Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very...

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Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors A Danaher Motion Company PMI

Transcript of Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very...

Page 1: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

MiniatureBrushless DC& SpecialtyAC Motors

A Danaher Motion Company

PMI

Page 2: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

PMI presents Miniature Brushless DC Motors,

Gearheads and Specialty AC Motors.

In the world of motion control, the

Miniature High Speed Motor Solution

is PMI

SPEED IT UP!

GEAR IT DOWN!

© 2001 Danaher Motion

Need high torque output? Use ourmodular thread-on gearheads forvariable reduction rates with inputspeeds of up to 50,000 RPM.

CUSTOM DESIGNS!

Take a strategic approach to yourengineering solutions with a varietyof custom shaft configurations,connectors and terminations.

Here’s high power density at speedsof up to 75,000 RPM plus thread-onflanges and gearheads for designversatility. And these motors can bemade autoclavable thanks toencapsulated windings.

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1Table of ContentsPMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors

MiniatureBrushlessDC Motors

SpecialtyAC Motors

MiniatureGearheads

SpecialtyAC Motors

Pages 33-40

PMI Miniature Brushless DC &Specialty AC Motors

Table of Contents

MiniatureGearheads

Pages 24-32

Miniature Brushless DC Motors Page

Miniature Brushless DC Motors .................................................. 2Technology .................................................................................. 3Part Numbering ........................................................................... 6Miniature Brushless DC Motors Size 5 ....................................... 7Miniature Brushless DC Motors Size 9 ......................................10Miniature Brushless DC Motors Size 11 ....................................13Miniature Brushless DC Motors Size 15 ....................................16Miniature Brushless DC Power Amplifier ...................................22

Miniature Gearheads

Precision Miniature Gearheads ................................................ 24Technology ................................................................................ 24Modular Motor & Gearhead Mounting Options ........................ 28Modular Planetary Gearheads Size 5 ...................................... 29Modular Planetary Gearheads Size 9 ...................................... 30Modular Planetary Gearheads Size 11 .................................... 31Modular Planetary Gearheads Size 15 .................................... 32

Specialty AC Motors

Specialty AC Motors .................................................................... 33Technology ................................................................................... 34AC Induction Motors Size 8 ......................................................... 36AC Induction Motors Size 11 ....................................................... 37AC Induction Motors Size 15 ....................................................... 38AC Synchronous Motors Size 11 ................................................ 39AC Synchronous Motors Size 18 ................................................ 40

MiniatureBrushlessDC Motors

Pages 2-23

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2 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Miniature Brushless DC Motors• Sizes 5, 9, 11, and 15

• Stall Torque to 32 oz-in

• Bidirectional Operation

• High Speed Operation up to 75,000rpm

PMI’s brushless DC motors are de-signed to provide high quality alongwith maximum application flexibility. Inaddition to a number of standard wind-ings that accommodate a variety ofdriver voltages, our BLDC motors fea-ture threaded housings to accept ourthread-on modular gearheads andflanges. This design concept allows usto supply over 4800 possible variationsof these motors, yet small lot quanti-ties are available within a few days oforder placement.

• Excellent Power-to-Weight Ratio

• Designed for Long Life & HighReliability

• Unique Thread-On GearheadsAvailable

PMI’s BLDC motors are available in awide range of continuous torque out-put: 0.32 to 32 oz-in (2.26 to 224mNm). Coupled with our planetarygearheads, output torque to 1125 oz-in (7.94 Nm) is obtainable. Optionsavailable on most models include a rearshaft extension, encoder or resolverfeedback and autoclavability.

B Series Miniature Brushless DC Motor Features

Applications include• Medical instruments

• Prosthetics

• Scanning devices

• Miniature pumps

• Semiconductor manufacturingequipment

• Pick & place manufacturing equip-ment

• Medical chart recorders

• Lens positioning systems

• Analysis instrumentation

• Factory automation equipment

• Robot end-effectors

• Process control

• Automated dispensers

High quality bearings permithigh speed with long life andhigh efficiency

200°C wireinsulation rating forhigher reliability

Rare-earth magnetsmaximize torqueoutput

Hall sensors forcommutation

Unique threaded housingaccepts our mountingflanges and planetarygearboxes

Skewed stator minimizescogging torque (Sizes 9, 11 &15 only)

• Material handling systems

• Packaging systems

• Medical gantries for equipmentpositioning

• Plastic & film processing

• Automated textile cutters, weavers& handlers

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Miniature Brushless DC Motor Technologyof conventional communication, BLDCmotors can be operated at very highspeeds. It has been demonstrated thatelectronic commutation can supportspeeds to 150,000 rpm.

High Thermal Capacity - The wind-ings of the BLDC motor are located onits stationary member. Therefore, heatmay be carried away using direct con-duction.

High Shaft Power - With an inherentcapacity for high speed and hightorque, the BLDC motor is able to yieldhigher levels of shaft power, the prod-uct of shaft torque and shaft speed,resulting in extremely high accelera-tion capability.

Tolerant of Harsh Environments -The BLDC motor emits no sparks dur-ing normal operation because there isno sliding contact between the brushesand metallic commutator. Therefore,the BLDC motor is well suited for usein situations where a combustible at-mosphere may be present. Further-more, the “hard-wired” connections ofa BLDC motor can be easily potted sothat the entire assembly may be auto-claved.

Other Significant Features Include -Low thermal time constant; analog ordigital commutation schemes; very lowaudible noise; low radial and axial play;custom designs including integralgearheads, resolvers, encoders, andcontrols.

Brushless Motor Types

Three Phase BrushlessMotors—This type of motor exhibitsback-emf waveforms which may be ei-ther sinusoidal or trapezoidal, each ofthe three phases being phased 120electrical degrees apart (see page 5for more information). Three-phasebrushless motors are the most widelyused variety because they offer themost performance per unit cost. Abrushless servo amplifier can be con-structed using just six power devicesand some appropriate control logic,while rotor position feedback may beas simple as three Hall effect switches.This straightforward control schemeprovides a basis for a system that

The demand for Permanent MagnetBrushless DC Motors (BLDC) issteadily rising. Their growing popular-ity comes as a result of three impor-tant factors: First, a BLDC motor is in-herently more reliable than a conven-tional DC motor, which has brushes.Second, advances in power semicon-ductors and microprocessors permitcost-effective control of the brushlessDC machine. And third, brushless DCmotors offer the response and linear-ity over a wide speed range that isneeded for truly high performanceservo mechanisms.

When coupled with the appropriatecontrol electronics, brushless DC mo-tors (BLDC) exhibit characteristics likea conventional DC motor (DCM).Therefore, the designer who is familiarwith DC motors is already prepared toutilize brushless DC motors as well.

PMI BLDC motors can be used in abroad range of industrial, medical anddefense systems. These motors to-gether with complementary controlelectronics are used in applicationsfrom industrial process control to mo-torized surgical tools and radar point-ing systems.

As an element within a control sys-tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DCmotor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct proportion to in-put current. And when properly com-mutated and controlled, a brushlessservo will perform in all operatingmodes that a brush-type servo will, in-cluding slow speed scans and rapidpoint-to-point positioning. Moreover,brushless servos are capable of goingwell beyond the safe operating enve-lope of the brush-type servo.

Characteristics

Long Operating Life - Having neitherbrushes nor a metallic commutator, thelife of a BLDC motor is extended wellbeyond that of a brush-type DCM.

Highly Responsive - The high torqueto inertia ratios of the BLDC motor yieldquick response to commands.

High Speed - Lacking the limitations

yields reasonably smooth torque overa wide range of operating speeds. Formore precise control at low speeds,the motor can be designed for “sinu-soidal” excitation. This approach re-quires the addition of a resolver to sup-port motor commutation. Sinusoidalbrushless servos are used in the mostprecise motion control systems.

PMI’s BLDC motors are primarily three-phase devices.

Housed Brushless DC Motors arerugged building blocks suitable for highperformance servo applications. Theyare fully factory aligned, tested andready for service. These motors areavailable in a wide range of configura-tions whose features are shown ontheir respective data pages. Thesemotors are self-contained assemblieshaving single or dual output shafts thatcan be coupled to the driven load. Ap-plications for PMI’s housed motors in-clude torque, velocity, or position con-trol, f luid pumps, nut drivers,leadscrews, medical instruments, ro-botics, factory automation, and XYtables. Other uses include special ma-chine tools, spindles, focusing mecha-nisms, optical pedestals, motion simu-lators, and more.

Servo Motors are designed for use in“closed loop” systems. They arehoused motors with an integral posi-tion/velocity feedback device (Hall sen-sors, encoders, resolvers, etc.). As themotor shaft turns, the feedback devicereports position/velocity to the systemcontroller.

Motor Construction

To develop an understanding of thebrushless DC motor, it is often helpfulto understand the construction andfunction of its parts. The following is abrief overview of BLDC motor construc-tion.

Principal Components

Brushless DC motors have three ma-jor subassemblies:

Stator - The current carrying member.Typically a stack of laminations intowhose slots coils of wire are inserted.

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4 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Rotor - The magnetic field producingmember. Usually a ferromagnetic hubof stainless steel onto which perma-nent magnets have been bonded.

Commutator - A combination of elec-tronic components which direct powerto the various armature phases at theproper time depending upon rotor po-sition and commanded torque.

Geometry

The geometry of the BLDC motor is“inverted” with respect to the conven-tional brush-type motor. That is, forBLDC motors the armature is station-ary (the stator) while the field rotates(the rotor). With the wound armaturestationary with respect to the powersource, it is practical to “hard-wire” theconnections. Therefore, sliding con-tacts are not required to commutatethe BLDC motor.

On the contrary, with the brush-typemotor, the armature rotates with re-spect to the power source. As such,there must be a method to transferpower from the stationery referenceinto the moving reference. The usualtechnique to accomplish this is to usea sliding contact such as the graphite-metal brush acting on a metallic com-mutator.

BLDC Electronic Commutator (HallSensor Assembly plus Drive Elec-tronics) - The commutator senses theposition of the rotor (field) with respectto the armature and directs power to

the stator (armature) windings therebygenerating torque through a full rota-tion. It is comprised of the rotor posi-tion sensor (or sensors), powerswitches and control logic circuits. Allthese devices together perform thecommutation of a brushless motor.Without the commutator, the armatureand field could interact to producetorque, but only through a limited angleof travel.

The overall performance of multiphasebrushless DC motors is closely relatedto the electronics that control them. As-suring a proper match between themotor and its control electronics ismore critical to the brushless systemthan it is for conventional brush-typesystems. This is because the essen-tial function of commutation is sharedbetween the motor and the drive elec-tronics. Often it is the effective designand integration of the electronics withthe motor that provides the perfor-mance advantage that is sought. PMIhas superior magnetic design to as-sure the performance advantage forour customers. For more informationabout PMI’s motion control solutions,contact the factory or your local salesrepresentative.

BLDC Stator- The stator (armature) iscomprised of a bonded stack of lami-nations and coils of magnet wire. Fortypical BLDC motors having rotatinginner members, the teeth of the stator(armature) point radially inward. Mag-net wire is wound to specific coil di-mensions and inserted into the slots

Cross section view of BLDC Motor.

Stator

Rotor

Permanent Magnet

of the stack. In the case of machineinsertion, the wire is wound directly inthe slot. For mechanical integrity, thecoils are either varnished or impregnatedwith epoxy prior to final machining.

BLDC Rotor- The rotor (field) is com-prised of a permeable iron hub (coldrolled or stainless steel) onto the out-side surfaces of which permanent mag-nets are bonded. If the magnets arenot shaped prior to bonding, they areground to shape as an assembly afterbonding. Under special circumstances,the rotor may be fitted with a protec-tive sleeve to avoid impact damage oras a redundant measure to retain themagnets at high speed.

Commutation

The word “commutation” in the con-text of electrical circuits means simply“switching.” As it applies to DC mo-tors, this refers to switching power fromone armature coil to another armaturecoil.

Brushless DC motors lack the brushesand metallic commutator associatedwith the conventional brush-type mo-tor, but they cannot produce torquethrough more than a limited angle with-out some form of commutation. In thecase of the multiphase BLDC motor,the commutator is electronic and non-contacting in nature. One of the moreexpedient ways to sense rotor positionis to employ Hall sensors, one permotor phase. Hall sensors sense thepresence of a magnetic field. Thoseused in motors for rotor position sens-ing are typically digital, latching devicesand are used in conjunction with aTrapezoidal or Six-Step servo ampli-fier. The Hall sensors are usuallymounted to a printed circuit board andattached to the motor stator such thatwhen the rotor turns, its magnets passin close proximity to the sensors,thereby triggering them to switch alter-nately “on” and “off” at the magnetedges. From the output signals ofthree, well-placed Hall sensors, onehas sufficient information to supportelectronic commutation of a BLDCmotor.

To illustrate the timing associated withBLDC motor commutation, see the tim-ing diagram on page 5. This diagramshows the relationships between themotor phases, the Hall sensors, and

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PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Brushless DC Motors

Timing relationships between the motor phases and the Hall sensors that supportcommutation (two pole motor).

Sensor 1

Sensor 2

Sensor 3

100 200 300 400 500

Electrical Degrees

1 R

EV

PhaseA

PhaseB

PhaseC

1

0

-1

the resultant back-emf for a three-phase brushless motor. By applying DCvoltage to the motor terminals in ac-cordance with this back-emf, the BLDCmotor will produce torque through a full

revolution.

The relative position of the rotor withrespect to the stator must be knownwith a reasonable degree of accuracy

Wiring Diagram

Hall Sensor, S1(Yellow)

Hall Sensor, S2(Orange)

HallSensor, S3(White)

Phase B(Brown)

Phase A(Blue)

Phase C(Violet)

GND(Black)

+12VDC(Red)

PM Rotor

in order to assure proper commuta-tion. Normally, an accuracy of +/- 8electrical degrees will suffice. For amotor having 4 poles, that equates to+/-2 mechanical degrees.

Motor is supplied with connector AMP #640430-8 which may be removed.

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6 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Brushless Motor Part Numbering System 1

(1) Used only on motors with gearheads, omit if motor only is selected; (2) See page 28; (3) Select O if gearhead is selected.

050AB 0508 --

Nominal Diameter& Stack Length

050405080512090609090912110611121118150515151525

Winding050A050B150A150B

R 0 0 50 F

Mounting Options 2

0 = Threads1 = Servo Groove2 = 2 Screw Diamond3 = 3 Screw Triangle4 = 4 Screw Square

Motor TypeB = BLDC Motor

0 = Motor onlyG = Gearhead

MotorShaft Options

R = RoundF = FlatD = 2 Flats

spaced 180°0 = Gearhead3

GearheadShaft OptionsR = RoundF = FlatD = 2 Flats

spaced180°

GearRatio

04 = 4:105 = 5:107 = 7:112 = 12:115 = 15:116 = 16:120 = 20:121 = 21:125 = 25:128 = 28:135 = 35:149 = 49:1

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Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 1.69 .44

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .64 (0.00611) 1.26 (0.01203)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH 1.68 6.53

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω 28.38 109.73

Size 5 Performance Data - Model: B0504-050

Size 5 Winding Data - Model: B0504-050

Torque (oz-in)

Sp

eed

(rp

m)

Size 5 BLDC Speed-Torque CurvesB0504-050

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

0.0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

A

B

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) .32 (0.00226) .32 (0.00226)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 1.46 (0.01031) .74 (0.00523)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 5.83 5.83

wnl No Load Speed rpm 75,249 38,140

Ics Max Cont Current amp .37 .19

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) .13 (0.00092) .13 (0.00092)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) .86 (0.00607) 1.70 (0.01200)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 24.48 24.32

te Elec Time Constant msec .06 .06

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 3.00E-6 (2.12E-8) 3.00E-6 (2.12E-8)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 1.94E-5 (1.4E-7) 1.95E-5 (1.4E-7)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 22.30 22.30

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .03 (0.00021) .03 (0.00021)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) .9 (24) .9 (24)

*Mounted on a 5.0" x 5.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

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Page 10: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

8 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 6.59 1.65

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .65 (0.00621) 1.31 (0.01251)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH 0.36 1.44

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω 7.28 29.14

Size 5 Performance Data - Model: B0508-050

Size 5 Winding Data - Model: B0508-050

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) .71 (0.00501) .71 (0.00501)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 5.82 (0.04110) 2.91 (0.02055)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 7.03 7.03

wnl No Load Speed rpm 73,464 36,732

Ics Max Cont Current amp .80 .40

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) .27 (0.00191) .27 (0.00191)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) .88 (0.00621) 1.77 (0.01250)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 9.98 9.98

te Elec Time Constant msec .05 .05

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 5.00E-6 (3.53E-8) 5.00E-6 (3.53E-8)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 7.93E-5 (5.60E-7) 7.93E-5 (5.60E-7)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 18.50 18.50

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .05 (0.00035) .05 (0.00035)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 1.2 (34) 1.2 (34)

*Mounted on a 5.0" x 5.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Torque (oz-in)

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20000

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Size 5 Performance Data - Model: B0512-050

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 11.25 2.79

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .68 (0.00649) 1.37 (0.01308)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .22 0.89

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω 4.27 17.21

Size 5 Winding Data - Model: B0512-050

Torque (oz-in)

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20000

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0.0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.0 1.20

A

B

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 1.04 (0.00734) 1.04 (0.00734)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 10.42 (0.07358) 5.17 (0.03651)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 8.19 8.19

wnl No Load Speed rpm 70,083 35,042

Ics Max Cont Current amp 1.13 0.56

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) .36 (0.00254) .36 (0.00254)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) .93 (0.00657) 1.85 (0.01306)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 7.45 7.51

te Elec Time Constant msec .05 .05

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 7.00E-6 (4.94E-8) 7.00E-6 (4.94E-8)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 1.49E-4 (1.1E-6) 1.48E-4 (1E-6)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 15.87 15.87

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .08 (0.00056) .08 (0.00056)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 1.6 (44) 1.6 (44)

*Mounted on a 5.0" x 5.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

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10 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 2.10 (0.01483) 2.08 (0.01469)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 16.18 (0.11425) 8.25 (0.05825)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 9.12 9.12

wnl No Load Speed rpm 59,849 31,226

Ics Max Cont Current amp 1.94 1.00

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) .70 (0.00494) .69 (0.00487)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.08 (0.00763) 2.08 (0.01469)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 8.78 8.98

te Elec Time Constant msec .17 .17

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 3.00E-6 (2.12E-8) 3.00E-6 (2.12E-8)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 5.41E-4 (3.8E-6) 5.29E-4 (3.7E-6)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 14.25 14.25

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .10 (0.00071) .10 (0.00071)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 3.3 (94) 3.3 (94)

*Mounted on a 6.0" x 6.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Size 9 Performance Data - Model: B0906-050

Size 9 Winding Data - Model: B0906-050

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Size 9 BLDC Speed-Torque CurvesB0906-050

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Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 14.92 3.97

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .80 (0.00764) 1.54 (0.01471)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .28 1.02

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω 1.61 6.04

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Page 13: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

11

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Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 3.08 (0.02175) 3.09 (0.02182)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 27.91 (0.19708) 15.00 (0.10592)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 10.92 10.92

wnl No Load Speed rpm 57,572 30,705

Ics Max Cont Current amp 2.73 1.46

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) .93 (0.00657) .94 (0.00664)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.13 (0.00798) 2.11 (0.01490)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 6.53 6.48

te Elec Time Constant msec .19 .19

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 4.00E-5 (2.82E-7) 4.00E-5 (2.82E-7)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 9.70E-4 (6.8E-6) 9.77E-4 ( 6.90E-6)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 11.90 11.90

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .13 (0.00092) .13 (0.00092)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 4 (113) 4 (113)

*Mounted on a 6.0" x 6.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Size 9 Performance Data - Model: B0909-050

Size 9 Winding Data - Model: B0909-050

Torque (oz-in)

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Size 9 BLDC Speed-Torque CurvesB0909-050

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Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 24.75 7.10

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .83 (0.00793) 1.56 (0.01490)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .18 .65

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .97 3.38

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Page 14: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

12 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Size 9 Performance Data - Model: B0912-050

Size 9 Winding Data - Model: B0912-050

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Size 9 BLDC Speed-Torque CurvesB0912-050

10000

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Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 4.11 (0.02902) 4.08 (0.02881)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 41.91 (0.29593) 22.52 (0.15902)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 12.72 12.72

wnl No Load Speed rpm 56,497 30,817

Ics Max Cont Current amp 3.58 1.94

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 1.15 (0.00812) 1.14 (0.00805)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.15 (0.00812) 2.11 (0.01490)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 5.33 5.41

te Elec Time Constant msec .24 .23

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 5.00E-5 (3.53E-7) 5.00E-5 (3.53E-7)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 1.50E-3 (1.1E-5) 1.50E-3 (1.1E-5)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 10.22 10.22

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .16 (0.00113) .16 (0.00113)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 4.7 (133) 4.7 (133)

*Mounted on a 6.0" x 6.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 36.48 10.69

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .85 (0.00812) 1.56 (0.01490)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .16 .52

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .66 2.24

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Page 15: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

13

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Size 11 Performance Data - Model: B1106-050Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 5.17 (0.03651) 5.17 (0.03651)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 31.62 (0.22328) 15.81 (0.11164)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 11.50 11.50

wnl No Load Speed rpm 48,784 24,392

Ics Max Cont Current amp 3.88 1.94

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 1.52 (0.01073) 1.52 (0.01073)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.33 (0.00939) 2.66 (0.01878)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 4.88 4.88

te Elec Time Constant msec .40 .40

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 8.00E-5 (5.65E-7) 8.00E-5 (5.65E-7)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 2.60E-3 (1.8E-5) 2.60E-3 (1.8E-5)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 11.30 11.30

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .40 (0.00282) .40 (0.00282)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 6.2 (175) 6.2 (175)

*Mounted on a 6.0" x 6.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 23.76 5.94

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) .98 (0.00936) 1.97 (0.01881)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .20 .80

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .51 2.02

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Page 16: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

14 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 46.66 11.58

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 1.07 (0.01022) 2.13 (0.02034)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .11 .43

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .26 1.04

Size 11 Performance Data - Model: B1112-050

Size 11 Winding Data - Model: B1112-050

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 8.51 (0.06009) 8.48 (0.05988)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 67.34 (0.47550) 33.42 (0.23599)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 13.51 13.51

wnl No Load Speed rpm 44,978 22,489

Ics Max Cont Current amp 5.90 2.94

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 2.32 (0.01638) 2.31 (0.01631)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.44 (0.01017) 2.89 (0.02041)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 3.17 3.19

te Elec Time Constant msec .42 .42

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 1.20E-4 (8.47E-7) 1.20E-4 (8.47E-7)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 6.00E-3 (4.2E-5) 5.90E-3 (4.2E-5)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 9.62 9.62

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .45 (0.00318) .45 (0.00318)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 7.9 (225) 7.9 (225)

*Mounted on a 6.0" x 6.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

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Page 17: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

15

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PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Brushless DC Motors

Size 11 Performance Data - Model: B1118-050Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 11.76 (0.08304) 11.76 (0.08304)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 116.06 (0.81952) 58.03 (0.40976)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 15.53 15.53

wnl No Load Speed rpm 46,632 23,316

Ics Max Cont Current amp 8.45 4.23

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 2.99 (0.02111) 2.99 (0.02111)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.39 (0.00982) 2.78 (0.01963)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 2.54 2.54

te Elec Time Constant msec .50 .50

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 1.60E-4 (1.13E-6) 1.60E-4 (1.13E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 1.00E-2 (7.1E-5) 1.00E-2 (7.1E-5)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 8.37 8.37

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .50 (0.00353) .50 (0.00353)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 9.7 (275) 9.7 (275)

*Mounted on a 6.0" x 6.0" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 83.37 20.84

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 1.03 (0.00984) 2.06 (0.01967)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .07 .29

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .14 .58

Size 11 Winding Data - Model: B1118-050

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Page 18: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

16 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 19.78 5.05

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 1.30 (0.01241) 2.59 (0.02473)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .16 .65

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .61 2.38

Size 15 Performance Data - Model: B1505-050

Size 15 Winding Data - Model: B1505-050

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 7.12 (0.05028) 7.19 (0.05077)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 34.69 (0.24495) 17.70 (0.12498)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 15.12 15.12

wnl No Load Speed rpm 37,026 18,513

Ics Max Cont Current amp 4.06 2.05

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 1.83 (0.01292) 1.85 (0.01306)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.75 (0.01236) 3.51 (0.02478)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 21.11 20.69

te Elec Time Constant msec .27 .27

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 5.00E-4 (3.53E-6) 5.00E-4 (3.53E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 3.70E-3 (2.6E-5) 3.80E-3 (2.7E-5)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 8.60 8.60

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .30 (0.00212) .30 (0.00212)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 12.5 (353) 12.5 (353)

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Page 19: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

17

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PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 150.00 150.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 6.78 1.73

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 3.89 (0.03715) 7.78 (0.07429)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH 1.47 5.87

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) W 5.46 21.40

Size 15 Performance Data - Model: B1505-150

Size 15 Winding Data - Model: B1505-150

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 7.12 (0.05028) 7.19 (0.05077)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 35.65 (0.25173) 18.19 (0.12844)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 15.12 15.12

wnl No Load Speed rpm 38,054 19,027

Ics Max Cont Current amp 1.35 .68

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 1.83 (0.01292) 1.85 (0.01306)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 5.26 (0.03714) 10.52 (0.07428)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 21.11 20.69

te Elec Time Constant msec .27 .27

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 5.00E-4 (3.53E-6) 5.00E-4 (3.53E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 3.70E-3 (2.6E-5) 3.80E-3 (2.7E-5)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 8.60 8.60

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .30 (0.00212) .30 (0.00212)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 12.5 (353) 12.5 (353)

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Page 20: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

18 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 20.23 (0.14285) 20.32 (0.14348)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 146.53 (1.03468) 73.87 (0.52161)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 24.07 24.07

wnl No Load Speed rpm 30,854 15,427

Ics Max Cont Current amp 9.62 4.83

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 4.12 (0.02909) 4.14 (0.02923)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 2.10 (0.01483) 4.21 (0.02973)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 7.50 7.43

te Elec Time Constant msec .34 .34

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 9.00E-4 (6.36E-6) 9.00E-4 (6.36E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 1.90E-2 (0.00013) 1.92E-2 (0.00014)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 5.40 5.40

Tf Static Friction °C/watt .33 (0.00233) .33 (0.00233)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 18 (510) 18 (510)

*Mounted to a 10" x 10" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Size 15 Performance Data - Model: B1515-050

Size 15 Winding Data - Model: B1515-050

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Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 69.64 17.56

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 1.56 (0.01490) 3.11 (0.02970)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .06 .24

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .17 .68

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

Page 21: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

19

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PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 20.15 (0.14228) 20.44 (0.14433)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 179.3 (1.26607) 87.85 (0.62033)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 24.07 24.07

wnl No Load Speed rpm 38,053 18,121

Ics Max Cont Current amp 3.83 1.85

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 4.11 (0.02902) 4.17 (0.02945)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 5.26 (0.03714) 11.05 (0.07803)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 7.56 7.34

te Elec Time Constant msec .34 .35

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 9.00E-4 (6.36E-6) 9.00E-4 (6.36E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 1.88E-2 (0.00013) 1.94E-2 (0.00014)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 5.40 5.40

Tf Static Friction °C/watt .33 (0.00233) .33 (0.00233)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 18 (510) 18 (510)

*Mounted to a 10" x 10" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

Size 15 Performance Data - Model: B1515-150

Size 15 Winding Data - Model: B1515-150

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Vr Rated Voltage VDC 150.00 150.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 34.09 7.95

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 3.89 (0.03715) 8.17 (0.07802)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .37 1.62

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω 1.09 4.65

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

Page 22: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

20 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 50.00 50.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 180.88 28.86

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 1.30 (0.01241) 3.24 (0.03094)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .03 .21

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .07 .42

Size 15 Performance Data - Model: B1525-050

Size 15 Winding Data - Model: B1525-050

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Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 31.57 (0.22292) 31.53 (0.22264)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 317.14 (2.23939) 126.50 (0.89324)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 32.50 32.50

wnl No Load Speed rpm 37,025 14,810

Ics Max Cont Current amp 18.01 7.19

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 5.54 (0.03912) 5.53 (0.03905)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 1.75 (0.01236) 4.38 (0.03093)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 6.00 6.02

te Elec Time Constant msec .50 .50

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 1.30E-3 (9.18E-6) 1.30E-3 (9.18E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm (Nm/krpm) 3.43E-2 (0.00024) 3.42E-2 (0.00024)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 4.00 4.00

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .38 (0.00268) .38 (0.00268)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 23.5 (667) 23.5 (667)

*Mounted to a 10" x 10" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

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Page 23: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

21

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PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Brushless DC Motors

Size 15 Performance Data - Model: B1525-150

Size 15 Winding Data - Model: B1525-150

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Symbol Parameter Units A B

Vr Rated Voltage VDC 150.00 150.00

Ipk Peak Current amp 62.40 13.34

Ke Voltage Constant V/krpm (V/rad/sec) 3.89 (0.03715) 8.43 (0.08050)

L Inductance (Ph to Ph) mH .30 1.40

Rc Resistance (Ph to Ph) Ω .59 2.77

Symbol Parameter Units A B

Tcs Max Cont Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 31.68 (0.22370) 31.73 (0.22405)

Tpk Peak Torque oz-in (Nm) 328.2 (2.31749) 151.97 (1.07309)

Pdiss* Max Cont Pwr Dissipation watt 32.50 32.50

wnl No Load Speed rpm 38,054 17,563

Ics Max Cont Current amp 6.02 2.78

Km Motor Constant oz-in/watt½ (Nm/watt½) 5.56 (0.03926) 5.57 (0.03933)

Kt Torque Constant oz-in/amp (Nm/amp) 5.26 (0.03714) 11.40 (0.08050)

tm Mech Time Constant msec 5.96 5.94

te Elec Time Constant msec .50 .50

Jm Armature Inertia oz-in-sec2 (kg-m2) 1.30E-3 (9.18E-6) 1.30E-3 (9.18E-6)

Kd Damping Factor oz-in/krpm 3.45E-2 (0.00024) 3.46E-2 (0.00024)

Rth Thermal Resistance °C/watt 4.00 4.00

Tf Static Friction oz-in (Nm) .38 (0.00268) .38 (0.00268)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 23.5 (667) 23.5 (667)

*Mounted to a 10" x 10" x 0.25" Aluminum Heat Sink

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

Page 24: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

22 © Danaher MotionMiniature Brushless DC Motors

Brushless DC Power Amplifier

PMI’s BL5010 Brushless DC PowerAmplifier is designed to drive motorsat currents up to 10 Amps and 50 Voltsusing Hall sensor feedback.

It is a two-quadrant amplifier that maybe used in an open loop or closed ve-

locity loop application where controlleddeceleration is not required.

The amplifier is protected against overcurrent (cycle-by-cycle limited), overtemperature, Hall sensor error, and in-put power under voltage.

• 50 Volt Bus

• 10 Amp Continuous

• DC Voltage Input

Applications Include:• Medical instruments

• Prosthetics

• Miniature pumps

• Analyzing instrumentation

• Automated dispensers

• Packaging systems

Specifications - Model: BL5010Parameter Units

Operating Voltage Range 12 to 50 Volts

Max. Continuous Motor Current* 10 Amps

Peak Current* 20 Amps

PWM Frequency 15,000 Hertz

Operating Modes Voltage, Constant Velocity

Max. Heatsink Temperature 80° Centigrade

*With adequate heat sink

• Fully Protected

• Ideally-Suited to Drive B-SeriesBrushless Motors

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Connector Specifications - Model: BL5010

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Connector Motor Lead Pin Name Description

J1 Red 1 Hall sensor Power Power for Hall sensors, 30mA, short circuit protected, 6.25 VBlack 2 Hall sensor Ground GND for Hall sensor PowerYellow 3 Hall S1 Input, 20kΩ pull-up tp 6.25 VoltsOrange 4 Hall S2 Input, 20kΩ pull-up tp 6.25 VoltsWhite 5 Hall S3 Input, 20kΩ pull-up tp 6.25 Volts

J2 Red 1 Power (+) DC Motor PowerBlack 2 Ground (-) DC Motor GroundBlue 3 Phase ∅ A Motor Phase ABrown 4 Phase ∅ B Motor Phase BViolet 5 Phase ∅ C Motor Phase C

J3 POT-GND 1 Signal GNDStop=Low 2 Enable Input, 20kΩ pull-up to 6.25VCW=Low 3 Direction Input, 20kΩ pull-up to 6.25VPOT wiper 4 Analog In Input, 0V to 6.25VPOT +6V 5 +6.25 Volt 6.25V ref. output, 30mA max.No Conn. 6 +15 Volt 15V ref. output, 50mA max.

60/120 - Open 60° Hall sensor spacingDefault - Closed 120° Hall sensor spacing

CV Default - Open Velocity Mode- Closed Open Loop

Page 26: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

24 © Danaher MotionMiniature Gearheads

Features• Quick prototype & production

deliveries

• High torque capacity

• Ball bearing construction

• High efficiency

• Custom mechanical interfaces

Precision Miniature Gearheads• High Torque Output:

40 to 1125 oz-in

• High Input Speed to 100,000 RPM

• Sizes 5, 9, 11, 15

• Modular, Thread-On Design toMate with B-Series Motors

• Single and Dual Configurations

• Ratios from 4:1 to 49:1

Gearhead TechnologyGear technology, although consideredmature, incorporates many engineer-ing disciplines and extensively usesmaterials sciences. To adequately de-sign gears and geartrains the follow-ing technical disciplines must be com-pletely understood:

• A primary knowledge of the gear art,its physical interactions and limita-tions.

• The internal and external mechanicsof components.

• A thorough knowledge of materialsused for the static structure and therolling and rotational elements.

• Lubrication systems used in the gearsand the bearings.

To design gearing at a reasonable cost,the areas of consideration must be ex-panded to include:

• Machining methods and practices.

• Design for maintainability & reliabil-ity.

• Cost-effective assembly methods.

• Materials availability

Applications include• Powered surgical hand tools

• Factory automation equipment

• Automated dispensers

• Analysis instrumentation

• Lens positioning systems

• Pen & chart recorders

• Scanning devices

• Commercial aircraft instruments

• Aircraft fire control & navigationsystems

There are many types and combina-tions of gearing. The primary types arespur, worm, and bevel. Subsets of spurinclude internal and external. There isalso a wide variety of tooth forms whichinclude helical, hypoid, conoflex andothers. Gearboxes, which are the wayin which gears are mounted and inter-act, include straight spur, planetary,compound planetary, differential, differ-ential planetary, harmonic, epicyclic,and combinations of the above (e.g.spur / planetary). Each gear type, toothform, and gearbox style has its uniquefeatures and benefits, and the mostappropriate selection for your specificapplication should be a matter of care-ful consideration. PMI is equipped toguide you to an optimum solution. Themajority of servo applications are gen-erally satisfied by either straight spuror planetary gearboxes and these (aswell as combinations of these) are thegearboxes which PMI has shown inthis catalog and which we generallysupply with our motors.

For purposes of this catalog, the fol-lowing terms and definitions apply:

Pinion - The input/drive gear of thetwo gears in a mesh.

Mating Gear - The ouput gear of thetwo gears in a mesh.

Mesh - A pinion/mating gear set.

Output Gear - The last gear in ageartrain which is driven by the pinionof the last mating gear in a geartrain.

Stage - A pinion and the mating gearwith which it meshes.

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Glossary of Terms

Center Distance (Cd) - The theoreti-cal distance between the rotationalaxes (gear centerlines) of two matinggears. It can be determined in theinch system by adding the total num-ber teeth on the two mating gears anddividing by twice the diametral pitch ofboth gears. In the metric system, addthe total number of teeth in both gearsand multiply by half the module of bothgears. Actual center distance is themeasurement of the distance betweenthe centerlines of two mating gears.The numbers can differ due to manu-facturing tolerances, wear, and mount-ing methods. The variation betweentheoretical and actual centerlines willaffect wear, life and backlash.

Circular Pitch (pc ) - The circumfer-ential distance along the pitch circlefrom the beginning of one tooth profileto the beginning of the next (it is thesum of circumferential tooth thicknessand circumferential tooth space). Thisparameter is important in the manu-facture of gears and is critical in highaccuracy closed loop servo position-ing applications where transmission er-ror must be minimized.

Diametral Pitch (Pd ) - This is a mea-sure of gear tooth size. In the inch sys-tem, it is the ratio of the number ofteeth to the theoretical pitch diameter(in inches). There is a fixed relation-ship between the diametral pitch andthe circular pitch (pc = p / Pd). It repre-sents the theoretical number of teeththat would exist on a gear with a oneinch theoretical pitch diameter. Stan-dard diametral pitches for fine pitchgears are 20, 24, 32, 48, 64, 72, 80,96, 120 and 128. Pitches for ultrafinegears include 150, 180 and 200. Thehigher the pitch number for a givenpitch diameter, the less the tooth thick-ness and the weaker the tooth. If toohigh a number is chosen, the toothstrength will not support the force ap-plied to the tooth face.

The discussion of gearing and gear-boxes is facilitated by the understand-ing of some general terms. The fol-lowing definitions of some commonterms are offered:

Active Profile - The surface of thegear tooth that actually interacts witha mating gear tooth. It is often NOTthe entire profile of the cut gear tooth.

AGMA Quality Class - AmericanGear Manufacturer’s Association(AGMA) has established the param-eters and standards to which gearsare manufactured. The quality classor quality class number, when appro-priately selected, quantifies the de-viation of the manufactured gear fromthe ideal perfect tooth form. This levelof deviation diminishes as the qualitynumber increases. The gears thatPMI uses in its gearboxes range fromAGMA quality number 9 to 13 for finepitch gears (AGMA 390.2). The stan-dard quality number delineates therequirements for tooth-to-tooth error(TTE), tooth-to-tooth composite error(TTCE), and total composite error(TCE). To minimize cost, the lowestpossible quality number that will pro-vide the desired result should be usedin each application.

Backlash (B) - for a gearbox, back-lash is the amount of rotation (mea-sured angularly) that can occur at theinput before any motion is detectedat the output. It is generally measuredby locking the input shaft by somemeans and rotating the output shaftto a full clockwise position by apply-ing a specific torque. The measure-ment indicator is then zeroed and thesame torque is applied in the counter-clockwise direction. The total angu-lar displacement (full clockwise to fullcounter-clockwise) is recorded as thebacklash of the gearbox. The gear-box drawing should define total al-lowable angular displacement and theload which is applied in measuring it.Backlash should always be specifiedas the maximum allowable. The costof controlling backlash increases dra-matically as the allowable backlashdecreases. To achieve the greatesteconomy in any application, backlashshould be specified as the maximumnumber that the system performancewill permit.

Endplay - Output shaft endplay is criti-cal in that it often assures the properalignment of meshing gears. It is mea-sured in linear inches as a specificforce is applied and reversed at theend of a shaft. The total linear mea-surement and the load applied shouldbe specified in the customer’s specifi-cation and should be placed on thegearhead drawing. Choosing anendplay that is too small can causeincreased wear on the bearings andwill result in premature failure. Mini-mizing end play beyond certain valueswill result in increased cost since eachunit will have to be individuallyshimmed at final assembly. Our cata-log specifies typical end play valuesthat can be produced at reasonablecosts.

Face Width (F) - The axial measure-ment of the profile of the gear tooth.The actual face width may vary fromthe theoretical due to manufacturingand/or assembly tolerances. Thestrength and rate of wear of the geartooth is directly dependent on the facewidth. The greater the face width, thegreater the torque carrying capacity ofthe gear.

Measurement Over Pins or Wires (M)- A method for the inspection of gearsby measuring the distance between twopins of identical diameters of a spe-cific magnitude inserted into diametri-cally opposed or nearly diametricallyopposed tooth spaces of a gear. It hasbeen widely replaced by measurementof a pitch radius using a spring loadedmaster gear of known accuracy. It canbe and commonly is used as an in-coming inspection tool by companies,but is not the preferred method ofchecking manufacturing tolerances.

Module - In the metric system of gearmeasuring, module is the ratio of thepitch diameter divided by the numberof teeth. It is the inverse of the Diame-tral Pitch in the inch system. The stan-dards for fine pitch module gears are

PINION

MATING GEAR

PITCH POINT

CENTER DISTANCE

FACE WIDTH

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26 © Danaher MotionMiniature Gearheads

Ap = 1+

No. of Ring Gear Teeth

No. of Sun Gear Teeth

>/41

54424>24./2?/1

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0.125, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40,0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80 and 1.00. Oc-casionally, the choice of a metric mod-ule will permit a design to fit within afixed envelope that will not accommo-date standard gears in the inch system.

Outside Diameter ( Do) - The theo-retical outside diameter may be deter-mined by adding two to the number ofteeth on a given gear and dividing bythe diametral pitch. The actual outsidediameter is the diameter of a ringgauge into which a machined gearwould freely slide. For gears with evennumbers of teeth, outside diametermay be measured with micrometers orcalipers. For gears with odd numbersof teeth, only an approximate measure-ment can be determined using mi-crometers or calipers. This is a usefulinspection parameter for incoming in-spection.

Pitch Circle - Used in the mating oftwo gears. The theoretical circle wherethe rotation of one mating gear is trans-ferred to the rotation of the other mat-ing gear with the least amount of lostmotion.

Pitch Diameter (D) - The theoreticalpitch diameter is determined by divid-ing the number of teeth of the gear bythe diametral pitch (inch system) or bymultiplying the number of gear teethby the module (metric system). Theactual pitch diameter is determined dur-ing the manufacturing process.

Pitch Point - The point at which rota-tion is transferred from the pitch circleof the pinion to the pitch circle of thedriven gear. It is the point of tangencyof the two pitch circles and defines theactual line of action for the transfer ofpower between the two gears.

Planetary Geartrain - There are sev-eral different styles and classes of plan-etary geartrains. For the purpose ofPMI components, the planetary gear-box is comprised of three moving ele-ments and one stationary element. Theinput to the system is a rotating sungear (usually the motor pinion). Theoutput is a carrier plate with three orfour trunnions mounted to an outputshaft which is free to rotate. An inter-nal spur (ring) gear is cut into the ID ofthe gearbox housing and is used asthe stationary element. There is a spurgear for each trunnion of the carrier

plate which is free to rotate on the trun-nion and is in mesh with both the ro-tating sun gear and the fixed ring gear.The meshing of the planetary gear withthe sun gear causes the planetary gearto be “walked” around the inside of thering gear in a planetary motion. Thereactive force of the planetary gear isimparted to the trunnion which causesthe carrier plate and the output shaftto rotate.

The advantages of a planetary over astraight spur gearbox are:• Increased strength for size• Increased gear reduction capability

for size• Averaged transmission

errorThe disadvantages of a planetary gear-box are:• Complexity• Difficulty in controlling backlash

Single stage planetaries can bestacked to accomplish greater gear ra-tios and stacked planetary stages willgive the largest gear ratios for a givenaxial length. Planetary stages can alsobe placed in line with standard spurgear clusters to “fine tune” a gear ra-tio.

Planetary Gear Ratio (Ap) - The ef-fective gear ratio of the planetary canbe calculated by dividing the numberof teeth in the ring gear by the numberof teeth in the sun gear and addingone to the result. (The addition of 1 tothe result accounts for the rotation thatoccurs as the planetary “walks” insidethe ring gear). (See figure below).

For multiple stage planetaries, the ra-tios of the individual stages are multi-plied together to achieve the overallratio of the gearbox.

Pressure Angle (f) - The pressureangle is the angular relationship be-tween the line of action and the line

tangent to the pitch circle. The stan-dard pressure angles are 20° and14.5°, with 20° being the most com-monly used for fine pitch gears since itminimizes the undercutting of the toothprofile on pinions with low numbers ofteeth.

Radial Play - The radial play of theoutput shaft is measured by applyinga specific load at a specific point onthe output shaft and measuring themagnitude of the linear deflections. Ifthis parameter is crit ical to thecustomer’s application, it must be ad-dressed specifically in their specifica-tion.

Design data should include:

• Load information.

• The point on the shaft where theload is to be applied.

• The point on the shaft where themeasurement is to be made.

Control of radial play affects frictionloading and cost. Limits on radial playshould be evaluated as a trade-off insystems analysis.

Tooth Profile - The outside shape ofthe gear tooth measured across thetooth width. It includes the involuteshape of the sides of the gear toothand the outside diametral section ofthe gear tooth tip. It is best viewed bysilhouetting the profile on an opticalcomparator or other similar device.Tooth profiles are standardized for allinvolute gears of a specific number ofteeth (changing only in scale).

Tooth Thickness - The chordal mea-surement of a gear tooth at the pitchcircle.

Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Error(TTCE) - The combined effect of pitcherror, profile error, and tooth thicknessvariances which result in an inconsis-tent transmission of angular velocityas the gear tooth transmits motion toa mating tooth. This parameter is onlycritical in highly accurate positioningsystems.

Total Composite Error (TCE) - Totalcomposite error is the summation ofall variations which cause aberrationsin uniform transmission of angular ve-locity in any gear. It is quantified bymeasuring the variation of the centerdistance when the gear being measured

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rotates an intimately meshed mastergear. Consequently, the units of mea-surement for TCE (and TTCE) are gen-erally thousandths or ten-thousandthsof an inch reflecting the variation inthe center distance. In highly accu-rate positioning systems this param-eter can become critical. In mostcases, the general AGMA guidelinesspecified by quality number are ad-equate.

Transmission Error - Transmissionerror for a gearbox is the variation inangular velocity from the ideal theo-retical. It is generally specified for theduration of a full rotation (360°) of out-put shaft. It is the compilation of all ofthe factors that cause the angular ro-tation to be non-uniform. The contribu-tors to transmission error include, butare not limited to eccentricities, instal-

lation accuracies, bearing runout, ma-chining variations, grease, and con-taminants. This parameter is only criti-cal in high accuracy servo systems orsystems where absolute speed mustbe maintained over one revolution.Minimization of transmission error be-yond standard manufacturing practiceis costly.

The principal uses of gearboxes areto change torque or speed, or to matchinertias. For PMI products, gearboxesare principally employed to either mul-tiply torque or reduce speed. Eachapplication has unique considerationssuch as allowable backlash, axial load-ing, weight, size, speed, torque, tem-perature range, and environmentalconditions. These requirements willdetermine the available solutions foryour specific application.

Torque Multiplication - The outputtorque that is theoretically available atthe output shaft of a gearbox can becalculated by the formula:

Tout = Tin x A x η

where Tout = Output TorqueTin = Input TorqueA = Gear Ratioη = Overall Gearbox

Efficiency

Often other limiting factors can comeinto play which will limit the theoreti-

Performance Factorscal torque to some lesser value. Thesefactors may be gear tooth strength,bearing strength, output shaft size andstrength, housing limitations, greaselimitations, and a variety of other con-siderations. Additionally, temperatureand wear can cause the efficiency andinternal loading of the system to changewhich might cause a change in torquethroughput.

Speed Reduction - The output speedthat is theoretically available at the out-put shaft of a gearbox can be calcu-lated by the formula:

ωout = ωin / A

Factors such as bearings and lubricantsmay limit the operating input or outputspeed, but the output speed is alwaysan exact inverse gear ratio multiple ofthe input speed. The end user is prin-cipally concerned with the output speedand torque capacity of the gearbox, andthese values must be specified. For ap-plications that detect position based on

input shaft angle, reduction ratios canbe a useful tool.

Inertia Relationship - The relationshipof input inertia to output inertia of ageartrain is a squared function. In highacceleration applications, where rapidresponse and system stability are criti-cal, the matching of motor inertia toload inertia enhances the ease of con-trol of the system. The inertia of theload reflected back to the motor (Jmload)then becomes one of the factors in siz-ing the motor satisfy the application.The following relationships apply.

Torque (T) = Inertia (J) x Acceleration (α)

Jm load = Jload / A2

where Jload is the load inertia, A is thegear ratio, and Jm load is the load inertiareflected back to the motor (the iner-tial load that the motor sees).

The majority of the gear theory con-tained in the foregoing definitions andterms is required by the gearbox de-signer and should be transparent tothe user. The following user-specifiedparameters are critical to the designerfor meeting a unique application.

• Output Speed (rpm) - Minimumand maximum should be defined ifcritical.

• Torque (oz-in or Nm) - Minimumand maximum should be defined ifcritical.

• Backlash (arc minutes) - Only ifcritical to the application.

• Transmission Error (arc minutes)- Only if critical to the application.

• Power Available at the input(watts) - Can be given in electricalor mechanical terms.

• Environmental Requirements -Temperature range, humidity,atmosphere, altitude, etc.

• Duty Cycle - Time on / time off.• Physical Size Restrictions• Physical Weight Restrictions• End Play Restrictions• Radial Play Restrictions• Special Lubrication Requirements

Backlash - The allowable backlash inany system is determined by the per-formance required from the system withrespect to accuracy, stability and sys-

Specifying a Gearboxtem response. The more responsiveand accurate the requirements, thegreater the risk of instability in the con-trol system if backlash is not controlled.There are methods of controlling andeven eliminating the effects of back-lash in gearing. The effect of back-lash can be minimized by controllingthe difference in tooth size or by con-trolling the center distance between thetwo gears. The two most common for-mats for accomplishing this are:

1) Adjusting or spring loading the cen-ter distance between the mating gears.

2) Varying the tooth width by usingspring loaded split gears.

Page 30: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

28 © Danaher MotionMiniature Gearheads

Efficiency - The ratio of the mechani-cal power output from the gearbox tothe mechanical power input to thegeartrain and determines the maximumpower transfer capability of the device.

η = Pmechin / Pmechout x 100%

Axial Loading - The force applied tothe geartrain shaft in the axial direc-tion. Exceeding maximum limits canresult in premature failure of the bear-ing system in the device and or break-ing of components in the geartrain.

Radial or Side Loading - The forceapplied to the geartrain output shaft inthe radial direction. Exceeding maxi-

mum limits can result in brinelling theoutput shaft bearing.

Maximum Input Speed - The effectsof speed on gearing are heat and sur-face wear due to friction. If the heatgenerated exceeds the thermal limita-tion of the materials in the gearing, theresults are destruction of the gears.Restrictions are placed on the inputspeed of a geartrain to insure that lifespecifications are met.

Maximum Output Torque - There arelimitations on the amount of force thatany material can withstand before theshear and tensile strengths are ex-ceeded and the material physically

breaks. The maximum output torquespecifications listed are conservativeand do include a margin of safety. Forgreatest reliability, however, the val-ues listed should never be exceeded.The maximum output torque is a func-tion of gear face width, tooth thickness,and material used, but is also limitedby output shaft bearing capacities.

Modular Motor and Gearhead Mounting Options

90*

:

:

:

:

:

?0"

?0

?0!

?0+

1))

9169=@

169

16918

ABACD)C

With PMI’s flexible thread system youcan specify a own “standard” mount-ing flange at a reasonable cost.

All configurations are also availablewith integral shaft seals which threadon and extend the pilot.

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29

Min

iatu

re G

earh

eads

PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Gearheads

Gear Max Torque Max Input Efficiency Max Mech Backlash Envelope Integral Rotation AdditionRatio Output Speed Range Power Max Diagram Shaft Input Length for

oz-in rpm % Output minutes Below Seal to Shaft Seal(Nm) watt of angle Available Output inch (mm)

5.00 42 ( 0.29) 100,000 85-92 100 95 Single Yes Same .156 (3.96)

15.00 42 ( 0.29) 100,000 75-90 100 110 Dual Yes Same .156 (3.96)

25.00 42 ( 0.29) 100,000 75-90 100 110 Dual Yes Same .156 (3.96)

Size 5 Standard Modular Planetary Gearhead

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

+%(#""%%&#""%,,&

+% +-"%./-0/123""-",$+

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+,$(

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Single Stage Dual Stage

.432±.002 .603±.003(10.973±0.051) (15.316±0.076)

(-) denotes millimeters

Gearhead Length - “L”

Page 32: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

30 © Danaher MotionMiniature Gearheads

Gear Max Torque Max Input Efficiency Max Mech Backlash Envelope Integral Rotation AdditionRatio Output Speed Range Power Max Diagram Shaft Input Length for

oz-in rpm % Output minutes Below Seal to Shaft Seal(Nm) watt of angle Available Output inch (mm)

4.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 90-95 225 45 Single Yes Same .175 (4.45)

5.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 90-95 225 45 Single Yes Same .175 (4.45)

7.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 90-95 225 45 Single Yes Same .175 (4.45)

12.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

15.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

16.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

20.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

21.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

25.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

28.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

35.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

49.00 162 (1.1) 80,000 75-90 225 60 Dual Yes Same .175 (4.45)

Size 9 Standard Modular Planetary Gearhead

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

%"-!./-3%",+%",,

#%"!&#%(&

%"-!./-

#$&4!

%$!#"""&

%(#%$&

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Single Stage Dual Stage

.747±.002 1.074±.003(18.974±0.051) (27.305±0.076)

(-) denotes millimeters

Gearhead Length - “L”

Page 33: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

31

Min

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PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Miniature Gearheads

Gear Max Torque Max Input Efficiency Max Mech Backlash Envelope Integral Rotation AdditionRatio Output Speed Range Power Max Diagram Shaft Input Length for

oz-in rpm % Output minutes Below Seal to Shaft Seal(Nm) watt of angle Available Output inch (mm)

4.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 90-95 550 45 Single Yes Same .250 (6.35)

5.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 90-95 550 45 Single Yes Same .250 (6.35)

7.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 90-95 550 45 Single Yes Same .250 (6.35)

12.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

15.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

16.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

20.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

21.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

25.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

28.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

35.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

49.00 375 (2.6) 70,000 75-90 550 60 Dual Yes Same .250 (6.35)

Size 11 Standard Modular Planetary Gearhead

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

"-!./-!3

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Single Stage Dual Stage

.826±.002 1.223±.003(20.981±0.051) (31.064±0.076)

(-) denotes millimeters

Gearhead Length - “L”

Page 34: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

32 © Danaher MotionMiniature Gearheads

Gear Max Torque Max Input Efficiency Max Mech Backlash Envelope Integral Rotation AdditionRatio Output Speed Range Power Max Diagram Shaft Input Length for

oz-in rpm % Output minutes Below Seal to Shaft Seal(Nm) watt of angle Available Output inch (mm)

4.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 90-95 1125 45 Single Yes Same .313 (7.95)

5.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 90-95 1125 45 Single Yes Same .313 (7.95)

7.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 90-95 1125 45 Single Yes Same .313 (7.95)

12.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

15.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

16.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

20.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

21.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

25.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

28.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

35.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

49.00 1350 (9.5) 50,000 75-90 1125 60 Dual Yes Same .313 (7.95)

Size 15 Standard Modular Planetary Gearheads

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

Single Stage Dual Stage

1.453±.002 2.141±.003(37.052±0.051) (54.381±0.076)

(-) denotes millimeters

Gearhead Length - “L”

--

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Page 35: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

33

Spec

ialty

AC

Mot

ors

PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Specialty AC Motors

Features• High continuous constant speeds

• Operation in high temperature envi-ronments

• Radial play < 0.001"

• Axial play < 0.005"

• Very low audible noise

• Extremely high reliability & life

Specialty AC Motors• Sizes 5, 8, 11, and 15

AC Induction Motors

• Size 11 and 18AC Synchronous Motors

• Bidirectional Operation

AC motors have historically been theworkhorse of industry. If you are seek-ing accurate, reliable rotary compo-nents for use in hostile environments,or constant speed units, the AC motorshould be seriously considered. Usingavailable 400 Hz power processedthrough simple control electronics, theAC motor is often the most cost-effec-tive answer to motion control. Throughjudicious materials selection, a widevariety of exact performance param-eters can be achieved. Our use of

• Smooth Rotary Motion

• Simple to Control

• High Speed Operation

magnetic steels, combined with yearsof experience in winding configurationsallow us to give our customers opti-mum solutions. Coupling traditional ACmotor design techniques with CADmethods we can quickly meet thechanging and demanding challenges ofour customers. Our staff of highly quali-fied engineers can provide your com-pany with the technical support neces-sary to produce solutions in the leasttime.

• Simple control electronics

• Custom designs including:

- Integral gearheads

- Tachometers

- Brakes

- Viscous damping

Applications include:• Commercial aircraft instruments

• Aircraft flight control & aircraftsystems

• Process control

Wiring Diagrams

WHITE

YELLOW

SQUIRRELCAGE

ROTOR

REF WINDINGPHASE 1 (∅ 1)

1

3

4 2

CONTROL WINDINGPHASE 2

(∅ 2)BLA

CK

RE

D

WHITE

YELLOW

REF WINDINGPHASE 1 (∅ 1)

1

3

CONTROL WINDINGPHASE 2

(∅ 2)

4

BLA

CK

5

RE

D/B

LK

2

RE

D

6

GR

EE

N

SPLITPHASE

SQUIRRELCAGE

ROTOR

Standard Center Tapped Split

WHITE

YELLOW

REF WINDINGPHASE 1 (∅ 1)

1

3

SQUIRRELCAGE

ROTOR

5

CENTERTAPPED

RE

D/B

LK

4

CONTROL WINDINGPHASE 2

(∅ 2)BLA

CK

2

RE

D

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34 © Danaher MotionSpecialty AC Motors

AC Motor TechnologySimilar to other brushless technologies,the AC motor is a highly reliable de-vice. Properly designed, the only wearpoint in an AC motor is the bearings.Used in military and industrial applica-tions throughout the world, it hasproven its worth over decades. It re-quires no sophisticated electronics todrive, and has unique features whichsatisfy some applications better thanany other technology.

To understand the operation and theoryof an AC motor, some terms need tobe defined. The following is a list ofdefinitions:

Rotor - The rotating member of themotor. It includes the shaft and thelaminated stack that is cast with con-ductive material in the slots. The cast-ing operation gives the rotor the ap-pearance of a cage, thus the name“squirrel cage” rotor.

Stator - The stationary member of themotor. It includes the housing, theendbells, the laminated stator stackand the windings in the laminationslots.

Synchronous Speed - The speed atwhich the motor would rotate with volt-age applied to both phases, if it werea true synchronous machine. This ismathematically expressed as:

ωs = synchronous speed

f = frequency of AC drive voltage

p = number of magnetic polesin the stator

for an AC induction motor, the no-loadspeed is typically 5/6 of ωs

Stall Torque - The rotor torque devel-oped at stall when the rated voltage,frequency and proper phase relation-ships are applied to both phases.

No Load Speed - The speed at whichthe output shaft rotates with no exter-nal load applied to the shaft when ratedvoltage, frequency and proper phaserelationships are applied to bothphases.

Starting Voltage - The minimum volt-age required to have the shaft startand rotate continuously. Generally it isless than 3% of the rated control phasevoltage.

Stall Effective Resistance - Theequivalent pure DC resistance whichwhen substituted for the winding beingtested will draw the same amount ofpower. It is also equivalent to the im-pedance of the winding in parallel witha capacitor adjusted for unity powerfactor. It is usually calculated by E2/P,where E is the rated motor windingvoltage and P is the rated stall wattsper phase.

Power Factor - The cosine of thephase angle (Φ) between the drivingvoltage and the driving current in amotor. Unity power factor occurswhen Φ = 0°. Maximum electricalpower is converted to mechanicalpower at unity power factor.

Unity Power Factor Capacitor - Sys-tems designers will often place a ca-pacitor in parallel with the control phaseto reduce the current flow in the con-trol amplifier. Adding this capacitor in-creases the effective resistance. Cal-culation of the Unity Power Factor Ca-pacitor value is as follows:

C = Capacitance (mfd)

p.f. = Winding Power Factor

f = Excitation Frequency (Hz)

Z = Winding Impedance

The schematic for a two phase (2Φ) ACinduction servo motor is shown below:

To understand AC motor operation, youmust rely on the basic physics involvedin electromagnetism. Current througha conductor creates magnetic fieldaround that conductor. Secondly, if aconductor is placed in a moving mag-netic field, a current is created in thatconductor. An AC voltage applied tothe reference windings (phase 1) in thestator, creates a rotating electrical fieldin the stator. This rotating stator fieldinduces currents in the rotor conduc-tors. When the control winding (phase2) is excited by an AC voltage, a forceis exerted on the conductors as a re-sult of the effects of the magnetic fields.In accordance with the laws of phys-ics, if a current carrying conductor isplaced in a magnetic field, a force re-sults that causes the conductor tomove perpendicular to the lines of fluxof the field. (See the Left Hand Rulediagram below). The forces on the ro-tor will cause it to accelerate and try tomaintain the synchronous speed of thestator’s rotating field. The rotor will notbe able to achieve the synchronousspeed due to friction, mechanical ec-centricities, heat loss in the magneticsand other factors. The high accelera-tion capability of the AC induction mo-tor is one of the inherent features thatcan be utilized to the system engineer’sadvantage. The ratio of stall torque torotor inertia is defined as theoreticalacceleration (α theo) and is calculatedas follows:

where Ts= stall torque (oz-in)

J = rotor inertia (gm-cm2)

WHITE

YELLOW

SQUIRRELCAGE

ROTOR

REF WINDINGPHASE 1 (∅ 1)

1

3

4 2

CONTROL WINDINGPHASE 2

(∅ 2)BLA

CK

RE

D

South Magnetic Pole

North Magnetic Pole

Current (I)

Field (B)

Force

Left Hand Rule (Motors)

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35

Spec

ialty

AC

Mot

ors

PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Specialty AC Motors

To minimize rotor inertia and maximizetorque, motors are frequently designedwith small diameter rotors. A measureof how quickly a motor will respond toelectrical control signals is the me-chanical time constant. By definition,the time constant is the time requiredfor the rotor to accelerate from zerospeed to 63.2% of final no-load speed.The computation for the time constant(τmech) is:

where ωnl = no load speed (rpm)

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36 © Danaher MotionSpecialty AC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units 8M-400-H 8M-600-J 8M-1400-H 8M-1500-G

Tstall Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) .27 (0.00191) .24 (0.00169) .14 (0.00099) .34 (0.00240)

Pin Pwr Input (Φ1 / Φ2) watt 2.2 / 2.3 2.2 / 2.2 1.7 / 1.7 3.4 / 3.4

ωnl No Load Speed rpm 7150 7000 9100 7250

Istall Stall Current (Φ1 / Φ2) milliamp 120 / 92 111 / 111 91 / 91 46 / 46

Vstarting Max Starting Voltage volts AC 0.8 0.5 0.8 2.5

tm Mech Time Constant msec 16.5 13.0 8.7 5.4

αt Theoretical Accel rad/sec2 45,400 61,200 110,000 141,200

Jm Armature Inertia gm-cm2 0.42 0.30 0.09 0.17

L Max Length in (mm) .718 (18.24) .625 (15.88) .698 (17.73) .824 (20.93)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 1.00 (28.35) .85 (24.10) 1.02 (28.92) 1.16 (32.89)

Symbol Parameter Units 8M-400-H 8M-600-J 8M-1400-H1 8M-1500-G

Vr Rated Voltage (Φ1 / Φ2) volts @ 400Hz 26 / 35 CT 26 / 26 26 / 26 115 / 115

Rstall Resistance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 155 / 262 178 / 178 200 / 200 1600 / 1725

Xstall Reactance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 151 / 275 152 / 152 203 / 203 1921 / 1964

Zstall Impedance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 216 / 380 234 / 234 285 / 285 2500 / 2614

Reff Eff Resistance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 303 / 555 309 / 309 407 / 407 3906 / 3961

Size 8 AC Induction Motors Performance Data

Size 8 AC Induction Motors Winding Data

FOR PINION DATA SEESTANDARD VARIATIONSON PART NUMBERINGPAGE

.755[19.18]MAX

MIN FULL DEPTHOF PINION .275 [6.98]

LEADS - 12" [300 mm] MINCOLOR CODED

L

.690 [17.53]

.062±.005 [9.525±.38]

.062±.005 [9.525±.38]

.375±.015 [9.525±.38]

.040±.003 [9.525±.38]

.750±.003[19.05±.08]

.5000 +.0000- .0005

[12.7 ]+.000- .013

Size 8 AC Motor Speed-Torque Curves

Torque (oz in)

Sp

eed

(rp

m)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

8M-1400-H

8M-600-J

8M-400-H

8M-1500-G

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

No. of Teeth 13

Diametral Pitch 120

Pressure Angle 20°

Outside Diameter 0.1247

Tooth Form Full Depth Involute

Composite Error TIR 0.001

Material 416SS (Rockwell C28 to 38)

Size 8 Standard Pinion Data

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37

Spec

ialty

AC

Mot

ors

PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Specialty AC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units 11M-500-AA 11M-635-G 11M-703-F 11M-500-N

Vr Rated Voltage (Φ1 / Φ2) volts @ 400Hz 26 / 35 CT 26 / 26 26 / 26 115 / 115-57.5

Rstall Resistance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 155 / 262 236 / 236 178 / 178 634 / 634

Xstall Reactance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 151 / 275 189 / 189 152 / 152 987 / 987

Zstall Impedance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 216 / 380 303 / 303 234 / 234 1170 / 1170

Reff Eff Resistance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 303 / 555 288 / 388 309 / 309 2168 / 2168

Symbol Parameter Units 11M-500-AA 11M-635-G 11M-703-F 11M-500-N

Tstall Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) .27 (0.00191) .22 (0.00155) .24 (0.00169) 1.0 (0.00706)

Pin Pwr Input (Φ1 / Φ2) watt 2.2 / 2.3 1.7 / 1.7 2.2 / 2.2 6.1 / 6.1

ωnl No Load Speed rpm 7150 7000 7000 6200

Istall Stall Current (Φ1 / Φ2) milliamp 120 / 92 86 / 86 111 / 111 98 / 98

Vstarting Max Starting Voltage volts AC 0.8 0.8 0.5 3.0

tm Mech Time Constant msec 16.5 28.3 13.0 9.0

αt Theoretical Accel rad/sec2 45,400 23,500 61,200 70,600

Jm Armature Inertia gm-cm2 0.42 0.60 0.30 1.00

Jdimension See Outline Below in 0.50 0.62 0.50 0.45

L Max Length in (mm) 1.240 (31.50) 1.593 (40.46) 1.365 (34.67) 1.240 (31.50)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 1.00 (28.35) 1.23 (34.87) .85 (24.10) 3.70 (104.90)

Size 11 AC Induction Motors Performance Data

Size 11 AC Induction Motors Winding Data

FOR PINION DATA SEESTANDARD VARIATIONSON PART NUMBERINGPAGE1.067

[27.10]MAX

MIN FULL DEPTHOF PINION .312 [7.92]

LEADS - 12" [300 mm] MINCOLOR CODED

.980 [24.89]1.062±.003[26.97±.08]

.093±.005 [2.36±.13]

.050±.005 [1.27±.13]

.062±.003 [1.57± .08]

.062±.003 [1.57±.08]

.437±.015 [11.10±.38]

L

1.0000 +.0000- .0005

.6250 +.0000- .0005

[25.4 ]+.000- .013

[15.875 ].000.013

6000

Size 11 AC Motor Speed-Torque Curves

Torque (oz in)

Sp

eed

(rp

m)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

7000

8000

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

11M-635-G

11M-703-F

11M-500-AA

11M-500-N

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

No. of Teeth 13

Diametral Pitch 120

Pressure Angle 20°

Outside Diameter 0.1247

Tooth Form Full Depth Involute

Composite Error TIR 0.001

Material 416SS (Rockwell C28 to 38)

Size 11 Standard Pinion Data

Page 40: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

38 © Danaher MotionSpecialty AC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units 15M-400-H 15M-403-J 15M-403-N 15M-600-A

Vr Rated Voltage (Φ1 / Φ2) volts @ 400Hz 115 / 115-57.5 115 / 115 SP 115 / 36 CT 115 / 36-18

Rstall Resistance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 784 / 784 500 / 500 348 / 33.7 619 / 62

Xstall Reactance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 1046 / 1046 910 / 910 407 / 38.3 975 / 95

Zstall Impedance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 1307 / 1307 1038 / 1038 535 / 51 1155 / 113

Reff Eff Resistance @ Stall (Φ1 / Φ2) Ω 2200 / 8800 2156 / 2156 821 / 77 2155 / 207

Symbol Parameter Units 15M-400-H 15M-403-J 15M-403-N 15M-600-A

Tstall Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 1.50 (0.01059) 1.40 (0.00989) 2.80 (0.01977) 1.20 (0.00847)

Pin Pwr Input (Φ1 / Φ2) watt 6.1 / 6.1 6.1 / 6.1 16.1 / 16.8 6.2 / 6.2

ωnl No Load Speed rpm 10000 5100 10500 6900

Istall Stall Current (Φ1 / Φ2) milliamp 88 / 88 110 / 110 215 / 707 100 / 318

Vstarting Max Starting Voltage volts AC 0.8 0.8 0.5 3.0

tm Mech Time Constant msec 33.0 24.5 12.2 6.0

αt Theoretical Accel rad/sec2 32,100 30,000 59,900 110,000

Jm Armature Inertia gm-cm2 3.3 3.3 3.3 .77

L Max Length in (mm) 1.359 (34.52) 1.335 (33.91) 1.359 (34.52) 1.243 (31.57)

W Motor Weight oz (gm) 6.35 (180.02) 6.40 (181.44) 6.35 (180.02) 5.50 (155.93)

Size 15 AC Induction Motors Performance Data

Size 15 AC Induction Motors Winding Data

FOR PINION DATA SEESTANDARD VARIATIONS ONPART NUMBERING PAGE

1.442[36.63]MAX

MIN FULL DEPTHOF PINION .312 [7.92]

LEADS - 12" [300 mm] MINCOLOR CODED

.073 [1.85] MIN

.093 [2.36]

.132 [3.35]

1.317[33.45] MAX

.040 [1.02]

.437+.010 [11.10±.25]

.8750 +.0000- .0005

1.3120 +.0000- .0005

1.437 +.003- .005

[36.50 ]+.08- .13

[33.32 ]+.000- .013

[22.22 ]+.000- .013

Size 15 AC Motor Speed Torque Curves

Torque (oz-in)

Sp

eed

(rp

m)

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

15M-600-A

15M-403-J

15M-400-H

15M-403-N

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

No. of Teeth 15

Diametral Pitch 96

Pressure Angle 20°

Outside Diameter 0.1765

Tooth Form Full Depth Involute

Composite Error TIR 0.001

Material 416SS (Rockwell C28 to 38)

Size 15 Standard Pinion Data

Page 41: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

39

Spec

ialty

AC

Mot

ors

PMI Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors Specialty AC Motors

Symbol Parameter Units 11SM-724-AB 11SM-1003-L

VΦ1 Phase 1 Voltage volts @ 400 Hz 26 115

VΦ2 Phase 2 Voltage volts @ 400 Hz 26 SP single phase

Tstall Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) .43 (0.00304) .23 (0.00162)

T pull out Pull Out Torque oz-in (Nm) .26 (0.00184) .20 (0.00141)

P stall Power @ Stall watt 10 8

P pull out Power @ Pull Out watt 7 7

ωsyn No Load Speed rpm 8000 8000

L Max Length in (mm) 1.250 (31.75) 1.343 (34.11)

W Weight oz (gm) 4.00 (113.40) 4.00 (113.40)

Size 11 AC Synchronous Motors Operating Parameters

FOR PINION DATA SEESTANDARD VARIATIONSON PART NUMBERINGPAGE1.067

[27.10]MAX

MIN FULL DEPTHOF PINION .312 [7.92]

LEADS - 12" [300 mm] MINCOLOR CODED

.980 [24.89]1.062±.003[26.97±.08]

.093±.005 [2.36±.13]

.050±.005 [1.27±.13]

.062±.003 [1.57± .08]

.062±.003 [1.57±.08]

.437±.015 [11.10±.38]

L

1.0000 +.0000- .0005

.6250 +.0000- .0005

[25.4 ]+.000- .013

[15.875 ].000.013

Size 11 AC Synchronous Motor Speed-Torque Curves

Torque (oz-in)

Sp

eed

(rp

m)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

11SM-724-AB11SM-1003-L

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

No. of Teeth 13

Diametral Pitch 120

Pressure Angle 20°

Outside Diameter 0.1247

Tooth Form Full Depth Involute

Composite Error TIR 0.001

Material 416SS (Rockwell C28 to 38)

Size 11 Standard Pinion Data

Page 42: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

40 © Danaher MotionSpecialty AC Motors

Size 18 AC Synchronous Motors Operating ParametersSymbol Parameter Units 18SM-214-A

VΦ1 Phase 1 Voltage volts @ 400 Hz 115

VΦ2 Phase 2 Voltage volts @ 400 Hz single phase

Tstall Stall Torque oz-in (Nm) 1.80 (0.01271)

Tpull out Pull Out Torque oz-in (Nm) 1.30 (0.00918)

P stall Power @ Stall watt 35

Ppull out Power @ Pull Out watt 20

ωsyn No Load Speed rpm 12000

L Max Length in (mm) 2.050 (52.07)

W Weight oz (gm) 13.00 (368.55)

FOR PINION DATA SEESTANDARD VARIATIONS ONPART NUMBERING PAGE

1.775 MAX

MIN FULL DEPTHOF PINION .397

LEADS - 12" [300 mm] MINCOLOR CODED

1.630 MAX

.093

.073 MIN

.132

.040

L

.562+.015

.9375 +.0000- .0005

1.5620 +.0000- .0005

1.750+.003- .005

Size 18 AC Synchronous MotorSpeed-Torque Curve

Torque (oz-in)

Sp

eed

(rp

m)

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

18SM-214-A

[-] denotes millimetersSpecifications subject to change without notice

No. of Teeth 15

Diametral Pitch 96

Pressure Angle 20°

Outside Diameter 0.1765

Tooth Form Full Depth Involute

Composite Error TIR 0.001

Material 416SS (Rockwell C28 to 38)

Size 18 Standard Pinion Data

Page 43: Miniature Brushless DC & Specialty AC Motors€¦ · tem, brushless DC motors (BLDC) per-form very much like a conventional DC motor. For example, BLDC motors pro-duce torque in direct

DMCD-PMI-MBDCSACM 8/01

Contact us for assistance in locatinglocal sales and application support.

PMI110 Westtown RoadWest Chester, PA 19382 USATel: +1 (610) 692-2700Fax:+1 (610) 696-4598Toll-free: 1 (800) 566-5274http://www.danahermcg.com

www.danahermcg.comThe Motion Components Division of Danaher Motion