Motivation and theories of motivation
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MOTIVATION AND THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION AND THEORIES OF MOTIVATION A PRESENTATION BY: SANJANA BHARADWAJ, III SEMESTER, BB.A.LL.B MU13BBALLB13
INTRODUCTION TO MOTIVATIONIN LITERAL SENSE: The psychologicalfeature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose, and direction to behaviour. Motivation is one of the forces that lead to performance.Motivationis defined as the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level, leading to goal-directed behaviour.
FEATURES OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is an internal feeling Motivation produces goal directed behaviourMotivation contains systems orientationMotivation can either be positive or negativeMotivation is different from job satisfaction
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Productive use of resourcesIncreased efficiency and outputAchievement of goalsDevelopment of friendly relationshipsStability in workforce
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
The theories of motivations are divided into three main categories:Content TheoriesProcess theoriesReinforcement theory
MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY THEORYALDERFERS ERG MODELACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY THEORY X AND THEORY Y THEORY ZMATURITY - IMMATURITY THEORY HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTORTHEORY
MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
2. ALDERFERS ERG MODEL
Existence NeedsIt includes all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love and affection).Relatedness NeedsEncompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like family, friends, co-workers and employers. This also means to be recognized and feel secure as part of a group or family.Growth NeedsInternal esteem and self-actualization; these impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to progress toward one's ideal self). This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete meaningful tasks.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY
David McClelland built on this work in his 1961 book, "The Achieving Society." Identified three motivators that he believed we all have: a need for achievement, a need for affiliation, and a need for power.According to McClelland, these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory).Regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY (contd..)
Power need (n Pow): this is the need to dominate, influence and control others. Power speaks about the ability to manipulate or control the activities of others to suit ones own purposes. Affiliation need (n Aff): the need for affiliation is a social need, for companionship and support, for developing meaningful relationship with people.Achievement need (n Ach): this is a need for challenge, for personal accomplishment and success in competitive situations.
THEORY X AND THEORY Y
Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise
Theory Z is an approach to management based upon a combination of American and Japanese management philosophies.Theory Z was first identified as a unique management approach by William Ouchi in the 1981 book, Theory Z: How American Companies Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. It is characterised by: long-term job security,consensual decision making, slow evaluation and promotion procedures, and individual responsibility within a group contextSometimes considered a blend of the model Theory X and Theory Y, with more of a leaning towards Theory Y.
6. MATURITY - IMMATURITY THEORY Chris Argyris explored the concept of organizational learning. According to Argyris, seven changes should take place in the personality of individuals if they are to develop into mature people over the years.First, individuals move from a passive state as infants to a state of increasing activity as adults.Second, individuals develop from a state of dependency upon others as infants to a state of relative independence as adults.Individuals behave in only a few ways as infants, but as adults they are capable of behaving in many ways.
MATURITY - IMMATURITY THEORY (Contd.) Individuals have erratic, casual, and shallow interests as infants but develop deeper and stronger interests as adults.The time perspective of children is very short, involving only the present, but as they mature, their time perspective increases to include the past and the future.Individuals as infants are subordinate to everyone, but they move to equal or superior positions with others as adults.As children, individuals lack an awareness of a "self," but as adults they are not only aware of, but they are able to control "self."
Frederick Herzberg's two-factortheory, also known as the motivation-hygiene theory or intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.
II. PROCESS THEORIES
The Equity TheoryThe Expectancy theoryThe goal setting theory.Porter and Lawler Model
A. The Equity Theory
John Stacey Adams' equity theory helps explain why pay and conditions alone do not determine motivation. It also explains why giving one person a promotion or pay-rise can have a demotivating effect on others.Inputs: time, effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, enthusiasm, personal sacrifice.Outputs: Typical outcomes are job security, esteem, salary, employee benefits, expenses, recognition, reputation, responsibility, sense of achievement, praise, thanks.
B. The Expectancy theory
POSTULATED BY VICTOR VROOM.It presents a valid, comprehensive and useful approach to management. It is a choice model.Built around three concepts:1. Valence.2. Expectancy.3. Instrumentality.
C. THE GOAL SETTING THEORY.
Postulated by Edwin Locke. According to him, motivation is a result of rational and intentional behavior.Suggests that managers and subordinates should establish goals on a regular basis. Goals should be moderately difficult and specific.
D. Porter and Lawler Model
POSTULATED BY PORTER AND LAWLERPROMOTED THE THESIS THAT PERFORMANCES CAUSES SATISFACTION.EXPLORED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION, SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE.PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION IS FUNCTION OF THREE IMPORTANT FACTORS:1. DESIRE TO PERFORM.2. MOTIVATION ALONE WILL NOT LEAD TO PERFORMANCE.3. A PERSON MUST HAVE REQUSITE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE TO DO A JOB. PERFORMANCE LEADS TO REWARDS.
III. REINFORCEMENT THEORY
Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individuals behaviour is a function of its consequences.This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action.The managers use the following methods for controlling the behaviour of the employees:1. Positive Reinforcement2. Negative Reinforcement3. Punishment4. Extinction
MOTIVATIONAL APPLICATION ;
What Is Employee Involvement?
Employee Involvement ProgramA participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organizations success
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs
Participative ManagementA process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs (contd)
Representative ParticipationWorkers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees.Works CouncilsGroups of nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when manage-ment makes decisions involving personnelBoard RepresentativeA form of representative participation; employees sit on a companys board of directors and represent the interests of the firms employees.
Alternative Work Arrangements
FlextimeEmployees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.Job SharingThe practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job
Alternative Work Arrangements, cont. Categories of Telecommuting JobsRoutine information-handling tasksMobile activitiesProfessional and other knowledge-related tasksTelecommutingEmployees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office.
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs (contd)
Quality CircleA work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions
Employee Recognition ProgramsIntrinsic rewards: Stimulate Intrinsic Motivation Personal attention given to employeeApproval and appreciation for a job well doneGrowing in popularity and usageBenefits of ProgramsFulfill employees desire for recognitionInexpensive to implement Encourages repetition of desired behaviorsDrawbacks of ProgramsSusceptible to manipulation by management
From the Wall Street Journal, October 21, 1997. Reprinted by permission of Cartoon Features Syndicate.
Implications for ManagersIn Order to Motivate Employees:Recognize individual differencesUse goals and feedbackAllow employees to participate in decisions that affect themLink rewards to performanceDefine the employees' roleOffer training and development
CONCLUSION Motivation is the work that a manager performs to inspire, encourage and compel people to accomplish desired goals. Properly motivated empl