Methods of Persuasion
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METHODS OF PERSUASIONBUILDING CREDIBILITY, USING EVIDENCE, & REASONINGOral Communication: Small Group 3 Project
Table of Contents
Building Credibility s.3-7
Using Evidence s.8-10
Appealing to Emotion s.28-31
Factors of Credibility
Competence a speakers intelligence and expertise on the subject.
Character a speakers sincerity and trustworthiness on the well-being of the audience.
Types of Credibility
Initial Credibility the credibility of the speaker before she or he starts to speak. Derived Credibility the credibility of the speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech itself. Terminal Credibility the credibility of the speaker at the end of the speech.
Enhancing Your Credibility
Explaining Your Competence Ask
yourself, Did I investigate the topic thoroughly? Do I have the experience that gives me special knowledge or insight? Ex.
Before returning to school last year, I spent three years working at local assisting centers. I worked in every part of the city and with every kind of person.
can set your qualifications based on your study or research or your background and personal experience.
Enhancing Your Credibility(Contd)
Establish Common Ground with Your Audience Always
show respect for you listeners. Your speech becomes more appealing when you identifying with the audience. Showing
that your point-of-view in lines with what they believe. Show that you share the same values and attitudes, and experiences.
Enhancing Your Credibility(Contd)
The DeliveryFaster speakers are better accepted that slow speakers. Good speakers DO NOT lose their place, hesitate frequently, or pepper talk(uh, er, um). This is why speakers need to practice way ahead of time. Genuine conviction will also help strengthen your credibility.
sincerity, honesty, and straightforward manner are more important than special talent or polish. - President Harry S. Truman
When using evidence, you must have a good persuasive speed in how
evidence works: A Case Study the tips for using evidence
To be a good persuasive speaker, you must present reliable evidence to solidify your credibility
Strong supporting materials consist of: Examples Statistical
measures to support your message.
When speaking to persuade, your evidence must prove your view point and supports your idea. Therefore, you must make your point of evidence clear by using credibility and logic.
When using evidence to persuade your audience, ask yourself the following:1.Are all my major claims supported by evidence? 2.Is my evidence from a creditable source? 3.Have I gathered and done enough research to support my information?
Reasoning the process of drawing a conclusion based on evidence.
No matter how strong your evidence, you will not be very persuasive unless listeners gasp you reasoning. Many think it is only for philosophers. What are some examples of reasoning?
Concerns in ReasoningYour reasoning must be sound. Must get listeners to agree with your reasoning. Four methods of reasoning: Specific Instances
Reasoning from Specific Reasoning A number of particular facts to a general conclusionFact 1: My physical education course last term was easy.No matter how many specific instances you give, specific instances conclusions are never foolproof.
Fact 2: My roommates physical education course was easy. Fact 3: My brothers physical education class was easy. Conclusion: Physical education courses are easy.
Guidelines for Reasoning from Specific Instances First, avoid generalizing too rapidly. Dont jump to conclusions Be fair, unbiased, and representative in your instances
Second, be careful with your wording. Discuss specific instances: Ex. Yosemite, Yellowstone, the Everglades, etc
Third, reinforce your argument with statistics or testimony. Testimony the statistics will better demonstrate that the instances are in fact representative. It doesnt matter which order you use as long as your facts support your conclusion
Concerns in ReasoningYour reasoning must be sound. Must get listeners to agree with your reasoning. Four methods of reasoning: Specific Instances Principle
Principlemoves from the general to the specific. 1 . T h e U n i d S ta te s C o n sti ti n te tu o 1.All u a ra n te e s a mortalci ze n s th e ri h t to g people are l . S . ti lU g vo te . 2.Socratesais aUpersonze n s. 2 . W o m e n re . S . ci ti 3.Therefore,, Socrates is mortal 3 . T h e re fo re th e U n i d S ta te s te C o n sti ti n g u a ra n te e s w o m e n th e tu o ri h t to vo te . g
Guidelines for Reasoning from Principle Give evidence to support it before moving to your minor argument. You might also need to support your minor argument with evidence.E xce ssi co n su m p ti n ve o o f re fi e d su g a r i n s u n h e a l y. th S o ft d ri ks , d e sse rts , n ca n d i s, a n d sw e e te n e d e d a i p ro d u cts co n ta i ry n exce ssi a m o u n ts o f ve su g a r. T h e re fo re , exce ssi ve co n su m p ti n o f so ft o d ri ks, d e sse rts, n ca n d i s, a n d sw e e te n e d e d a i p ro d u cts i ry s u n h e a l y. th
Concerns in ReasoningYour reasoning must be sound. Must get listeners to agree with your reasoning. Four methods of reasoning: Specific Instances Principle Casual Reasoning
The establishment of the relationships between causes and effects.
We use casual reasoning daily. Because of the patch of ice, I fell and broke my leg.Ex. Terrorism, football games, roommates habits.
Guidelines for Casual ReasoningThe two common errors to avoid when using casual reasoning. 1.Fallacy of false cause (after this, therefore because of this) Ex.
Just because a black cat crosses your path and five minutes later you fall and break your arm, you cannot blame the cat for your broken arm.
2.Assuming that events have only one cause Ex.
What causes the economy to boom or burst? Interest rates, gas prices, tax policies, labor cost, consumer confidence, etc
Concerns in ReasoningYour reasoning must be sound. Must get listeners to agree with your reasoning. Four methods of reasoning: Specific Instances Principle Casual Reasoning Analogical
Guidelines for Analogical Analogical Reasoning Reasoning cases being compared are essentially The two Comparing two similar cases inferring that what is true to one statement is also true alike when assessing analogical reasoning Reasoning with the other. is used most often in from analogy persuasive speeches on questions of policy Ex. When arguing for a new policy, you should find out whether a similar policy has been tried somewhere else.
FallaciesPrevious Fallacies: Hasty Generalizatio n False Cause Invalid Analogy
an error in reasoning.
Red Herring Introducing an irrelevant issue in order to divert attention from the subject under discussion.Ex. How dare my opponents accuse me of political corruption at a time when we are working to improve the quality of life for all people in the United States.
Ad Hominem Refers to the attacking the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.Ex. The governor has a number of interest economic proposals, but lets not forget that she comes from a very wealthy family.
However, sometimes a persons character can be called into question.
Either-Or Sometimes referred to as a false dilemma, which forces listeners to choose between two alternatives.Ex. Either we build a new high school or children in this community will never get into college.
Either-ors fallacy opens up questions you may not have.Ex. What does a new building got to do with the education of our children?
Bandwagon The assumption about something that is popular is good, correct, or desirable.Ex. Just because more people use Alieve than Advil does not mean Alieve is a better product.
The bandwagon speakers are usually followers.
Slippery Slope A speaker that assumes that taking a first step will lead to the next step and so on.Ex. If the government begin to control the amount of violence on televisionthen they will gain absolute control of the media and censorship.
If a speaker uses the slippery slope fallacy then they will need to supply the listeners with evidence to support the claim.
What are Emotional Appeals
Fear of serious illness Compassion for the physical disabled Pride in ones country Anger at terrorist and their supporters Guilt about not doing ones best Reverence for an admired person
Generating Emotional Appeals Often
make a persuasive speech compelling.
To generate an emotional appeal you should use emotional language.
For example, when giving a speech to a graduate college class, you want to use words like property, opportunity, strong leadership, continue, to learn and succeed and so forth.
Ethics and Emotional Appeal
Some people have taken the position that ethical speakers should avoid emotional appeal entirely. Why? Because emotional appeals can sometimes fan the flames of hatred, religious bigotry, and political fanaticism. Who are the ethical speakers that also had emotional
Ethics and Emotional Appeal
In many cases ethics and emotional appeal works hand in hand. What is an example? On the other hand, emotional appeals can al