woman in the household will be designated the Head of the Household from the point of view of food entitlements o Enlargement of the Food Basket by including nutri-millets and other orphan crops in the Public Distribution System o Entitlement : Every person belonging to priority households shall be entitled to receive five kilogram of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices.
  • Conclusions o Enlargement of the Food Basket : Under the National Food Security Act, nutri-cereals like a wide range of millets and orphan crops will be included in the Public Distribution System at Rs. 1 per kg (1 US Dollar - 60 Rupees) o National Horticulture Mission : Horticultural Remedies will be popularised for major nutritional maladies under a well funded National Horticulture Mission o Launching a Nutri-Farm Movement : The Nutri-farm Movement will include the popularisation of biofortified varieties and crops like iron-rich pearl millet, zinc rich wheat and rice, protein rich maize I. Initiatives of the Government of India The above steps will help to address both calorie deprivation and micro-nutrient malnutrition Contd.
  • Conclusions II. Initiatives of State Governments o Supply of protein rich grain legumes like chickpea, beans, pigeon pea, lentils, green and black gram etc o Multiple fortified salt o Supply of eggs in school noon meal programmes Contd.
  • Conclusions III. Contributions of MSSRF 1. Getting Governments resolve at the Asia-Pacific conference on the Year of Family Farming that every Family Farm will be developed into a biofortified farm 2. Establishment of Genetic Gardens of Biofortified Crops and varieties both for promoting nutritional literacy and the conservation, cultivation, consumption and commerce of such nutrition rich crops. The proposed MSSRF Genetic Garden of Biofortified crops may be the first of its kind in the world. 3. Take an active part in the HarvestPlus programme and other similar programmes and undertake nutritional enrichment of staples and commonly consumed vegetables through Mendelian breeding and marker- assisted selection. Contd.
  • Conclusions o 2013 was commemorated as the Year of Quinoa o 2014 is observed as the International Year of Family Farming o 2016 will be celebrated as the Year of Pulses o The Second Global Biofortification Conference may recommend to the UN that a Year between 2018 and 2020 may be observed as the International Year of Biofortified and Underutilised Crops. This will be an important step in meeting the Zero Hunger Challenge by 2025, since biofortified crops help to address simultaneously under- and malnutrition. Contd. 4. International Year of Underutilised and Biofortified Crops
  • Six Keys to Success 1. Farmers Decision on Crop and Varietal Choice: governed by the cost risk return structure of farming; soil nutrient composition influences crop nutrient composition 2. Consumers Decision based on cost and culinary characteristics 3. Public Private Partnerships: Pricing, procurement, value chain development, public distribution and social protection Contd.
  • 4. Nutritional Literacy: capacity building of community hunger fighters 5. Convergence and Synergy among food and non food factors; Coalition for a Nutrition Secure India 6. Measurement of Impact: adopt measurable indicators Six Keys to Success
  • Towards an Era of Biohappiness Sustainable Development Goals Zero Hunger Challenge Biofortification is the Pathway LANSA (Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia) is an effective platform for partnership