Motivation in School: Helping Students with LD What is Motivation? A desire to do something...
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Slide 2 Motivation in School: Helping Students with LD Slide 3 What is Motivation? A desire to do something Intrinsic Motivation Internalized Motivation Extrinsic Motivation (Sideridis, 2009) Slide 4 Why do we motivate students? To engage in learning opportunities To improve academic achievement To decrease problem behaviour To increase social skills To learn self-regulation skills To become more self-determined To discover their strengths & passions To understand rules and learning strategies Slide 5 How do we motivate students with LD? Slide 6 Contributors to Low Motivation in LD Low social status Limited access to help Negative self-talk Fear of failure Frustration with inconsistent performance Lack of understanding of work Emotional problems / anger Teacher response (West, 2002) (http://www.greatschools.org/special- education/support/816-motivating-kids-learning- attention-problems.gs) Slide 7 Typical Thoughts of a Student with LD: Task Sequence NEEDGOALSATTRIBUT IONS / LOCUS OF CONTROL SELFDURING TASK ACHIEVE- MENT POST Need for Achieveme nt or Need for Competenc e: I want to be a high achiever, I want to be competent. (Sideridis, 2009) Performan ce Avoidance: I dont want to be the worst student in class Performan ce Approach: I want to outperform everybody else Success: If I do well its b/c Im lucky Failure: If I fail its b/c Im not smart. Efficacy: I dont really believe I have the skills to accomplish this particular task. Expectatio ns: I am not going to do well. Motivated Behavior: I cant do it, I must give up. Affect: This is humiliating for yet another time. Low Achieveme nt: I am not going to accomplish the task successfully Attribution s: I am not smart. Helplessne ss: I cant do it. Affect: I feel bad. Depression : I want to cry. Hopelessn ess: There is no need to try again. Slide 8 Motivation & Learning Disabilities: Factors Affecting Motivation Motivation Variables for Learning Beliefs & Attributions Instruction & Teaching Style Classroom Environment Curriculum: Interesting/ Challenging? Slide 9 Attributions (Teacher Response to LD) n=97 teachers; K-6; 8 vignettes of boys Results: less anger; more pity to LD follow test failure Expectations of future failure; see LD as uncontrollable, stable, internal Unwilling to punish LD to preserve self-esteem Message to student: pity, more failure, rewards less competent lower self-esteem; lower expectations for future success Teacher reinforcing student w/LD beliefs: I am less competent Limitation: not random selection; hypothetical vignettes/survey (Clark, 1997) Slide 10 Problem Solution Students with LD attribute successes to luck & failures to ability /effort I cant read b/c I have dyslexia. Everyone in my family does terrible in math. Ill never get a good grade b/c the teacher hates me. Attribution Retraining (Effort Retraining) Be expert kidwatcher Change mindset: intelligence not fixed Performance based on effort Poor scores=NOT failure but info for improvement (Fulk, 1996) Attributions of students with LD Slide 11 To Reward or Not to Reward? Mack-3 rd grade LD (case study) multiple baseline Purpose: Will token reinforcement decrease 3 problem behaviours? (ie. out of seat, talking out, poor posture) Rewards (ie. computer, leisure, games)for absence of problem behaviour Results: Decrease in problem behaviour Limitation: too much time to implement; train in self- monitoring/self-reward (Higgins et al., 2001) Research: Inconclusive (mostly non-LD) Expected Tangible rewardscan lower intrinsic motivation (ie. task completion) Dont reward high interest task Are rewards perceived as informational or controlling? Verbal Praise (effort) Unexpected tangible rewards & task non-contingent rewards Be discerning how you use rewards! (Sanacore, 2008) Slide 12 EI INTERVENTIONS FOR STS W/ RD Emotional Intelligence (EI) skills: (1) Perceive emotions in self /other (2) Use emotions to help thinking (3) Understand emotional knowledge (4) Regulate emotions in self Language/ comprehension deficits due to E knowledge deficits (ie. forming emotional schemas, social scripts) Positive affect improves ability to process info; cognitive org.; creativity Can generate more associations Higher EI better persevere with frustration (Pellitteri, 2006) INTERVENTIONS Peer mediation / tutoring: Older sts w/ RD help younger w/ reading probs self-esteem; self efficacy, meta-cognition, problem-solving By analysing reading errors of younger sts (need guidance/training) Guided reading w/ scaffolding Dont target decoding at expense of fluency + comprehension lose flow Pre-reading strategies: main idea; type of story Make personal / affective connection Repeated engagement w/ sections of text deeper meaning read complete story modified Slide 13 Role of Parents Motivating their kids Supportive Home Environment: early exposure w/ enjoyable books Parent beliefs about reading affect child (ie. for entertainment or skills (decoding)\ Focus on error correction feedback perception: mechanistic; can hurt wavering motivation of struggling reader Shared storybook reading promotes motivation Excessive focus on skill development undermine affective quality of child/parent interactions Teacher advice for Parents: --- encourage to read w/ kids; but give appropriate books for home (dont assume) May need to give guidance/workshop on how to help (ie. concepts, strategies, how much, what discussions, how to respond to mistakes; focus on comprehension) 3 kinds of support reading for parents: echo reading (parent says- child repeats); partner reading (taking turns); independent reading (Baker, 2003) Slide 14 Research Themes & Findings on LD & Motivation Friendships, social networks Collaborative peer groupsChoice & Control Attributions (Teacher & Students)Combined intv. (Strategy + Attr Retraining) Cooperative Learning (mixed results)Zone of proximal developement Computer assisted technologyParental role (meaning/comp. vs. skills) Self-Determination best results combine strategy/direct instruction w/SD Student IEPs proper training in participation motiv, self-adv, comunic Self-managm. +goal setting productiv.Teacher modeling; affect Rewards / Intrinsic MotivationSelf-Efficacy Social Emotional Skills acad. Achiev.Mastery vs. performance oriented classes High/Low Challenge Tasks (Miller, 2003) Reading/Writing affect motiv. / learning 2yr intervention (write multi-paragraphs Cognitive stratg; self-reg; social skills = + Mastery oriented; peer /teacher help CWP ; gr.9s w/LD (McCurdy, 2008) Writing multi-component interv. (direct instruction; choice; practice; indiv. Feedback; group rewards) Slide 15 Limitations Combined skill interventions: which skill resp. for which outcome? Treatment Fidelity Small samples Self-reports: inflated LD responding of abilities/self self-protection Measuring motivationso many constructs (Konrad et al., 2007; Sideridis, 2009) Slide 16 Motivating Ideas/ Interventions for LD (Anecdotal, Experiential) Academic Service Learning SEL programs Humour Teaching to strengths (MI) Classroom meetings Readers Theatre/ Writing & Acting in Plays Using multimedia (film); computer programs Strategic Games Cultural stories/ projects that foster self-expression and pride Celebration of Learning Days Slide 17 LD definition problematic?? Deci, 1986: What seems to us to be missingis the possibility that emotional and motivational variables are central to some (if not all) learning disabilities either as initial causes or as factors that exacerbate problems that are based in neurological deficits. (Sideridis, 2009) Slide 18 My Holy Trinity of Learning & Motivation 3 basic psychological needs of SDT: Compete nce Autonomy Connecte dness Slide 19 Born-again Trinity of Motivation & Teaching 1. Is my teaching of high interest? 2. Does my teaching convey value or meaningful rationale? 3. Is there appropriate reward or reinforcement to support my teaching to motivate students? 2. Internalized Motivation 1. Intrinsic Motivation 3. Extrinsic Motivation Slide 20 Discussion Questions Do you believe rewards undermine intrinsic motivation? What rewards do you use? What ideas, interventions, strategies help keep your students motivated? Can a teacher make accomodations/ modifications for a student with LD and still hold them to high expectations? Slide 21 References Baker, Linda. (2003). The role of parents in motivating struggling readers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 87-106. Chan, Lorna, K. S. (1994). Relationship of motivation, strategic learning, and reading achievement in grades 5, 7, 9. Journal of Experimental Education, 62(4), 319-339. Clark, Margaret, D. (1997). Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(1), 69-79. Fulk, Barbara, M. (1996). Reflections on The effects of combined strategy and attribution training on LD adolescents spelling performance. Exceptionality, 6(1), 59-63. Garcia, J-N., & Caso, A. M. (2004). Effects of a motivational intervention for improving the writing of children with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(1), 141-160. Higgins, J. W., et al. (2001). The effects of a token economy employing instructional consequences for a third-grade student with learning disabilities: A data-based case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(1), 99-106. Kunnen, E. S., & Steenbeek, H. W. (1998) Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups. Child Care, Health and Development, 25(6), 429-446. McCurdy, M., et al. (2008). Examining the effects of a comprehensive writing program on the writing performance of middle school students with learning disabilities in written expression. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 571-586. McMaster, K. M., & Fuchs, D. (2002). Effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of students with learning d