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  • MOTIVATION AND DE-MOTIVATION OF FEMALE

    CIVIL SERVANTS: A STUDY ON BANGLADESH CIVIL SERVICE

    ADMINISTRATION CADRE

    MAHBUBA BILKIS

    2012

    MASTER IN PUBLIC POLICY AND GOVERNANCE PROGRAM

    DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

    NORTH SOUTH UNIVERSITY, BANGLADESH

  • ii

    Dedicated to

    My mother Mrs. Shamsunnahar Begum

    who was the first teacher in my life.

  • iii

    Acknowledgements

    First and foremost, I would like to convey my gratitude to Dr. Rizwan Khair, the supervisor

    of the study, for his valuable guidelines, comments and suggestions during the whole study. I

    am grateful to Professor Salahuddin M. Aminuzzaman, Dr. SK. Tawfique M. Haque, Prof.

    M. Emdadul Haque and Dr. Mobasser Monem for their valuable suggestions and supports

    during the series of defenses. I acknowledge the contributions of Mr. M. Mahfuzul Huque

    who pored over the draft thesis and made valuable comments to improve it. I am also

    thankful to Dr. Ishtiaq Jamil and Prof. Tek Nath Dhakal for their valuable comments and

    suggestions at the time of final defense.

    I am thankful to my MPPG classmates who made valuable comments during the peer

    discussion on the study. I would like to convey my tribute to some of my batchmates and

    colleagues who helped me a lot for collecting primary data from Secretariat and field level.

    My gratitude is also for the respondents of the study for spearing their valuable and busy time

    during the survey and the interviews.

    My special thanks for NOMA (NORADs Master Studies Program) for providing financial

    supports to undertake the study. I also acknowledge the cooperation of the employees of the

    MPPG programme during the study.

    Finally, I am grateful to my family members for encouraging me for the study.

    Mahbuba Bilkis

    30 July 2012

  • iv

    Table of Contents

    Page No.

    Dedication ii

    Acknowledgement iii

    Table of Contents iv

    List of Tables vii

    List of Figures and Charts viii

    List of Abbreviations ix

    Abstract x

    Chapter One: Introductory Discussion 1 - 18

    1. Background and Context 1

    2. Statement of the Problem 2

    3. Objectives of the Study 3

    4. Significance of the Study

    5. Unit of Analysis

    3

    6

    6. Research Questions 7

    7. Operational Definition and Related Issues 7

    8. Hypotheses of the Study 10

    9. Scope of the Study 10

    10. Research Design 11

    10.1 Research Methodology 11

    10.2 Sources of Data and Data Collection Technique 12

    10.3 Sample Size 13

    10.4 Sampling Method 13

    10.5 Selection of Study Areas 14

    10.6 Reliability 15

    10.7 Questionnaire Design and Measuring Instrument 15

    10.8 Data Validation 16

    10.9 Data Analysis Tools and Techniques 16

    11. Limitation of the Study 17

    12. Organization of the Thesis 17

    Chapter Two: Women Participation in Public Administration of

    Bangladesh: a brief Account

    19 - 34

    Introduction 19

    1. Historical Overview of Women Participation in Civil Service 20

    2. Existing Legal Arrangements for Women Participation in Bangladesh

    Civil Service

    21

    2.1 Constitutional Provision 21

    2.2 The Women Development Policy, 2011 23

    2.3 Gender Issues in MDG and PRSP 23

  • v

    2.4 Quota in Civil Service at Recruitment Level 23

    2.5 President Quota 24

    2.6 Parliamentary Standing Committee 25

    2.7 Institutional Arrangements 25

    2.8 WID Focal Points in Ministries 25

    2.9 The Government Servants Conduct Rules 25

    2.10 Rules for Giving Posting Together to Husband and Wife 26

    2.11 Six Month Maternity Leave 26

    2.12 Commitment at International Level 26

    3. Gaps in Government Initiatives 26

    4. Present Status of Women in Public Administration of Bangladesh 28

    Summary of the Chapter 34

    Chapter Three: Literature Review, Theoretical Concept and

    Analytical Framework

    35 57

    Introduction 35

    1. Literature Review 35

    1.1 Literatures Related to Women in Public Administration 35

    1.2 Literatures Related to Motivation 40

    2. Main Interference Drawn from the Literature Review 43

    3. Justification of the Study 45

    4. Concept of Motivation 45

    5. Major Theories of Motivation 46

    6. Limitations of the Motivation Theories for Using Single Theory for the Study 49

    7. Other Essential Theories Related to Study Area 50

    7.1 Hofstede Dimension of the Study 50

    7.2 Gender Dimension of the Study 51

    8. Theory Triangulation and Appropriate Variables Selection 51

    9. Measurable Indicators for Independent Variables 54

    10. Analytical Framework 55

    Summary of the Chapter 57

    Chapter Four: Data Presentation 58 67

    Introduction 58

    1. About Respondents 58

    2. Summaries of Interviews and Observation 58

    3. Case Studies 59

    Case Study 1 60

    Case Study 2 61

    Case Study 3 62

    Case Study 4 63

    4. Questionnaire Survey 64

    Summary of the Chapter 67

  • vi

    Chapter Five: Findings on Motivation and De-motivation of Female

    Civil Servants

    68 99

    Introduction 68

    1. Issues Related to Motivation for Joining in BCS Administration 69

    1.1 Was BCS Administration Cadre the First Choice? 69

    1.2 What Factors Motivated Females to Choose Public Service rather

    than Private Service?

    70

    1.3 What Factors motivated Women to join in BCS Administration Cadre

    rather than other Cadres?

    71

    2. Motivation Level of the Respondents 72 3. Factors that motivate to continue working in BCS Administration Cadre 74 4. Chi-square Test to Measure the Significance Level of the Variables 75 5. Correlation among the Variables 76

    6. Regression Analysis 79

    7. Testing Hypotheses associated with Motivation 79

    8. De-motivation related Issues 83

    8.1 Do Females feel de-motivation to the service? 83

    8.2 De-motivation Level 83

    8.3 Factors that de-motivate Female Civil Servants 84

    8.3.1 Job Characteristics as a de-motivator 85

    8.3.2 Unfriendly Work Environment as de-motivator 89

    8.3.3 No Assured Promotion as de-motivator 90

    8.3.4 Non-fulfillment of Expectation as de-motivator 91

    8.3.5 Family Burden 91

    8.3.6 Lack of Market based Salary 92

    9. Listening from the Female Administrators about their Challenges 93

    10. Suggestions Made by Female Civil Servants 95

    11. Male Opinion regarding the findings of the Study 98

    Summary of the Chapter 99

    Chapter Six: Major Findings and Conclusion 100 107

    Introduction 100

    1. Major Findings related to Motivation 100

    2. Main De-motivating Factors when They Work in Administration 101

    3. Linking Up Findings 103

    4. To What Extent Findings are Related to Theories? 104

    5. Conclusion 107

    6. Scope for Further Research 107

    References 108

    Annexure 1: Questionnaire 117

    Annexure 2: Additional Tables according to Collected Data 121

    Annexure 3: Research Plan 128

  • vii

    List of Tables

    Page No.

    Table 1.1: Data Source and Data Collection Techniques 12

    Table 1.2: Sample size 13

    Table 1.3: Strata wise Respondent Distribution for Survey 14

    Table 2.1: Quota system in Recruitment of Civil Service 24

    Table 2.2: Female Secretary at the time of the Study 29

    Table 2.3: Female Additional Secretary at present time 30

    Table 2.4: Womens Participation at Secretariat level 31

    Table 2.5: Womens Participation at Field Level 32

    Table 2.6: Womens Participation in Public Administration of Bangladesh 32

    Table 3.1: Linking Maslows, Alderfers, Herzbergs and McClellands theory 47

    Table 3.2: Theory and Variable Linkage 53

    Table 3.3: Variable Matrix 54

    Table 4.1: Ministries Covered for Data Collection 66

    Table 5.1 Factors of Motivation for Public Service rather than Private Service 71

    Table 5.2 Motivating Factors for Joining in Administration Cadre according to survey 72

    Table 5.3 Motivation Level 73

    Table 5.4 Descriptive Statistics on Motivating Factors for Continuation of Working 74

    Table 5.5: Chi-Square Test Result of the Variables 76

    Table 5.6: Relationships among Demographic Data and Motivation Level

    Table 5.7: Relationships among Motivation related Data and Motivation Level

    Table 5.8: Relationships among Demographic Data and Motivation related Data with

    Motivation Level

    77

    77

    78

    Table 5.9: Regression Analysis 79

    Table 5.10: Frequencies of Salary 80

    Table 5.11 Chi-Square Test Frequencies of Family Influence for Joining in Service 81

    Table 5.12: Chi-Square Test Statistics 82

    Table 5.13: Chi-Square Test Statistics of Family Influence for Continuation in Service 82

    Table 5.14: Whether De-motivated or Not 83

    Table 5.15: Frequency of De-motivation Levels 83

    Table 5.16: Descriptive Statistics of De-motivating Factors 84

    Table 5.17: Descriptive Statistics on issues/indicators of Job Characteristics Variable 86

    Table 5.18: Living without Family as a De-motivating factor 87

    Table 5.19: Descriptive Statistics on issues/indicators of