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1. Module 2: Week 1 Introduction to Palaeozoic Britain Old Lost Sea: The Iapetus Ocean Wikimedia Commons 2. Palaeozoic periods Permian (299252 Ma) Carboniferous (359299 Ma) Devonian (419359 Ma) Silurian (444419 Ma) Ordovician (485444 Ma) Cambrian (541485 Ma) 3. North-South divide Palaeozoic UK partitioned into terranes: Scotland, N. Ireland = Laurentian (North American) England, Wales, S. Ireland = Avalonian (Euro-Africa) 4. Dividing the Early Palaeozoic V (Images from Wikimedia Commons) Rev. Adam Sedgwick Sir Roderick Impey Murchison 5. Uniting the Early Palaeozoic Charles Lapworth Charles Walcott 6. Not to mention J. Tuzo Wilson Richard Fortey Robin Cocks 7. The Cambrian Controversy Sedgwick vs Murchison 8. 1835: collaboration & (Images from Wikimedia Commons) Sedgwick - Cambrian Murchison - Silurian 9. Cambria Sedgwick studied geology of North Wales 10. Siluria Murchison studied geology of South Wales 11. 1839-1873: competition V (Images from Wikimedia Commons) Murchison began encroaching his Lower Silurian on Sedgwicks Upper Cambrian 12. 1879: compromise (Images from Wikimedia Commons) Lapworth proposes the Ordovician 13. Cambrian outcrops (Eng & Wal) Harvey et al. (2011) 14. Walcott's Cambrian critters 15. Walcott's Cambrian critters Puzzling distribution of Euro-American fossils 16. Wilson's (1966) wonderings Did the Atlantic close then re-open? 17. Cocks & Fortey (1982) Fossils = more precise timings Cambrian: very different Laurentia & Avalonia far apart Ordovician = getting similar L & A converging Silurian = very similar L & A converged 18. Wilson Cycles? Cyclical plate tectonic system by which oceans open and close 19. Start of a Wilson Cycle Hot spot rifting beneath continent 20. Middle of a Wilson Cycle ACTIVE margin PASSIVE margin 21. End of a Wilson Cycle Subduction of ocean continental collision 22. Late Precambrian opening of Iapetus Ocean 23. Start of a Wilson Cycle Precambrian supercontinent break-up 24. Cambrian geography Ron Blakey (Geosystems) 25. Early-Mid Cambrian (Eng & Wal) 26. Cambro-Ordovician (Eng & Wal) 27. Hebridean Terrane, NW Scotland Cambro-Ordovician Scotland 28. Cambro- Ordovician strata, Northwest Scotland 29. Sea-level change controlled deposition? 30. Middle of a Wilson Cycle ACTIVE margin (Eng & Wales) PASSIVE margin (Scotland) Late Cambrian Early Cambrian PASSIVE margin (Scotland) PASSIVE margin (Eng & Wales) 31. Early Ordovician 32. Mid-Ordovician 33. Late Ordovician 34. Ordovician volcanism 35. Borrowdale Volcanic Group Fiamme textures in ignimbrite, Great Paddy Crag, Buckbarrow BGS 36. Late-stage Wilson Cycle ACTIVE margin Avalonia North Wales West Wales Lake District 37. Death of an ocean Silurian: The closing of Iapetus 38. Links Palaeogeographical maps of Europe: The Wilson Cycle: The Iapetus in Newfoundland: