Mentally challenged persons handling

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Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran MD (Pead), PhD (Yoga Science)
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    26-Dec-2014
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Counseling Psychology with Mentally Challenged Personalities

Transcript of Mentally challenged persons handling

  • 1. Dr. Shamanthakamani NarendranMD (Pead), PhD (Yoga Science)
  • 2. YOGA THERAPY FOR MENTALLYCHALLENGED CHILDRENInverted poses Psychic union pose (Viparitakarani) Shoulder Stand (Sarvangasana) Fish Pose (Matsyasana) Plough pose (Halasana)Standing poses Hands to Feet pose (Padahastasana) Triangle pose (Trikonasana)Flow of blood to the brain is enhanced andbrain cells are stimulated by yogasanas
  • 3. improve concentrationBalancing poses Tree pose (Vrksasana), Half Moon pose (Ardha Chandrasana) Headstand (Sirsasana)
  • 4. physical flexibility & self confidencePostures to increase physical flexibility: Surya Namaskars done with coordinatedbreathing.Back bending poses: Cobra pose (Bhujangasana) Camel pose (Ushtrasana) Wheel pose (Chakrasana) (help enhancetheir levels of self confidence and alsobody posture).
  • 5. Breathing exercises Dog breathing, Rabbit breathing, Lion breathing, Tiger breathing, Cat stretch.
  • 6. om shanti om It is tough to teach these kids meditation,even though it is the most crucial aspect ofYoga for better brain functioning. For this reason incantations of Aaah,Uuuh, Mmm, and OM besides loudchanting of longer mantras help bestowthe same effect in these kids.
  • 7. mentally challenged Subaverage cognitive functioning anddeficits in two or more adaptive behaviorswith onset before the age of 18. A mentally challenged child is able topick up things at a far slower rate thannormal kids. At maturity that persons capability forunderstanding and learning will also befar lower than average.
  • 8. (Intelligence Quotient) IQ!!! IQ indicates a persons mental abilitiesrelative to others of approximately thesame age.
  • 9. IQ - Equation Potential that denotes their skill in handlingdifferent circumstances is called the MentalAge (MA). Their real age is called the ChronologicalAge (CA). Calculated by multiplying Mental Age (MA)with 100, and then dividing the number withthe Chronological Age (CA) is theIntelligence Quotient (IQ).IQ = (100*MA) / CA
  • 10. classification Mild Moderate Severe and profound handicaps.educable
  • 11. classification of mentally subnormal < 20 Profound mental retardation(highly severe) 20 34 Severe mental retardation 3549 Moderate mental retardation(trainable) 50 69 Mild mental retardation(educable) 70 79 Borderline intellectualfunctioning
  • 12. Grading of IQ < 20 Idiot 20 49 Imbecile 50 69 Moran 70 79 Backward 80 89 Dullard 90 109 Normal 110 119 Superior 120 139 Very superior 140 + Genius
  • 13. CAUSES Several biomedical, Sociocultural and Psychological factors. Prenatal (during pregnancy), Natal (during birth), and Postnatal (after birth).
  • 14. prenatal causes Metabolic conditions in the fetus likephenylketonuria, Galactosemia,Mucopolysaccharidosis. Neurodegenerative disorders Chromosomal disorders like Downssyndrome, Klinfelter syndrome Tuberous sclerosis. Cretinism Maternal conditions like drug abuse,intrauterine infections, placental insufficiencyor exposure to radiation during pregnancy.
  • 15. natal factors Birth injuries Hypoxic, ischemic encephalopathy Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • 16. postnatal factors Infections of the central nervous system Head injuries Post vaccination encephalopathies Jaundice Hypoglycemia Hypoxia Malnutrition Iron deficiency Child abuse Autism.
  • 17. predisposing factors Low socioeconomic status, low birth weight, advanced maternal age and consanguinity of parentsAssociated with an increased risk for mentalretardation in the children.
  • 18. DIAGNOSIS Complete general and neurologicalexamination must be carried out by thephysician. IQ testing should be done. Downs syndrome, cretinism and otherconditions should be ruled out. Urine tests for metabolic disease likephenylketonuria and galactosemia aredone in familial cases of mentalretardation.
  • 19. SYMPTOMS Learning disabilities, Hyperactivity, Distractibility, Short span ofattention,Poor concentration Poor memory, Impulsiveness, Awkward clumsy movements, Disturbed sleep, Emotional instability Low frustrationtolerance.
  • 20. Associated defects of the bone, muscle,vision, speech and hearing are often foundin the mentally handicapped children. Congenital birth defects, apart from theneurological system may be found if thecause is prenatal. Convulsions (fits) are common in thementally handicapped children.
  • 21. Investigations to rule out hypothyroidismare also done. Radiological investigations like CT andMRI scans are helpful in revealing brainabnormalities like leukodystrophies,cerebral atrophy, hydrocephalus, tuberoussclerosis and other conditions.
  • 22. PREVENTION Genetic counseling: Risk of recurrence inautosomal recessive disorders is high inconsanguineous marriages. Parents shouldbe informed about the possibility ofprenatal diagnosis. Mothers older than 35years should have antenatal screening forDowns syndrome. Rubella vaccine should be given to allgirls to prevent this infection in firsttrimester of pregnancy.
  • 23. During pregnancy teratogenic drugs,hormones, iodides and antithyroid drugsshould be avoided. Mothers should beprotected from contact with patientssuffering from viral illness. During labor, good obstetric supervisionis essential to prevent occurrence of birthinjuries.
  • 24. Neonatal infection of the central nervoussystem should be diagnosed early andtreated promptly. Jaundice should bemanaged correctly. Iron deficiency shouldbe treated in the early childhood.
  • 25. MANAGEMENT To strengthen areas of reduced function To prevent or minimize further cognitivedeterioration. Interventions should begin early and besustained. Goals should be appropriate andachievable. Approach should be collaborative andmultidisciplinary.
  • 26. In the teen years, an emphasis should beplaced on vocational goals, includingsocial adaptation, and vocationalprofessionals should be part of themultidisciplinary team.
  • 27. general measures Requires ongoing health surveillancesimilar to normal children. Developmental, academic, andpsychosocial progress should bemonitored. Slower developmental progress should beexpected with increasing severity ofcognitive-adaptive disability.
  • 28. Parents should be counseled together. Diagnosis of the child should be fullyexplained to them, and also the prognosis. Principles of management should beexplained in detail. Parental feelings and the home situationshould also be discussed. Mentally retarded child needs the samebasic care as any other child.
  • 29. Physiotherapy is often also needed. Anticonvulsant treatment is prescribed forseizures. Specific management of metabolic andendocrine disease should be done. Children need warmth, love andappreciation, as well as discipline. Institutionalization should be avoided. Day care centers and schools andintegrated schools are useful.
  • 30. Thank You