Metering and Flow Monitoring

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    Metering and Flow Monitoring 2011, Texas Engineering Extension Service. All Rights Reserved

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    I. Course Description

    The water meter is the last checkpoint in the water distribution

    system beore treated water is used by consumers. The water me-

    ter is the device the utility uses to measure customer water usage

    and determine the amount o the customers bill. This course will

    review the various meters, their installation and maintenance,

    and causes or water loss within the distribution system.

    II. Purpose and Benefts o Water Meters

    Purpose o a Water Meter

    The purpose o a water meter is to accurately measure the amount

    o water that fows through it. This gives the water operator in-

    ormation on how much water is produced, treated, and delivered

    to customers. One main purpose o a water meter is to determine

    how much water customers are using so that they can be billed

    properly. In essence, the water meter is a cash register or the

    water utility.

    Benefts o Metering Water

    To the operator, it is benecial to know how much water is being

    produced, treated, and delivered. Some benets o metering water

    are listed below:

    Revenue Determination. The water meter accounts or

    the quantity o water used. The cost o water service is more

    than the cost o the raw water. The service cost includes

    obtaining the raw water, treating it, assuring its disinec-tion, delivering the water, and maintaining the system that

    continually provides the water.

    Water conservation. Because the customers water bill

    is based on the volume o water used, the customer tends

    to conserve water.

    Leak detection. Leak detection aids the customer in

    avoiding catastrophic water bills or helps to explain them.

    Determination o unaccounted-or water. Unaccount-

    ed-or water is the dierence between the volume o water

    pumped into the distribution system and the volume o

    water metered rom it.

    Accurate blending o water rom dierent sources.

    Some cities blend groundwater with surace water, water

    rom dierent wells, or water rom dierent surace sourc-

    es. Water meters help ensure the water is blended accurately

    so that potential water quality problems do not occur.

    Determination o uture need. A rise in water consump-

    tion may indicate a need to expand the water supply.

    III. Meter Designs

    There are several types o water meters. They vary in size, and

    their design refects the purpose that they serve. Several common

    types o meter designs are outlined below.

    Positive Displacement Meter

    The positive displacement meter is the most common design used

    in domestic service. An oscillating (swinging) piston (Figure 1) or

    a nutating (nodding) disk, inside the water measuring chamber,

    operates the register.

    Metering and Flow Monitoring

    Terminal ObjectiveUpon successful completion of this course, the operator will be able to explaing the importance of water me-ters within the distrubution system.

    Enabling Objectives1. Describe the purpose and benets of meters.

    2. Identify the various meter designs.

    3. Explain how customer meters are sized.

    4. List the steps in proper meter installation.

    5. Discuss the need for replacing meters.

    6. List the meter records that should be maintained.

    7. Recognize the causes of unaccounted-for water


    8. Discuss the benets of using an automatic meterreading system.

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    Figure 1: Oscillating piston meter (Courtesy of Sensus Metering


    Positive displacement meters have magnetically-driven

    registers, as do most meter designs. As the measuring

    chamber lls and empties with water (positive displace-ment), the piston or disk rotates a magnet that drives the

    register. The magnetic drive allows the register to be sealed

    rom the measuring chamber, protecting the register rom

    moisture, sand, or minerals.

    The action o a nutating disk design is illustrated in

    Figure 2. Water fowing through the measuring chamber

    (A) causes a disc (B) to nutate, which rotates a spindle

    (C) and drives a magnet (D). Rotation transmits through

    the meter wall to a second magnet (E) that operates the


    Figure 2: Nutating disk meter (Courtesy of Badger Meter, Inc.)

    The positive displacement meter is accurate over a

    broad range o fow rates, but at high fow, the piston or

    disk wears rapidly. Excessive piston or disk wear allows

    more water to pass through the meter than is registered,

    causing the meter to under-register. Like all meters, sand or

    mineral deposits can stop the meter.

    Current/Velocity Meter

    The current or velocity meter operates by water fowing through

    a bladed wheel or propeller, which turns a magnet that drives the

    sealed register. As the velocity o the water increases, the wheel or

    propeller speed increases.

    There are three types o current meter: the turbine,

    propeller, and multi-jet.

    Turbine Meter

    In turbine meters, water fowing through a turbine meters fow

    way turns a bladed wheel (turbine), which drives the register (Fig-

    ure 3 and Figure 4). The turbines rotation is proportional to the

    fow rate. Turbine meters are accurate at variable, intermediate,

    and high fow, but not low fow.

    Turbine meters need straightening vanes inside the

    meter body to reduce the eect o water swirl against the

    turbine blades. Water swirl increases the chance or inac-

    curate registration.

    Figure 3: Turbine meter with straightening vanes

    Figure 4: Turbine meter (Courtesy of Neptune Meter)

    Propeller Meter

    In propeller meters, water fowing through the meters fow way

    turns a propeller, which drives the register. Like the turbine meter,

    the propellers spin is proportional to the fow rate.

    The propeller meter is designed or sustained high fow:

    ull-on or ull-o, and is used in main lines at surace water

    treatment plants or water wells.

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    Multi-Jet Meter

    Water enters a multi-jet measuring chamber through

    many openings, and exits through several openings at a

    dierent level (Figure 5).

    Figure 5: Multi-jet meter (Courtesy of Hendy Performance Meters)

    The multi-jet meter is accurate over a broad range o

    fow rates and can pass sand or other oreign matter better

    than the positive displacement meter. However, mineralbuild-up can cause the meter to over-register to a greater

    degree than the positive displacement meter.

    Compound Meter

    A compound meter consists o two meters in one body: a positive

    displacement meter or low fow, and a turbine meter or interme-

    diate and high fow (Figure 6). When the fow exceeds the capacity

    o the positive displacement meter, a valve opens and directs the

    fow to the current meter (Figure 7 and Figure 8). Compound

    meters are used at apartment complexes, hotels, schools with

    swimming pools, and other wide-range applications.

    Figure 6: Double register compound meter (Courtesy of Neptune Meter)

    Figure 7: Compound meter low ow path (Courtesy of Sensus Metering


    Figure 8: Compound meter high ow path (Courtesy of Sensus Meter-

    ing Systems)

    Fire Service Meter

    Fire service meters are turbine or proportional meters (Figure

    9). Proportional meters measure a small portion o the fow. The

    rest o the fow is un-metered, but is calculated by a multiplying

    actor in the register. Because only a small portion o the fow is

    metered, this design has very low head loss, which is important

    or re ghting.

    Figure 9: Turbine re service meter with domestic meter (Courtesy of

    Neptune Meter)

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    A proportional meter is not accurate at low or interme-

    diate fow, and its accuracy at high fow depends on proper


    A re line turbine meter assembly may include a strainer

    body to control water swirl into the turbine meter. The as-

    sembly may include a low fow domestic supply meter and a

    detector check valve to regulate meter operation, depend-

    ing on fow demand.

    Venturi Meter

    The Venturi meter looks like an hourglass, lying horizontally. It

    has a converging section, a constricted throat, and a diverging

    section. As water passes through the throat, the water veloc-

    ity increases, and the water pressure decreases (Figure 10). The

    dierence between the low water pressure at the throat and the

    higher water pressure downstream is used by a data processor to

    calculate the fow velocity, and then the fow rate.

    Figure 10: Venturi meter

    Venturi meters are used only in pipes that are under

    pressure, fowing ull. In the distribution system, they may

    be used to meter very high industrial consumption. Also,

    they are used or pump testing and measuring raw water

    fow into surace water treatment plants.

    Pitot Tube Meter

    The basic pitot tube meter is a tube with a short, right-angled bend

    that is used to measure water velocity (Figure 11). It is usually placed

    vertically in moving water, with its opening against the current, and

    its upper portion above the water surace. It can measure the fow

    rate in a pipe or discharge rom a re hydrant nozzle.

    Figure 11: Pitot tube

    To measure the fow rate in a pipe, the pitot tube can

    be inserted through a corporation stop (Figure 12). A pitot

    tube, used in this way, may consist o two tubes: one acing

    into the fow, and one acing opposite the fow. The fow rate

    is determined rom the water velocity, calculated rom the

    two readings.

    Figure 12: Pitot tubes inserted into corporation stop

    False readings may occur i air bubbles are present in

    the hoses that connect the pitot tubes.


    Rotometers have a foat, available in various designs, that is lited

    in a transparent tube as solutions or gases pass by. The solutions

    or gases lit the foat in proportion to their fow rate, which is mea-

    sured against the background o the tubes calibration.

    In the distribution system, rotometers are predomi-

    nantly ound in chlorinators that measure the gas eed rates

    (Figure 13).

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    Figure 13: Rotometer

    Electromagnetic Meter

    An electromagnetic meter, commonly called a mag meter, creates

    a magnetic eld perpendicular to the fow through a section o

    straight pipe. As water moves through the magnetic eld, an elec-

    trical voltage is produced that is directly proportional to the water

    velocity. The meter measures the magnitude o the voltage and

    then calculates the fow rate and volume o the fuid (Figure 14).

    Figure 14: Electromagnetic meter theory. Voltage produced across


    The mag meter is generally not aected by water tem-

    perature, viscosity, or turbulence, but the fuid must be

    conductive to operate. The largest market or mag meters

    are wastewater processing plants, but mag meters are used

    in a wide variety o fuid applications in other industries

    (Figure 15).

    Figure 15: Electromagnetic meters (Courtesy of Badger Meters, Inc.)

    Acoustic Meter

    Acoustic meters use sound waves to measure open channel or pipe

    fow. The sound waves are sent and received through the use o

    sensors (transducers) that are attached to the pipe (Figure 16).There are two types o acoustic meters: transmissive and

    Doppler. Transmissive designs use sound wave pressure,

    and Doppler designs use sound wave requency. The sound

    waves may be sonic (audible range) or ultrasonic (inaudible


    Figure 16: Acoustic meter sound waves

    To measure fow in a pipe, acoustic meters send sound

    waves, moving with the fow (rom A to A1) and against it

    (rom B to B1). A data processor compares the change in

    sound waves rom one direction with the other, calculates

    the water velocity, and then calculates the fow rate.

    Acoustic meters use less power than magnetic meters,

    but acoustic transparency through the pipe material is im-

    portant. Thereore, they are more accurate when used with

    metal pipe.

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    IV. Sizing Customer Meters

    Meter Specifcations

    Dierent meter designs have dierent capacities and ranges o ac-

    curacy. Sizing meters appropriately to record a customers range

    o fow will help avoid excessive wear. Under-sizing meters causes

    pressure loss problems and inaccurate readings o high fow.

    Over-sizing meters causes lost revenue due to inaccurate readingso low fow.

    I a customers fow requirement is usually below 30

    gpm, but has a brie spike o 100 gpm once a week, size the

    meter to collect 99% o the 30 gpm fow, i head loss during

    the spike is acceptable.

    A larger meter that records 99% o the spike may lose a

    signicant percentage o the lower fow.

    On the other hand, meters rated or a maximum peak

    fow rate o 20 gpm on services with a maximum peak fow

    rate o 40 gpm can experience magnetic separation and

    record only a raction o the total. Magnetic separation oc-curs when the magnet in the meters measuring chamber

    has excessive spin and loses synchronism with the register.

    This occurrence is likely when a residence is lling a swim-

    ming pool or using the sprinkler system.

    Flow Range Determines the Meter

    The required fow range and peak demand determines the use o

    positive displacement, turbine, or compound meters.

    Positive displacement meters accurately register low

    fows, but prematurely wear under sustained high fow.

    Turbine meters are suitable or sustained high fow, but

    are not accurate at lower fow unless the turbine meter is

    a multi-jet design. Compound meters are a combination o

    positive displacement and turbine meter. They accurately

    record the largest range o fow rates; however, they have

    higher maintenance requirements.

    V. Meter Installation

    Meters or domestic use are usually set in a meter box near or on

    the customers property line. Large meters, or commercial use,

    may be set in a meter pit or vault (Figure 17).

    Figure 17: Domestic meter set in a meter box and on a riser.


    Meters must be protected rom reezing. Outside meter vaults

    should be excavated below the rost line. Meter manuacturers

    make meter housings with a bottom plate or holding bolts that

    break in reezing weather to protect the measuring chamber or

    register rom damage. The plates or bolts are inexpensive.

    Requirements o an acceptable meter installation in-

    clude the ollowing:

    Watertight connections

    A quality upstream shut-o valve with low pressure


    Meter set in a horizontal plane or best perormance

    Easy access or reading and maintenance

    Protection rom reezing

    Not a hazard to the public

    Meter Bypasses

    Customers requiring large meters and uninterrupted service such

    as hospitals, schools, or actories should have bypasses around the

    meter to allow meter testing or repair without service interruption.

    The bypass valve should be locked and inspected periodically.

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    VI. Replacing Meters

    Meter Lie

    Meter lie is infuenced by usage and water quality. Minerals and

    sand shorten a meters service lie. Generally, it is cheaper to re-

    place small meters than to repair them. Repairing large meters,

    especially compounds, is usually cost eective.

    Meter Testing

    Meters may be eld tested with portable test kits, available rom

    meter manuacturers or tested in a meter shop. When a customer

    indicates that they do not believe that their meter is being read

    correctly, it is possible to test their theory by lling a ve gallon

    bucket or certied volumetric container with a certain amount o

    water through the customers meter. Then, compare the actual

    fow o water to what registers on the meter.

    I conducting a system-wide testing program, it is best

    to test the oldest meters with the most usage, rst, and bud-

    get a certain amount to repair or replace them.

    Meter Accuracy

    Meter accuracy is expressed in percentage and designated as ast

    or slow. For example, a meter registering

    95 gallons, when 100 gallons pass through it, is 5%

    slow. I a meter registers 102 gallons, when 100 gallons pass

    through, it is 2% ast.

    The American Water Works Association (AWWA)

    has accuracy standards or cold water meters. Consult the

    AWWAs manual M6, Water MetersSelection, Installa-

    tion, Testing, and Maintenance (1999). The AWWA speci-

    cations require that a new 5/8-inch by 3/4-inch meter (the

    most common meter size used or domestic service) register

    at least 95%, and no more than 101% on the minimum fow

    rate o 1/4 gpm, and it must register 98.5% to 101.5% on the

    normal fow rates o 1 to 20 gpm.

    Meter Warranties

    Meter warranties are important. I a manuacturer provides a

    warranty, it is a good indication that the meter is reliable. Hav-

    ing a warranty on a smaller meter provides peace o mind or the

    operator; knowing that he/she does not have to worry about the

    meter ailing prematurely. Warranties are especially important

    on larger meters because o the high cost associated with their

    purchase and replacement. When purchasing a new meter, it is

    important to ask the manuacturers representative what the war-

    ranty covers and what conditions nulliy the warranty.

    VII. Meter Records


    Meter records help determine the meter design that is best suitedto local conditions and the most economical length o time to keep

    a meter in service. Also, meter records keep track o meter depre-

    ciation and the eect o local water conditions on their operation.

    Record Inormation

    Good meter shop records should indicate the ollowing:

    Date o purchase and location

    Make, size, and serial number

    Test records

    Replacement parts used, i repaired

    Comments on the meters condition

    VIII. Unaccounted-For Water Loss

    Acceptable Loss

    A well-operated distribution system should have only 10% or less

    unaccounted-or water loss. When water loss exceeds 15%, meter

    testing, meter replacement, and leak detection programs should

    begin (Figure 18).

    Figure 18: Meter register with sweep hand and leak indicator(Courtesy of Badger Meter, Inc.)


    Meters are designed to measure the amount o water fowing

    through them. When comparisons are made between the amount

    o water produced and the amount o water billed, there is always

    a discrepancy between the two values. This dierence is called

    unaccounted-or water loss.

    Some causes o unaccounted-or water loss include the


    Stopped or under-registering meters

    Undetected leaks

    Thet o service

    Unrecorded use during re department drills and re


    Fire hydrant fushing

    Street washing

    Unmetered construction

    Unmetered city acilities

    IX. Automatic Meter Reading Systems


    Besides the visual/manual method o reading water meters, me-

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    ters can be read by touching the register with a handheld wand,

    through telephone lines, or by radio.

    An automatic meter reading system, or AMR (Figure

    19), is the technology o automatically collecting data

    rom water meters and transerring that data to a central

    database or billing and/or analysis. This means that bill-

    ing can be based on actual consumption, rather than on

    an estimate derived rom previous consumption. This givescustomers better control over the cost o their water bil l.

    Figure 19: Elements of a radio AMR system (Courtesy of Badger Meter,


    Originally, AMR devices only collected meter read-

    ings electronically and matched them with accounts. As

    technology has advanced, additional data can now be

    captured, stored, and transmitted to the main computer.

    This can include event alarms such as tamper, leak detec-

    tion, low battery, or reverse fow. Many AMR devices can

    also perorm data logging. The logged data can be used to

    collect time o use data, which can then be used or water

    use proling, time o use billing, demand orecasting, rate

    o fow recording, leak detection, fow monitoring, or other.

    AMR technologies include handheld, mobile and net-

    work technologies, based on telephony platorms (wired

    and wireless) or radio requency (RF) (Figure 20).

    Figure 20: Radio AMR system (Courtesy of Sensus Metering Systems)


    With touch-based AMR (Figure 21), a meter reader carries a

    handheld computer or data collection device with a wand or

    probe. The device automatically collects the readings rom a me-

    ter by touching or placing the read probe in close proximity to a

    reading coil enclosed in the touchpad. When a button is pressed,

    the probe sends an interrogate signal to the touch module and col-

    lects the meter reading. The sotware in the device matches the

    serial number to one in the route database, and saves the meter

    reading or later download to a billing or data collection com-

    puter. Since the meter reader must still go to the site o the meter,

    this is sometimes reerred to as on-site AMR.

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    Figure 21: Cordless wand (Courtesy of Sensus Metering Systems)


    Radio requency-based AMR can take many orms. The more

    common types are handheld, mobile, and xed network. Radio

    requency (RF) based AMR are available in both one-and two-

    way systems, and use both licensed and unlicensed RF bands (see

    Figure 22 on next page).

    In a one-way system, the transmitter broadcasts read-ings continuously every ew seconds. This means the

    reading device can be a receiver only, and the meter AMR

    device, a transmitter only. Data goes one way, rom the

    meter AMR transmitter to the meter reading receiver.

    In a two-way system, a radio transceiver normally sends

    a signal to a particular transmitter serial number, signaling

    it to activate rom a resting state and transmit data. The

    meter-attached transceiver and the reading transceiver

    both send and receive radio signals and data.

    AMRs are also available as hybrid systems that com-

    bine one- and two-way technologies. These types o sys-

    tems use one-way communication or reading and two-way

    communication or programming unctions.

    RF-based meter reading usually eliminates the need or

    the meter reader to enter the property or home, or to locate

    and open an underground meter pit. The advantages o us-

    ing an RF-based meter include saving the util ity money by

    increasing speed o reading, lowering liability as a result

    o entering private property, and reducing occasions o

    missed reads because o being locked out o meter access.


    A handheld AMR is a handheld computer that has a built-in or

    attached receiver/transceiver (radio requency or touch) to collect

    meter readings rom an AMR-capable meter. A handheld AMR

    is sometimes reerred to as a walk-by meter reading because the

    meter reader walks by the locations where meters are installed as

    they go through their meter reading route. Handheld computers

    may also be used to manually enter readings without the use oAMR technology.


    A mobile or drive-by meter is a reading device that is installed

    in a vehicle. The meter reader drives the vehicle, while the reading

    device automatically collects the meter readings. For mobile meter

    reading, the reading equipment oten includes navigational and

    mapping eatures provided by Global Positioning System (GPS)

    and mapping sotware. The reader does not normally have to read

    the meters in any particular route order; the reader has only to

    drive the service area until all meters are read. Components o amobile meter usually consist o a laptop or proprietary computer,

    sotware, RF receiver/transceiver, and external vehicle antennas.

    Fixed Network

    Fixed network AMR is a method where a network is permanently

    installed to capture meter readings. This method can include a

    series o antennas, towers, collectors, repeaters, or other perma-

    nently installed inrastructure to collect transmissions o meter

    readings rom AMR-capable meters and get the data to a central

    computer without a person in the eld to collect it. There are sev-

    eral types o network systems in use to get the meter data back to

    a central computer. A star network is the most common. With this

    type o network, a meter transmits its data to a central collector or

    repeater. Some systems use only collectors which receive and store

    data or processing. Others also use a repeater, which orwards a

    reading rom a more remote area back to a main collector with-

    out actually storing it. A repeater may orward by RF signal or,

    sometimes, is converted to a wired network such as telephone or

    Internet Protocol (IP) network to get the data back to a collector.

    Figure 22: Field schematic of a radio AMR system (Courtesy of Badger Meter, Inc.)

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    X. Summary

    Water meters are the lieblood o a water utility. They indicate

    how much water is produced, how much is treated, and how much

    is used by the customer. In other words, the meter is like a cash

    register. There are varying meter designs, based on specic ap-

    plications. There are proper installation procedures or water

    meters, and the meters should be replaced when they no longer

    properly record water usage. Technological advances have revolu-tionized the meter-reading process with AMR systems.

    Depending on the AMR system used, water providers


    notiy a customer when normal usage changes;

    resolve customer disputes by proling their daily us-


    review usage records hourly to determine the begin-

    ning and repair o a leak;

    monitor odd/even watering days; and even

    veriy the fushing o illegal material by examining late

    night water use.

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    1. The purpose o a water meter is tomeasure water fow and ________.

    A. pressureB. temperatureC. consumptionD. calculate losses

    2. The most common type o meter usedin domestic service is the ________.

    A. positive displacement meterB. current/velocity meterC. compound meterD. electromagnetic meter

    3. The largest market or theelectromagnetic meter is ________.

    A. at apartment complexesB. or re ghtingC. at surace water treatment plantsD. at wastewater processing plants

    4. Size ________ to record acustomers fow range without

    ________ or excessive wear.

    A. pitot tubes/damageB. meters/damageC. meters/reezingD. pitot tubes/reezing

    5. ________-sizing meters causes

    pressure loss problems and inaccuratereading o ________ fow.

    A. Over/lowB. Under/lowC. Over/highD. Under/high

    6. ________-sizing meters causeslost revenue due to inaccuratereading o ________ fow.

    A. Over/highB. Over/lowC. Under/highD. Under/low

    7. I a fow requirement is 30 gpm, but hasa brie spike o 100 gpm once a week,size the meter to collect ________%o the ________ gpm fow, i headloss during the spike is acceptable.

    A. 66/30B. 66/100C. 99/100D. 99/30

    8. Meters rated or a maximum peakfow rate o 20 gpm on services witha maximum peak fow rate o 40 gpmcan experience ________ separation.

    A. registerB. magneticC. gearD. seal

    9. The required fow range and peak de-mand determines the use o positive dis-

    placement, turbine, or ________ meters.A. compoundB. VenturiC. pitot tubeD. magnetic

    10. The meter that can accu-rately register low fow, but canprematurely wear under sustainedhigh fow is the ________ meter.

    A. re serviceB. VenturiC. propellerD. positive displacement

    11. Compound meters are a combinationo ________ and ________ meter.

    A. re service/propellerB. positive displacement/turbineC. acoustic/VenturiD. magnetic/pitot tube

    12. Meters or ________ use areusually set in a ________, near oron the customers property line.

    A. commercial /meter boxB. domestic/meter pitC. domestic/meter box

    D. a and b

    13. Meters must be protectedrom ________.

    A. reezingB. foodingC. thunderstormsD. wind

    14. Requirements o an acceptable meterinstallation include: ________.

    A. watertight connectionsB. not a hazard to the publicC. easy access or reading

    D. all o the above

    15. Customers requiring large meters anduninterrupted service include ________.

    A. hospitalsB. schoolsC. actoriesD. all o the above

    16. Generally, it is cheaper to________ ________ metersthan to ________ them.

    A. replace/large/repairB. replace/small/repair

    C. repair/large/replaceD. b and c

    17. AWWA requires a new 5/8-inch meterto register at least ________% and

    no more than ________% on theminimum fow rate o 1/4 gpm.

    A. 95/101B. 98.5/101.5C. 90/95D. 98/101

    18. Good meter shop recordsshould show ________.

    A. date o purchase and locationB. monthly readingsC. make, size, and serial numberD. a and c

    19. A well-operated distributionsystem should have only ________%unaccounted-or water loss.

    A. 1B. 5C. 10D. 15

    20. When unaccounted-or waterloss exceeds ________%, metertesting, meter replacement, and leakdetection programs should begin.

    A. 5B. 10C. 15D. 20

    21. Some causes o unaccounted-orwater loss include ________.

    A. stopped or under-registering metersB. re hydrant fushingC. un-metered city acilitiesD. all o the above

    22. Meters can be read ________.

    A. by the visual/manual methodB. through telephone linesC. by radioD. all o the above

  • 8/2/2019 Metering and Flow Monitoring


    Course Evaluation

    Please evaluate this course by responding to the following statements, using a scale of Excellent = 5 to Poor = 0.

    1. Please rate the courses effectiveness. 5 4 3 2 1 0

    2. Was the overall administration of the course effective? 5 4 3 2 1 0

    3. Do you feel that the references were adequate? Yes No

    4. Would you participate in a similar program on a different topic? Yes No

    5. If any of the test questions were unclear or ambiguous, please list them. ________________________________________________________

    6. Was there any subject matter you found confusing? Please describe. ________________________________________________________

    7. What additional power education topics would you like to see? ________________________________________________________

    Name: Title: Specialty:

    Address: E-mail:

    City: State: ZIP: Country:

    Telephone: Home ( ) Ofce ( ) Lic. Renewal Date:

    Requirements for successful completion of the course and to obtain 1 professional development hour (PDH):

    Read the entire course.

    Take the test online at: A score of 70% on this test will earn you 1 PDH.

    Optional: Complete course evaluation below and return to:

    PennWell, James Laughlin, 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112 or [email protected]

    Payment of $30.00 will be required to take the test. Charges on your statement will show up as: PennWell

    SPONSOR/PROVIDERAll content has been derived from references listed, and or the opinions of WaterWorldCE faculty. Please direct all questions pertaining toPennWell or the administration of this course to James Laughlin, 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112 or [email protected]

    EDUCATIONAL DISCLAIMERThe opinions of efcacy or perceived value of any products or companies mentioned in this course and expressed herein are those of theauthor(s) of the course and do not necessarily reect those of PennWell. Completing a single professional development course does not provideenough information to give the participant the feeling that s/he is an expert in the eld related to the course topic. It is a combination of manyeducational courses and on-the-job experience that allows the participant to develop skills and expertise.

    COURSE EVALUATION and PARTICIPANT FEEDBACKWe encourage participant feedback pertaining to all courses. Please be sure to complete the survey included with the course and mail to:[email protected]

    RECORD KEEPINGPennWell maintains records of your successful completion of any exam. Please contact our ofces for a copy of your professionaldevelopment hours report. This report, which will list all credits earned to date, will be generated and mailed to you within ve business daysof receipt. 2010 by the PennWell Corporation


    If you wish to purchase and complete this activity traditionally (mail or fax) rather than Online, you must provide the information requested below. Please be sure toselect your answers carefully and complete the evaluation information. To receive credit, you must receive a score of 70% or better.

    Complete online at:

    1. A B C D

    2. A B C D

    3. A B C D

    4. A B C D

    5. A B C D

    6. A B C D

    7. A B C D

    8. A B C D

    9. A B C D

    10. A B C D

    11.A B C D

    12.A B C D

    13. A B C D

    14.A B C D

    15. A B C D

    16. A B C D

    17. A B C D

    18. A B C D

    19. A B C D

    20.A B C D

    ANSWER FORMPlease check the correct box for each question below.


    Examination Fee: $30.00 Credit Hours: 1

    Should you have additional questions, please contact

    James Laughlin, (918) 832-6320 (Mon-Fri 9:00 am-5:00 pm CST).

    I have enclosed a check or money order. I am using a credit card.My Credit Card information is provided below.

    American Express Visa MC DiscoverPlease provide the following (please print clearly):

    Exact Name on Credit Card

    Credit Card # Expiration Date


    Metering and Flow Monitoring 13 2011. Texas Engineering Extension Service. All Rights Reserved.

  • 8/2/2019 Metering and Flow Monitoring


    WaterWorld is partnering with the exas Engineering Extension Service (EEX) to provide online

    training material for operators.

    Te Water and Wastewater raining Program at EEX is the one of the largest water and wastewateroperator training organizations in the United States. EEX provides training to thousands of operatorsevery year. EEXs mission is to provide continuing education in engineering and engineering-relatedapplied sciences.

    EEX is a member of Te exas A&M University System, one of the largest systems of higher educationin the United States. Trough a statewide network of 11 university campuses, seven state agencies and a

    comprehensive health science center, the A&M System educates more than 120,000 students, conductsmore than $730 million in research and reaches another 22 million people through service and outreachprograms each year. [email protected] 800-SAFE-811 (800-723-3811)

    2011. Texas Engineering Extension Service. All Rights Reserved.