MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PROTECTIVE CTION AND E TORNADO MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PERSPECTIVES ON...

download MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PROTECTIVE CTION AND E TORNADO MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PERSPECTIVES ON PREPAREDNESS,

If you can't read please download the document

  • date post

    24-Jun-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PROTECTIVE CTION AND E TORNADO MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PERSPECTIVES ON...

  • MOBILE HOME RESIDENT PERSPECTIVES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTIVE

    ACTION, AND EVACUATION FOR TORNADO HAZARDS

    by

    Kevin D. Ash

    Bachelor of Arts

    University of Oklahoma, 2004

    Master of Science

    University of Florida, 2010

    Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

    For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in

    Geography

    College of Arts and Sciences

    University of South Carolina

    2015

    Accepted by:

    Susan L. Cutter, Major Professor

    Sarah E. Battersby, Committee Member

    Jerry T. Mitchell, Committee Member

    Andrea H. Tanner, Committee Member

    Lacy Ford, Senior Vice Provost and Dean of Graduate Studies

  • ii

    © Copyright by Kevin D. Ash, 2015

    All Rights Reserved.

  • iii

    DEDICATION

    All my love and thanks to Cori, my parents Terry and Linda, my brother Darren,

    Ron and Carol Cooper, Lacy, Randy, Shelly and their respective families, and all the

    family and friends who have supported me over the years.

  • iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    First, I must thank the participants who were willing to speak with me and who

    returned the questionnaires. This work could not have been completed without your help.

    Many thanks to the University of South Carolina Graduate School, the College of Arts

    and Sciences, the Department of Geography, HVRI, and the Bilinski Foundation for

    supporting my doctoral education and research. Thanks to Susan Cutter for all the

    support and guidance; I have benefited and learned so much from working with you these

    five years. To Jerry Mitchell, Sarah Battersby, and Andrea Tanner; thank you for your

    valuable input and assistance with the design and implementation of my dissertation.

    Chris Emrich, I greatly appreciate the many opportunities you helped provide and

    your assistance in my dissertation research. To Ronnie, Dan M., Gregg, and Robert,

    thank you for your advice and assistance, your sense of humor, and for sharing in our

    common interests. Thanks as well to Burton, Eric T., Larianne, Ben H., Caglar, Julie L.,

    Beatriz, Christy C., Dan G., Cam, Megan, Nancy, Rachel, Khai, Alex M., Erika, Janae,

    Elbie, Drs. Elfenbein, Bezuidenhout, Kupfer, Nagel, Carbone, Hodgson, Dow, Mock,

    Besley, and Guo. To all of these and especially the Geography graduate students I met at

    USC and did not name above, I wish you all the best.

    This dissertation research was funded by the National Science Foundation via a

    Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement grant through the Geography and Spatial

    Sciences program, award #1301822. The research protocols were approved by the

    University of South Carolina Institutional Review Board, ID Pro00021269.

  • v

    ABSTRACT

    More than 1,000 tornadoes strike the United States each year, and no population

    segment has been impacted to a greater degree than those who live in mobile homes.

    Despite being only about 7% of the total population, mobile home residents have

    comprised 40% to 50% of all tornado deaths over the past fifty years. Inhabitants of

    mobile homes must therefore act quickly to protect themselves when they are threatened

    by tornadoes. Warning messages instruct mobile home occupants to move to a sturdier

    building until the storm passes, but what are the residents’ perspectives on this

    recommended behavior? It is unknown whether mobile home residents plan ahead to

    protect themselves, how they develop these plans, where they plan to go, and what are

    some of the difficulties or obstacles that might discourage evacuation behavior.

    This research provides new insights to better understand mobile home residents’

    perspectives about tornado preparedness and protective actions, and reveals which factors

    are most influential in their evacuation planning and intentions. The study area is central

    South Carolina, where mobile homes are integral to the housing stock and casualties from

    tornadoes pose an appreciable risk. A wide range of data is utilized, from both

    qualitative interviews and mailed questionnaires, to develop a typology of tornado

    preparedness and response perspectives. Three types are identified: those who are

    relatively unconcerned about tornadoes, those who are concerned and informed about

    tornadoes, and those who anticipate warnings and take protective action. The three types

    are significantly associated with demographic and household variables such as gender,

  • vi

    race, the presence of children in the home, income, housing tenure, and home size and

    quality, as well as differing according to previous experience, places of residence, and

    urban/rural context.

    Participants’ responses to several hypothetical evacuation scenarios are also

    presented and the most important factors for predicting tornado evacuation intentions of

    mobile home residents are identified. Respondents are more likely to evacuate if given

    fifteen minutes warning than if given five minutes warning, but are not more likely to

    evacuate if given forty-five minutes compared to the fifteen minute scenario. Evacuation

    intentions are significantly influenced by several factors, including the evacuation

    destination, travel time to the destination, previous evacuation experience, having an

    evacuation plan, race, gender, age, housing tenure, presence of children and pets in the

    home, expectation of harm, and the urban/rural context. The theoretical and practical

    implications of the research findings are discussed, along with the study limitations and

    potential directions for future research.

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Dedication .......................................................................................................................... iii

    Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................ iv

    Abstract ............................................................................................................................... v

    List of Tables ...................................................................................................................... x

    List of Figures .................................................................................................................. xiii

    List of Abbreviations ....................................................................................................... xvi

    Chapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1

    1.1. Overview .................................................................................................................. 1

    1.2. Research Objectives and Questions ......................................................................... 2

    1.3. Organization of the Document ................................................................................. 4

    Chapter 2: Relevant Literature ............................................................................................ 5

    2.1. Overview .................................................................................................................. 5

    2.2. Tornado Casualties in the United States .................................................................. 6

    2.3. Vulnerability, Resilience, and Mobile Home Tornado Casualties ......................... 13

    2.4. Hazard Preparedness .............................................................................................. 18

    2.5. Warning Messages and Protective Action .............................................................. 29

    2.6. Evacuation Behavior .............................................................................................. 39

    2.7. Chapter Summary ................................................................................................... 42

    Chapter 3: Research Setting .............................................................................................. 44

    3.1. Overview ................................................................................................................ 44

  • viii

    3.2. The Rise of Mobile Homes in the Southeastern United States .............................. 46

    3.3. Tornadoes, Tornado Hazards, and Warnings ......................................................... 54

    3.4. Chapter Summary ................................................................................................... 60

    Chapter 4: Research Methodology.................................................................................... 61

    4.1. Overview ................................................................................................................ 61

    4.2. Qualitative Methodology........................................................................................ 61

    4.3. Quantitative Methodology...................................................................................... 74

    4.4. Chapter Summary ..