Motor system corticospinal

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VOLUNTARY MOTOR CONTROL

Transcript of Motor system corticospinal

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VOLUNTARY MOTOR CONTROL

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ORGANIZATION OF MOTOR NERVOUS SYSTEM

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CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT

IdeaAssociation

cortexPremotor +

Motor cortex

Basal Ganglia

Lateral cerebellum

Movement

Intermediate Cerebellum

ExecutionPlanning

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ORGANIZATION OF MOTOR SYSTEM

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SEARCH FOR SEAT OF MINDAncient

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VITALISM

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THE RENAISSANCE OF NEUROSCIENCE

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BIRTH OF NEUROANATOMY

1664 - Thomas WillisAndreas Vesalius

(1514-1564 )

Leonardo Da Vinci

1452-1519

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BIRTH OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY

1791 - Luigi Galvani

1809 - Luigi Rolando

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LOCALIZING BRAIN FUNCTIONRecent

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PHRENOLOGY FRANZ JOSEPH GALL 1806

The theory of Gall and Spurzheim is ... an instance of a theory which, while essentially wrong, was just enough right to further scientific thought…Edwin Boring

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1824 - MARIE-JEAN-PIERRE FLOURENS

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CHARLES DARWIN 1808-1882

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1825 - JEAN-BAPTISTE BOUILLAUD Presents cases of loss of

speech after frontal lesions from clinicopathological correlation.

We cannot test speech in animal

Frontal lobe has other higher function which differentiate from animal.

By symptom we can localize the cerebral lesion.

Cerebellum controlled equilibrium and station

Frontal lobe and higher mental functions

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HUGHLING JACKSON 1858

Three level of organization Spinal/brain stem Frontal Prefrontal

Sensory integration and role of Basal ganglia was missed

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PIERRE GRATIOLET <>ERNEST AUBURTIN

brain acted as a whole and that localized functional centers did not exist

Brain Size and Volume

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LOBAR LOCALIZATION

Paul Broca 1861

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1870, HITZIG AND FRITSCH Electrically stimulated various

parts of a dog's motor cortex. They observed that

depending on what part of the cortex they stimulated, a different part of the body contracted.

Then they found that if they destroyed this same small area of the cortex, the corresponding part of the body became paralyzed.

This is how it was discovered that every part of the body has a particular region of the primary motor cortex that controls its movement.

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1870 - DAVID FERRIER

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DISCOVERY OF NEURON

Ramony Cajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble

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1906 - SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON

1906- The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex

Spinal reflex 1932 Nobel Prize

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LEYTON SSF & SHERRINGTON CS (1917).OBSERVATIONS ON THE EXCITABLE CORTEX OF THE CHIMPANZEE, ORANG-UTAN AND GORILLA. Q J EXP PHYSIOL 11, 135–222.

Figure 1. Motor maps of the gorilla cortexA, scale drawing of the left hemisphere of one of Leyton & Sherrington’s experiments

on a gorilla (gorilla 1). The numbers and letters encode a wide range of different primary movements evoked by faradic stimulation. Eye movements (372–388) were generally evoked from an area further rostral from the motor cortex. Owing to lack of space, many motor effects were not plotted. B, simplified ‘map’ showing ‘responses grouped diagrammatically’,

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BRODMANN’S AREA: 1909

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FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX

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MORE INTRICATE MOTOR MAPS Intracortical micro-stimulation

of layer V confirms the spatial motor map of Penfield

Stimulation of small regions of the map activated single muscles, suggesting that vertical columns of cells in the motor cortex were responsible for controlling the actions of particular muscles.

Microstimulation with simultaneous EMG recording shows that organized movements represented in motor map

Individual pyramidal cells terminates on group of muscles in anterior horn cells in mosaic fashion

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LATERAL AND MEDIAL SYSTEM

The initiation of skilled voluntary movement in primates

Loss of precise movement, retained power movement by lateral corticospinal destruction

Anterior corticospinal system destruction produce axial muscle deficits that cause difficulty with balance, walking, and climbing.

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CORTICAL CONTROL OF MOVEMENT

1947 Chang, Ruth could stimulate individual muscle by monkey motor cortex stimulation

1954 Bernhard and Bohm : single shock stimulation produces monosynaptic response in forelimb

Landgren, Phillips and Porter (1962). stimulated the surface of the motor cortex while recording intracellularly from motoneurons and demonstrated the existante of a cluster of neurons which projected monosynaptically to motor neurons

1953, Malis, Pribram and Kruger showed that the motor cortex received afferent inputs from the periphery in the absence of the sensory cortex

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CELLULAR ORGANIZATION OF M1

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THE ORGANIZATION OF CORTICAL EFFERENT SYSTEM

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INTRACORTICAL MICROSTIMULATION

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AFFERENT CORTICAL ZONES

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 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS DEVELOPED TO RECORD THE ACTIVITY OF SINGLE NEURONS IN AWAKE PRIMATES TRAINED TO PERFORM SPECIFIC MOVEMENTS : ED EVARTS 1960

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DIRECT CORTICOSPINAL CONTROL OF MOTOR NEURONS IS NECESSARY FOR FINE CONTROL OF THE DIGITS

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MOTOR CORTICAL CELL FIRING WITH FORCE GENERATED

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CORTICOMOTONEURONAL (CM) CELL IS ACTIVE DEPENDS ON THE MOTOR TASK

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ACTIVITY IN INDIVIDUAL NEURONS OF THE PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX IS RELATED TO MUSCLE FORCE AND DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT

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SPIKE TRIGGERED AVERAGING 1970

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DIFFERENT AREAS OF CORTEX ARE ACTIVATED DURING SIMPLE, COMPLEX, AND IMAGINED SEQUENCES OF FINGER MOVEMENTS (XENON PET)

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CELL ACTIVITY IN THE MOTOR CORTEX DEPENDS ON WHETHER A SEQUENCE OF MOVEMENTS IS GUIDED BY VISUAL CUES OR BY PRIOR TRAINING

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A SET-RELATED NEURON IN THE DORSAL PREMOTOR AREA BECOMES ACTIVE WHILE THE MONKEY PREPARES TO MAKE A MOVEMENT TO THE LEFT

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DIRECTION TUNING IN MOTOR CORTEX; CONTROL OF KINEMATIC VARIABLES

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POPULATION CODING

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MOTOR CORTEX CONTROL MUSCLE OR MOVEMENT?

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REPRESENTATION OF SPEED IN A MOTOR CORTEX CELL

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THE CASE FOR KINETIC CONTROL

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THE VISUOMOTOR TRANSFORMATIONS REQUIRED FOR REACHING AND GRASPING INVOLVE TWO DIFFERENT PATHWAYS

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Individual neurons in the ventral premotor area fire during specific hand actions only

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MOTOR PLANNING

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A. ACTIVITY IN THE NEURON AS THE MONKEY OBSERVES ANOTHER MONKEY MAKE A PRECISION GROUP.B. ACTIVITY IN THE SAME NEURON AS THE MONKEY OBSERVES THE HUMAN EXPERIMENTER MAKE THE PRECISION GRIP.C. ACTIVITY IN THE SAME NEURON AS THE MONKEY ITSELF PERFORMS A PRECISION GRIP. (FROM RIZZOLOTTI ET AL 1996.)

Mirror Neurons

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CORTICAL MOTOR AREAS

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MOTOR CORTICAL CENTER

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THE SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION OF THE MOTOR CORTEX IS PLASTIC

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AS A MOVEMENT BECOMES MORE PRACTICED, IT IS REPRESENTED MORE EXTENSIVELY IN PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX

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SUMMARY Primary Motor Cortex:

Codes force and direction of movement Spinal motor neuron are directly under control for

precise movement. Dorsal Premotor Cortex

Movement related neuron encodes sensorimotor transformation for visual and sensory cue

Fire before movement Ventral Premotor Cortex

Encodes learned motor act fire before movement

All cortical neurons are adaptable and plastic

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MOTOR CORTEX AFFERENT

1. Adjacent cortex1. the somatosensory areas of the

parietal cortex,

2. theadjacent areas of the frontal cortex anterior to the motor cortex, and

3. the visual and auditory cortices.

2. Opposite cerebral hemisphere.

3. Somatosensory fibers directly from the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus.

4. Tracts from the ventrolateral and ventroanterior nuclei of the thalamus, which in turn receive signals from the cerebellum and basal ganglia

5. Fibers from the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus (RAS).

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CONVERGENCE OF MOTOR CONTROL ON THE ANTERIOR MOTOR NEURON

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EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM