Mobilization, North and South
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Mobilization, North and SouthWar FeverFort Sumter: April 12, 1861Lincoln mobilized state militias for 90 daysVirginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee seceded from the Union.The general belief was that the war would be shortWar fever led many to volunteer for military service.The initial enthusiasm for serving faded, leading to drafts by both the Union and Confederacy(first American draft)Exceptions allowed by each side. In North, hire substitute. In South, planters with 20+ slaves exempt
Mobilization, North and South, contd.The Norths advantage in resourcesThe North had human and economic advantagesRR, industry, people, banking, govt, NavyNorth: 50% of military aged men fought South: 90% of the eligible population served.
South: better leadership, defensive war
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FIGURE 151 A Comparison of the Union and Confederate Control of Key Resources at the Outset of the Civil War
Mobilization, North and South, contd.Leaders, governments, and strategiesConfederate President: Jefferson Davis, new govt not fully established Union President: Abe Lincoln, established govt
Union: blockade South, take Richmond, control Mississippi RiverConfederacy: defensive war, gain European ally, hold out until North quit
The Early War, 18611862First Bull RunUnion forces under McDowell confronted Confederate soldiers under Beauregard at Manassas, Virginia.At the First Battle of Bull Run, the Union seemed headed toward victory but wound up losing.Bull Run dispelled some illusions about the war but also boosted southern confidence in their superior military ability.
Map: From Bull Run to Antietam, p. 427.
The Early War, 18611862, contd.The war in the WestForces under general Ulysses S. Grant captured the strategic forts Henry and Donelson.Grant moved south and won victories at Shiloh Church, Tennessee and Corinth, Mississippi.Admiral David Farragut led a naval force that captured New Orleans.The fall of Memphis meant the only major river town remaining in Confederate hands was Vicksburg.
Map: The War in the West, 1861-1862, p. 428.
Awaiting combat, 1861: Union Soldiers from New York relax at camp awaiting orders to move to the front.
Note the young African American with a broom sitting apart from the soldiers.
The WarThe human tollThe heavy losses in battle changed the soldiers view of the war. The early bravado and enthusiasm was replaced by the sobering prospect of death.The conditions of medical care did not improve a wounded soldiers survival chances. Women on both sides played major roles in tending the wounded.Disease was a major cause of death: twice as many died from disease as from woundsReligion provided some solace to the soldiers.
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The Early War, 18611862, contd.The war in the EastGeneral George McClellan assumed command of the Union army in the east while General Robert E. Lee was named head of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.Lee attacked McClellans forces twice and was repulsed both times but casualties numbered in the tens of thousands.When McClellan withdrew, Lincoln replaced him with John Pope who lost the Second battle of Bull Run to Lee.
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Turning Points, 18621863The naval and the diplomatic warThe Union naval strategy was to blockade the southern coast and capture its key seaports and river towns, destroying the Souths ability to carry on the war.
Early Stages of WarConfederate victories (1st Bull Run, Peninsular Campaign, 2nd Bull Run)Poor Union leadership: Irvin McDowell, George McClellanGood Confederate leadership: Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson Union success in West due to Ulysses S. Grant
Turning Points, 1862Antietam: Bloodiest Day of WarLee invaded Maryland in September 1862, hoping to cut railroad links in Pennsylvania. Copies of Lees orders fell into Union hands and McClellan pursued Lee.thousands of casualties, tactical draw, and forced Lee back into Virginia.Britain and France abandon plans to recognize the Confederacyallowed Lincoln to announce the Emancipation Proclamation
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Emancipation ProclamationAt the start, war was to preserve Union, NOT to end slaveryLincoln and others recognized military advantage of freeing slaves, freeing the slaves would also appeal to the British.The Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in the states/areas still in rebellion against the Union.The proclamation continued slaves running away to Union camps that had begun earlier.Of the approximately 180,000 black soldiers and 20,000 black sailors who fought for the Union, over 80 percent were from the South.
African Americans in the Military
Turning Points, 18621863, contd.From Fredericksburg to GettysburgGeneral Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan and moved against Lees army, but was repelled at the Battle of Fredericksburg.General Joseph Hooker replaced Burnside but was defeated by Lee at Chancellorsville, leading Lee to plan a bold move north. General George Meade replaced Hooker. At the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the Union army defeated Lees forces. It was the bloodiest battle of the war, boosting Union morale but draining Lee of men and materiel.Map: From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg, p. 434Map: The Battle of Gettysburg, p. 436
Turning Points, 18621863, contd.Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the WestGrant captured Vicksburg after a siege.Confederate forces confined a Union army at Chattanooga, but Union reinforcements divided the Confederate army and broke the siege forcing the Confederate army to retreat into Georgia.In the Trans-Mississippi West, several Native American tribes battled Union forces for land and resources.Confederate hopes for securing Texas fell short as the naval blockade tightened.Map: Vicksburg and Chattanooga, p. 438
War Transforms the NorthWartime legislation and politicsLincoln used executive authority to silence opposition suspended the writ of habeas corpus(imprisoned dissenters w/o cause or charges). The draft aroused conflicts including the New York Draft Riot that began with an Irish mob protesting the draft.The northern economywages increased during the war, prices rose higherLabor unions revivedThe northern economy fed, clothed, and armed the Union soldiers, kept people employed
The Confederacy DisintegratesSouthern politicsStates rights was a major obstacle to the development of central authority. Dissent increased as war continuedCalls for peace arose as early as 1863.Southern economyBy 1863, the South experienced difficulty feeding its population. Inflation occurred, bread riots broke out.As the war progressed, Southern soldiers had threadbare uniforms with many garments and arms taken from the Union. Their families suffered under similar conditions.Many slaves stopped working and abandoned the plantations.Cotton exports down
Women in the War.Northern womenworked in industry.worked as nurses.(Clara Barton)The new economic opportunities opened up womens options, including admission to higher education.Southern womenmanaged plantations, working in fields alongside slaves. worked in factories making uniforms and munitions,.As the war continued, many women helped their deserting husbands and relatives elude Confederate authorities.
Other rolesSpiesRose O'Neal Greenhow - leader in Washington societySent secret message to General Beauregard which caused him to win the battle of Bull Run. Jefferson Davis credited her with winning the First Battle of Bull Run.imprisoned Still got messages to the Confederacy by means of cryptic notes which traveled in unlikely places such as the inside of a woman's hair. After her second prison term, she was exiled to the Confederate states
Coconspirator in Lincoln assassination: Mary Surratt
Frances Clalin served with Federal forces in Missouri. Soldiers in disguise -Female remains found at Gettysburg and Shiloh -female soldiers discovered when wounded, usually sent home
End of the WarUnion wins: April 1865Grant leadershipShermans March to SeaConfederates lack supplies, men, supportThe Toll of WarOver 600,000 dead#1 in American deathsDestruction: especially in SouthCotton trade ruinedNorth economic boomCountry torn apart4 million freed slavesAbe Lincoln dead
The Union Prevails, 18641865Grants plan to end the warGrant was appointed commander of the Union forces. He coordinated the Union war effort and changed the tempo of the war.Grants strategy was to hammer the enemy continuously. Sherman was advancing through Georgia and Grants major focus was on Lee.At the Battle of the Wilderness, Grant surprised Lee by not withdrawing after both sides endured heavy casualties. Grant pursued Lee fighting at Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor but heavy casualties led to criticism.Sherman moved through Georgia and captured Atlanta.Map: Grant and Lee in Virginia, p. 445
The Union Prevails, 18641865, contd.The election of 1864 and Shermans marchGeorge McClellan opposed Lincoln in the 1864 election.The fall of Atlanta and later victories boosted support for Lincoln who won the election.The Thirteenth Amendment outlawing slavery was passed in 1865.Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea leaving ruin and devastation in his wake.Some Confederate leaders proposed arming slaves but the slaves responded with little enthusiasm.
The Union Prevails, 18641865, contd.The road to Appomattox and the deat