Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions...Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas...

of 19/19
A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions Dr. Frank O’Mara Director of Research Teagasc
  • date post

    26-May-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    3
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions...Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas...

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Mitigation of agriculturalgreenhouse gas emissions

    Dr. Frank O’MaraDirector of Research

    Teagasc

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Outline of presentation

    • Global perspective on emissions fromagriculture and mitigation potential

    • Relate global position to Irish situation

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Global issue receiving hugeattention from major organisations

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Source: CIAT, WRI

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Profile of agricultural emissions

    38%

    32%

    12%

    11%

    7%

    N2O soilsCH4 entericBiomass burningRice mgmt.other

    Agriculture Emissions 200511%

    38%

    51%

    Manure ManagementAgricultural SoilsEnteric Fermentation

    Irish Agricultural Emissions 2005Global

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Global agricultural emissions -trend and baseline

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    billi

    onto

    nne

    sof

    CO

    2eq

    1990 2005 2030

    IPCC, 2007

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 20200

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    GH

    GE

    mis

    sio

    ns

    inA

    gri

    cul

    ture

    (Mt

    CO

    2eq.

    y-1)

    ME&NASSAfricaS AsiaLA&CE Asia

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 20200

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    GH

    GE

    mis

    sio

    ns

    inA

    gric

    ult

    ure

    (Mt

    CO

    2eq

    .y-

    1)

    OECD PacC&E EurFSUW EurOECD NA

    There are differenttrends and driversin different regions

    Developing regions

    Developed regions andeconomies in transition

    US-EPA (2006)

    1990-2005:Developed countries, EIT: -12%Developing countries: +32%

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Emissions vs output – 1990 to 2005Whole milk production

    150.0200.0250.0300.0350.0

    1990

    1992

    1994

    1996

    1998

    2000

    2002

    2004

    mil

    lion

    tonn

    es

    Agric GHG emissions +17%

    Beef +13%

    Milk +39%

    Mutton/lgoat +31%

    Pigmeat +44%

    Poultry meat +102%

    Eggs +61%Source: FAOSTAT

    Meat and egg production

    0.0

    50.0

    100.0

    150.0

    1990

    1993

    1996

    1999

    2002

    2005

    mill

    ion

    ton

    nes

    Bovine Meat

    Eggs

    Mutton & Goat

    Pigmeat

    Poultry Meat

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Relative contribution of world regions to milkproduction and GHG emissions associated with

    milk production, processing and transport

    Source: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Dairy Sector A LifeCycle Assessment, FAO, April 2010

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Estimates of Global AgriculturalGHG Emissions

    1.7

    5.16.1

    7.1

    0123

    45678

    910

    Denman etal (2007)

    US EPA(2006)

    FAO (2006)

    Billiontonnes of

    CO2 eq

    Livestock productionincluding production offeed for animals,production of inputs,transport andprocessing

    Whythe d

    ifference?

    Total agricultureemissions

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Why the difference?

    FAO (2006 - Livestock’s Long Shadow)takes a Life Cycle approach, and includesCO2 emissions from other sources

    Main additional source is deforestationwhere land is cleared for new pastures orcrops used as animal feed:

    2.4 billion tonnes of CO2 eq out of totalof 7.1 billion total livestock emissions

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Paragraph 70 -GHG emissionsfrom land-usechange in tropicalcountries (about7.6 Gt CO2 eq)exceed emissionsfrom all otheragriculturalsourcescombined andcontinue to growas areas ofcropland andpasture landincrease.

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Agricultural land area

    UNFCCC (2008)

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Global biophysical mitigation potentialin agriculture

    -200

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    Cro

    plan

    dm

    anag

    emen

    t

    Wat

    erm

    anag

    emen

    t

    Ric

    em

    anag

    emen

    t

    Set

    asid

    e,L

    UC

    &ag

    rofo

    rest

    ry

    Gra

    zing

    land

    man

    agem

    ent

    Res

    tore

    culti

    vat

    edor

    gani

    cso

    ils

    Res

    tore

    deg

    rade

    dla

    nds

    Bio

    ener

    gy(s

    oils

    com

    pone

    nt)

    Liv

    esto

    ck

    Man

    ure

    man

    agem

    ent

    Mitigation measure

    Glo

    balb

    ioph

    ysic

    alm

    itiga

    tion

    pote

    ntia

    l(M

    tCO2-e

    q.yr

    -1)

    N2OCH4CO2

    Smith et al. (2007)

    Total biophysical mitigation potential is 5500 –6000 Mt of CO2 equivalent

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Effect of C price on implementation

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    Res

    tore

    culti

    vate

    dor

    gani

    cso

    ils

    Cro

    plan

    dm

    anag

    emen

    t

    Gra

    zing

    land

    man

    agem

    ent

    Res

    tore

    degr

    aded

    land

    s

    Ric

    em

    anag

    emen

    t

    Liv

    esto

    ck

    Set

    asid

    e,L

    UC

    &ag

    rofo

    rest

    ry

    Man

    ure

    man

    agem

    ent

    Measure

    MtC

    O2-

    eq.y

    r-1

    up to 20 USD t CO2-eq.-1up to 50 USD t CO2-eq.-1up to 100 USD t CO2-eq.-1

    Smith et al. (2007)

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Economic Mitigation PotentialEconomic Potential 2030 (GtCO2-eq/yr)

    4.4 (2.3-6.4)100

    8.2Emissions 2030

    2.7 (1.5-3.9)50

    1.6 (0.3-2.4)20

    AgricultureCarbon price(US$/tCO2-eq)

    Mitigation practices in AgricultureCropland management; Restoration of organic soils; Restoration of degradedlands; Rice management; Grazing land management – 90% of potential iscarbon sequestration

    IPCC (2007)

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    High and low estimates of themitigation potential in each region

    -200

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    1800

    Sou

    thea

    stA

    sia

    Sou

    thA

    mer

    ica

    Eas

    tAsia

    Sou

    thA

    sia

    Eas

    tern

    Afr

    ica

    Rus

    sian

    Fede

    ratio

    n

    Nor

    thA

    mer

    ica

    Wes

    tern

    Eur

    ope

    Wes

    tern

    Afr

    ica

    Cen

    tralA

    sia

    Nor

    ther

    nE

    urop

    e

    Mid

    dle

    Afr

    ica

    Eas

    tern

    Eur

    ope

    Oce

    ania

    Sout

    hern

    Eur

    ope

    Cen

    tral

    Am

    eric

    a

    Nor

    ther

    nA

    fric

    a

    Wes

    tern

    Asia

    Sout

    hern

    Afr

    ica

    Car

    ribe

    an

    Japa

    n

    Poly

    nesi

    a

    Region

    MtC

    O2-

    eq.y

    r-1

    Smith et al. (2007)

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Land degradation - % of dry areasdegraded

    Continent Total area Percentage degraded

    million km2

    Africa 14,326 73

    Asia 18,814 71

    Australia & Pacific 7,012 54

    Europe 1,456 65

    North America 5,782 74

    South America 4,207 73

    Total 51,597 70FAO (2006)

  • A Climate for Change: opportunities for carbon-efficient farming

    Messages for Ireland• Mix of GHG is different in Ireland• Big global mitigation potential in relation to C

    sequestration but mitigation options around this arelimited in Ireland– Little degraded land– Cropland and pastures generally well managed

    • Important to limit need for deforestation for foodproduction

    • Ireland is an efficient food producer• Mitigation possibilities in Ireland around efficiency• Role of forestry and energy crops• Ireland part of major global research effort to find new

    solutions