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Mixed Farming in Backyard Poultry System It s Prospective & ConstraintsPresented ByS. Shwetha kanthi RVM/09-24 Dept of Veterinary Extension

Mixed Farming in backyard

DefinitionMixed farming in back yard poultry can be defined as house hold system of practise in a particular house to sustain and satisfy the multiple essential needs of the family nutrition

Bringing crops and live stock into an interactive relationship with the expectations, that together as opposed to alone they will generate positive effects on outcomes of interests such as profitability and productivity and conversion of non renewable resources-Allen et al-2007

Advantages Mixed back yard farming provides various animal species, the flexibility to change from one species to the other, and the low-external-input nature of the management system. Most families base their livestock keeping on diversified husbandry practices : poultry and pigs scavenge around and do not require major labour or capital input, cuy (guinea pig) are kept in the kitchen, fed on leftovers. Though there is high mortality amongst these animals, their output is produced against very low cost.

Cont.. Farmers keep cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats including small numbers of poultry in backyard to meet their domestic needs. Animals are raised on agricultural waste. The animal power is used for agricultural operation and the dung is used as manure and fuel.

Cont. Good amount of feed for animals is available from the system itself The farmyard manure - manuring of crops- 3035% savings in fertilizers It may be possible to reach the some level of yield with proportionately less input in the integrated farming

Mixed farming involving diversified components such as agriculture, forestry, and A.H have been proved to be economically viable, technically feasible, environmentally sustainable, and socially acceptable.

Who are practicing The small landholder, squatter or landless peasant practised mixed farming on small holdings, growing mixtures of fruit trees, annual plants, vegetables, etc., and rearing free-range poultry for eggs and meat, and tethered pigs, sheep, goats or cattle on roadsides or open lands. All can be reared on domestic waste.

Models of Mixed FarmingINCOME GARDEN HUMAN

INTER CROP

BIRDS

MANURE

MEAT AND EGGS

Features of mixed farming Assured subsistence is high priority Mixed cropping and livestock common for risk coverage local resources including human resources Recycle all products Crop varieties, rotation and mixed farming provide grain and enough straw to meet human and animal needs. Multi-purpose objectives

Features of mixed farming Sizeable population of small animals in semi-arid and arid areas Are easy to manage and to sell Observed through generations Use of high yielding varieties of crops or livestock and of chemical fertilisers and pesticides is minimal Storage of produce for family use has priority and only surplus, if any, is sold

Principles of farming Mixed backyard farms are systems that consist of different parts, which together should act as a whole They thus need to be studied in their entirety and not as separate parts That principle is here referred to as the "command ideotype (Donald, 1981; Schiere et al., 1999) Study together with the awareness that crops and animals have multiple functions Each individual unit should contribute a minimum of 18-20% to their counterparts

Forms of mixed backyard farming Mixed farming systems can be classified in many ways - based on land size, type of crops and animals , Geographical distribution, market orientation, etc. On-farm versus between-farm Mixing within crops and/or animal systems Diversified versus integrated systems

Holistic natureDAIRY

CROPS

FISHERY

HOUSE HOLD AND MARKET

POULTRY

PIG

FORESTRY

Methods - commercial Poultry + Cows and buffaloes Poultry + Agri farming Poultry + Piggery Poultry + Sheep and goat Poultry + Fish farming Poultry + Azolla + Duck farming

POULTRY + LARGE ANIMALS

POULTRY + LARGE ANIMALS

DUCK + FISH FARMING

China

POULTRY+PIGGERY

POULTRY + AZOLLA + DUCK FARMING

Rice-poultry-fishRice crop as per recommended practice Irrigated through fish pond water Rice bran for poultry feed Rice bran and straw in fish pond Recycling of crop residues Poultry excreta to rice field

Cashew apple waste Dm-18% Cf-8.5% 20% feed of vanaraja -kari kanthimath et al

Scavenging birds Uses almost no inputs and it can still be a viable component in the mixed farm. Scavenging chickens can be fed with waste products and grains to supplement the weeds and insects that are found in the backyard. Eggs from scavenging chickens in mixed farming systems are preferred to eggs from the commercial farms. In Nicaragua the eggs from the mixed farming system are called huevos de amor (love eggs) and people prefer them because of their yellow yolks and freshness.

Ducks and geese Ducks and geese are basically waterfowl, but they can do without water and, except in some rare cases, the keeping of these birds does not develop into large-scale, high-input production. Rare cases of specialized production of these animals are, for example, geese for "foie gras" (fat liver) or ducks for meat in countries such as France and China

cont.... More typical for mixed farming systems is duck keeping for eggs in harvested rice fields, such as in Java, where fallen grains, weeds, snails and worms provide free feed for large flocks of special runner ducks kept by individuals from the village. The occasional use of geese as "watchdogs in farms

Fish-Back yard poultry Farmer can practise the poultry-fish farming integrated system only when a 100 m2 fish pond can be fed with 1 kg dried poultry manure per day 15 chicken - 1-1.2 kg manure/day

POULTRY + LARGE ANIMALS

POULTRY + AGRI FARMING

POULTRY+PIGGERY

POULTRY+ SHEEP AND GOAT

POULTRY + FISH FARMING

POULTRY + AZOLLA + DUCK FARMING

Constraints Multi tasking Non availability Lack of Know-how on feed supplementing constitution Marketing Investment

Cont Some smaller farmers are increasingly dependent on production methods based on a mixture of new and traditional practices. These include utilising local natural feeds, recycling waste, Integrating their livestock with cropping activities, limited aquaculture production The limit of land availability dictates that integrated, intensive methods are risky

StudiesThe integrated farming system with 4 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats along with other subsidiaries like poultry and duck is the most beneficial system.

Rural womens perceptions and preferences with regard to mixed farming poultry production. 1. The major interest of women in backyard poultry is as a source of small cash and nutritious food for the family at low cost. 2. Women are not interested in increasing the number of birds and add other species due to management difficulties and the need for external inputs it would require. 3. The local breeds are preferred since they are easy to manage. They are able to protect themselves from predators, but the most important reason is that local birds and eggs are sold at a premium.

Cont4. Backyard poultry permit entertainment of important guests and functions. 5. Women consider diseases in chicks the major problem in poultry keeping. 6. women felt it difficult at multi tasking

It has been calculated that 90% of rural families in central and south Bolivia earn more than 50% of their income through activities like mixed farming . (Jimenez Sardon, 1984)

Is it a sign of improvement? The choice of mixed farming is not always a sign of improvement. Fulani herdsmen in West Africa engage in crop production only when forced by circumstances, such as drought or animal diseases, leading to severe losses in livestock, making continuation of their former way of life impossible. Mixed farming is for them a poverty-induced option. Resource-poor farmers going into mixed farming have to apply labour- intensive techniques (their only resource) and, because of their low purchasing power, they cannot afford external inputs and have no option but to overexploit the environment. (Based on Slingerland, 2000.)

Where we stand Employing 1.5 million persons and contributing 35,000 cr to GNP 3rd Egg, 5th Meat! B.Y.P - 30% to Egg Production Producing 41 Billion Eggs 1600 Million Meat

What's the need of the hour Research requirements in support of crop-livestocktree systems in Asia are baseline studies to quantify energy flows. Simulation studies to identify possible coefficient changes in the system. Field testing of possible interventions and new technologies Test marketing" of proposed developments on representative sub populations within the region. It is further suggested (Timor, 1992) that such studies need to be carried out across national boundaries within ecoregions.

Cont.. Soil health aspects and nutrient flow system Farming system developed for the poorest and land less labor Women empowerment Whole By analysis for house hold nutrition and income security and gain full employment for folk and youth Creation of data base for M.F for different agro climatic regions.

ContThis general situation of integrated farming practices has been mainly reversed and there are at least three aspects to this: The search for modernisation of agriculture; Pressures of the wider economy on agriculture and resource use The failure to recognise and deal with agriculture for local consumption.

ConclusionsImproved backyard poultry and goat production would not only improve income of women but wou