- 1. Pediatric Oncology: The Psychological Impact on the Family Unit Masters Presentation Melissa Stone Advisor- Lynn Hadley March 2, 2006
- Explain History & Epidemiology of pediatric cancer
- Consider each individual unit of the family and the impact cancer has on them
- Consider the Primary Care Provider Role
- Explore Resources Available to providers and their patients
3. History and Epidemiology of Pediatric Oncology
- 1960 considered uniformly fatal and taboo topic, not discussed with children
- Then: Survival = Psychological impairment
- 1960 5 year survival rate = 28%
- 1970 5 year survival rate < 50 %
- Survival rate in 2000 =79%
- Today: Children are taught coping skills and communication is encouraged in the family
4. History and Epidemiology of Pediatric Oncology
- In 2005 estimated 9,510 < 14 yr old
- By age 20, 1 in 1000 children is a cancer survivor
- Most prevalent: Leukemia, Lymphoma, brain/nervous, kidney, soft tissue, bone
- As incidence increases and mortality decreases more patients will be survivors or family of survivors.
5. Cancer Incidence & Death Rates* in Children 0-14 Years, 1975-2001 1980 1975 1985 1990 1995 Incidence Mortality Rate Per 100,000 2001 *Age-adjusted to the 2000 Standard population. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences,National Cancer Institute, 2004. 6. Trends in Survival, Children 0-14 Years, All Sites Combined, 1974-2000 *5-year relative survival rates, based on follow up of patients through 2001. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2004. 5 - Year Relative Survival Rates * Age Year of Diagnosis 0 - 4 Years 5 - 9 Years 10 - 14 years 1974 -1976 1995 - 2000 1974 -1976 1995 - 2000 1974 -1976 1995 - 2000 7. Cancer Incidence Rates* in Children 0-14 Years,By Site, 1997-2001 * Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. ONS = Other nervous system Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2004 Site Male FemaleTotal All sites 15.5 14.114.8 Leukemia 4.8 4.2 4.5 Acute Lymphocytic 3.8 3.4 3.6 Brain/ONS 3.5 3.1 3.3 Soft tissue 1.0 1.0 1.0 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1.3 0.6 0.9 Kidney and renal pelvis 0.8 1.0 0.9 Bone and Joint 0.8 0.6 0.7 Hodgkin lymphoma 0.6 0.5 0.6 8. Cancer Death Rates* in Children 0-14 Years,By Site, 1997-2001 * Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. ONS = Other nervous system Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1975-2001, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2004. Site Male FemaleTotal All sites 2.7 2.3 2.5 Leukemia 0.9 0.7 0.8 Acute Lymphocytic 0.4 0.3 0.4 Brain/ONS 0.70.7 0.7 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 0.1 0.1 0.1 Soft tissue 0.1 0.1 0.1 Bone and Joint 0.1 0.1 0.1 Kidney and Renal pelvis 0.1 0.1 0.1 9. Impact on the Patient (Child)
- Physical: loss of hair, disability, decreased energy
- Psychosocial: anxiety, separation, lack of peer interactions
10. ?s for Patient or Guardian
- Ask to communicate with oncologist if answers are unknown
- How are you doing in school?
- How are interactions with peers?
11. Impact on The Parents
- Parents with sick child vs. healthy child
- High % with Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms
- 99% of mothers and 100% of fathers showed some percentage of PTSS
- 99% of families with a child who is a survivor had at least 1 parent meet PTSD symptom of reexperiencing
- Less likely to seek social support, report less personal stability and lower quality of life
12. ?s for Parents
- Coping mechanisms? Mom vs. Dad?
- Depression? Anxiety? Helplessness?
- You may be the only one asking about them and the only one they will be honest with.
13. The Siblings
- Siblings can be neglected
- Siblings may see parents anxiety/fear
- Increased anxiety vs. peers with healthy siblings
- Group therapy shown to decrease anxiety
- Look for anxiety, jealousy, guilt, isolation, frustration
14. ?s for Siblings
- How are your relationships with your parents?
- How do you get along with your siblings?
- Be the siblings advocate so they dont get lost in this stressful time.
15. What is the effect on PAs?
- Due to insurance, soon after remission patients are sent back to PCP for follow up.
- We must remember to look into PMH and see how it will effect our treatment. Survivorship Guidelines
- Psychological issues attached to cancer and other chronic illness. Families and patients!!
- Stigma is still a problem. Encourage families to participate in counseling and take advantage of resources in the community and online.
16. Resources available
- First: Educate yourself on these patients
- Long term guidelines for follow-up , screening and management of late effects in survivors of childhood cancerwww.survivorshipguidelines.com
17. 18. Resources cont
- Second: Educate yourself on resources for your patients and their families
- Resources for patients and families
- MD Anderson Cancer Center
- www.bravekids.org- Bravekids
- www.starlight.org/chemo- Starlight
- www.candlelighters.com- Candlelighters
- www.LLS.org Lymphoma & Leukemia
- Community Resources, Camps
19. 20. 21. Summary & Conclusions
- Most likely we will all see a pediatric cancer survivor or a member of their family in our practice now or down the road! Look for Red Flags!!
- PMH and FH are important in these patients
- Dont forget that your responsibility is to care for the entire patient, including their emotional/psychological needs.Refer them if you arent equipped.
- Equip them with resources available.
- www.acacamps.org- American Camping Association
- www.bravekids.org- Bravekids
- www.cancer.org American Cancer Society
- www.candlelighters.org Candlelighters (Ontario, Canada)
- www.children-cancer.com National Childrens Cancer Society
- www.curesearch.org CureSearch
- www.mdanderson.com MD Anderson Cancer Center
- www.LLS.org Lymphoma & Leukemia Society
- www.starlight.net Starlight Childrens Foundation
- American Cancer Society.Cancer Facts and Figures 2005.Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2005.
- Bessell, AG. Children Surviving Cancer: Psychosocial Adjustment, Quality of Life and School Experiences. The Council for Exceptional Children 2001; 67(3):345-359.
- Frank NC, Brown RT, Blount RL, Bunke V. Predictors of Affective Responses Of Mothers and Fathers Of Children With Cancer. Psychooncology 2001; 10:293-304.
- Goldbeck L. Parental Coping With The Diagnosis Of Childhood Cancer. Psychooncology 2001; 10:325-335.
- Grootenhaus MA, Last BF. Children With Cancer With Different Survival Perspectives: Defensiveness, Control Strategies, and Psychological Adjustment. Psychooncology 2001; 10:305-314.
- Houtzager BA, Grootenhaus MA, Last BF. Supportive Groups For Siblings Of Pediatric Oncology Patients: Impact On Anxiety. Psychooncology 2001; 10:315-324.
- Jongsma AE, Peterson LM, McInnis WP.The Child Psychotherapy Treatment Planner .2003. Hoboken, New Jersey. John Wiley & Sons.
- Joubeert D, Sadeghi MR, Elliott M, Devins GM, Laperriere N, Rodin G. Physical Sequelae and Self-Perceived Attachment In Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer. Psychooncology 2001; 10:284-292.
- Kazak AE. Evidence-based Interventions for Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Their Families. J Pediatr Psychol 2005; 30(1):29-39.
- Kazak AE, Boving CA, Alderfer MA, Hwang W, Reily A. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms During Treatment in Parents of Children With Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23 (30):7405-7410.
- Patenaude AF, Kupst MJ. Psychosocial Functioning in Pediatric Cancer. J Pediatr Psychol 2005; 30(1):9-27