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Transcript of Monday 22nd March

    • New media technology is a term meant to encompass the emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies in the later part of the 20th century.
    • Most technologies described as "new media" are digital. This is simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storage when compared with older analogue methods.
    • Q: What digital/new media technologies can you think of that are used in the production of films?
  • OLD MEDIA TECHNOLOGY? Before the introduction of digital technology all films were shot on film cameras like this one. The film would be recorded onto big reels of 8mm, 16mm or 35mm film. Once the filming was completed, it would be editing on a machine like this one (a moviola). The editor would literally have to cut and paste the film together frame by frame. Special effects were primitive and had to be created by the props department. They often looked very unrealistic, barely representing reality.
  • CAMERA DIGITAL CINEMATOGRAPHY Digital cinematography has only established itself in the last 10 years. Instead of recording to film the footage can be recorded onto tape, hard disk or memory stick as long as the camera is digital. The first major Hollywood film to be recorded entirely digitally was Star Wars Episode II in 2002. Since then films such as Sin City and Superman Returns have used this technology. Read these articles then answer the question you may need to do additional research What are the advantages and disadvantages of film and digital cinematography for the film industry? (try to refer to the production, distribution and exhibition stages)
  • CAMERA HD & 3D
    • HD video is an upgraded version of digital video. It has a higher resolution (meaning more DPI or dots per inch). By having a higher DPI the picture quality is far higher than normal DV and retains a higher quality picture on a large screen. However, whilst being far easier to edit, even the highest quality HD DV is not as clear as a 35mm or 70mm film.
    There has also been a resurgence in 3D film-making over the last ten years. New digital techniques, using a combination of very HD DV and high quality film stock have produced better 3D effects than ever before. There is now a move towards glasses-free 3D viewing, which using a trick of the mind creates almost holographic images.
    • Understand the what is meant by the term film distribution.
    • Understand the role of distribution companies in the film industry.
    • Understand how film distribution works differently for independent and Hollywood companies.
    • In the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies in theatres, and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc).
    • This will usually be through a cinema first and then onto DVD, although some films are released straight to DVD.
    • A film distributor is an independent company, a subsidiary company or occasionally an individual, which acts as the final agent between a film production company and a film exhibitor , to secure the placement of the producer's film on the exhibitor's screen.
    • The Distributor is responsible for:
    • Finding exhibitors to screen the film
    • Ensuring there are enough copies of the film produced for the cinema release and that all the cinemas have them
    • Providing (and often producing) the advertising material to ensure the film receives the highest audience possible and making sure they are with the exhibitors in time for the release date.
    • A film will usually have a different distributor for DVD releases, who will be responsible for the marketing and production of the home release.
    • A film will usually have a different distributor for each country or group of countries.
    • Why would there be different distributors for different countries?
    • How important do you think the role of distributor is in the film industry?
    • How would you expect the process of distribution for Hollywood and Independent films to be different?
    • Hollywood companies tend to be vertically integrated .
    • This means they will usually own a number a of stages involved in getting a film to an audience.
    • For example, a studio may own the production company ( the production stage ), the distributor ( distribution and marketing stage ) and sometimes even the cinema ( the exhibition stage ).
    HOLLYWOOD STUDIO What would be the advantage of vertical integration for a Hollywood Studio? Production Company Distributor Cinema
    • How many different distributors would you expect to be involved with this film?
    Alliance Films (2009) (Canada) (theatrical) Bontonfilm (2009) (Czech Republic) (theatrical) (subtitled) Focus Features (2009) (USA) (theatrical) Lusomundo Audiovisuais (2009) (Portugal) (theatrical) SPI International (2009) (Slovakia) (theatrical) Studio Canal (2009) (France) (theatrical) Toho-Towa (2009) (Japan) (theatrical) United International Pictures ( UIP ) (2009) (Sweden) (theatrical) United International Pictures ( UIP ) (2009) (Singapore) (theatrical) Universal Pictures International (UPI) (2009) (Germany) (theatrical) Universal Pictures International (UPI) (2009) (UK) (theatrical) Universal Pictures International (UPI) (2009) (Netherlands) (theatrical) Argentina Video Home (2009) (Argentina) (DVD) Finnkino (2009) (Finland) (all media) Studio Canal (2009) (France) (DVD) Studio Canal (2009) (France) (DVD) (Blu-ray) Universal Home Entertainment (2009) (UK) (DVD) Universal Home Entertainment (2009) (UK) (DVD) (Blu-ray) Universal Pictures Benelux (2009) (Netherlands) (DVD) Universal Pictures Benelux (2009) (Netherlands) (DVD) (Blu-ray) Universal Pictures Nordic (2009) (Sweden) (DVD) Universal Pictures Nordic (2009) (Sweden) (DVD) (Blu-ray) Universal Pictures (2009) (Germany) (DVD) Universal Studios Home Entertainment (2009) (USA) (DVD) Universal Studios Home Entertainment (2009) (USA) (DVD) (Blu-ray) There are 25 in total if you include both cinema and home video distributors. 14 of these companies are owned by Universal (or part owned as UIP is joint owned with Paramount) a great example of vertical integration!
    • Independent companies often find it difficult to find a distributor.
    • Unlike movies made by Hollywood Studios or their subsidiaries, who already have a distributor in place before production even begins, many independent films are completed and then must find a distribution deal.
    • Distributors will buy an independent film, either for a set fee (after which the producers receive none of the profits) or offer the film-makers a cut of the films profits.
    • The process of a distributor buying a film is called acquisition.
    • How would you expect an independent producer to find a distributor once their film is finished?
    • What advantages would a film produced by Film4 have over most other independent films when trying to secure a distributor?
    • How many different distributors would you expect to be involved with this film?
    IFC Films (2007) (USA) (theatrical) IFC First Take (2007) (USA) (theatrical) Madman Entertainment (2007) (Australia) (all media) NetFlix (2007) (USA) (DVD) NonStop Entertainment (2007) (Sweden) (theatrical) Optimum Releasing (2006) (UK) (theatrical) Red Envelope Entertainment (2007) (USA) (DVD) Sandrew Metronome Distribution (2008) (Finland) (DVD) The film has only 8 distribution deals one of which partly financed the film (Optimum Releasing). How could you relate the concept of audience to the number of distributors a film has?