Medieval Magazine Number 41 November 9, composer Sir Lennox Berkeley, and great grandson of George...

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Transcript of Medieval Magazine Number 41 November 9, composer Sir Lennox Berkeley, and great grandson of George...


    MedievalNumber 41 November 9, 2015

    Silver Hoard discovered inDenmark

    The Mad Norse King Medieval Bells in England

    4 19 30


    Medieval Wonders in Madrid


    Animals in theMiddle Ages

  • The Medieval Magazine November 9, 2015

    15th-century church discoveredon the Cape Verde Islands

    The 12th-century writer AlexanderNeckam describes a particular deviousparrot.

    Describing the Parrot in theMiddle Ages

    Medieval Wonders of MAN inMadrid

    Danielle Trynoski explores the medievalexhibits at the Museo ArqueolgicoNacional.

    Regan Walker writes about the history ofchurch bells in England

    Ring Out the Old: Medieval Bellsin England

    Page 8

    Page 14

    Page 21

    Page 30

    Earliest church in the tropics unearthed informer heart of Atlantic slave trade.


    Edited by:Peter Konieczny Website: This digital magazine is published eachMonday. Cover Photo: Wolf about to attack sheep -from British Library Royal 12 C XIX f. 19

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    1,000 year old silver treasure hoard discovered in Denmark English Noble Family's Heritage traced in study 14th-century Birchbark Messages discovered in Russia 15th-century church discovered on the Cape Verde Islands Isidore of Seville on... De animalibus Describing the Parrot in the Middle Ages Monstrous Fishes and the Mead-Dark Sea: An Interview with Vicki Ellen Szabo The Mad Norse King Medieval Wonders of MAN in Madrid Ring Out the Old: Medieval Bells in England The Amusing Questions of Wynkyn de Worde

    Table of Contents

  • 1,000 year old silvertreasure hoarddiscovered in DenmarkOver 550 silver items have been discovered on the Danish islandof Om. The hoard is believed to date from around the reign ofSweyn Forkbeard (9861014) and includes coins and pieces ofjewellery.

    Medieval News

  • The discovery was made by RobertHemming Poulsen, an amateurarchaeologist. He was on the islandworking to lay fibre optic cables when alocal farmer mentioned having found asa boy a twisted silver ring in his fields.Poulsen agreed to check out the field withhis metal detecting equipment and soondiscovered some coins and silver items. Local authorities were called in, and onOctober 24-25 Poulsen returned to thesite with three more metal detectorists tomake a thorough search. During thatweekend they found hundreds of moreitems, including rare coins dating backbetween the years 975-980, which wereminted by King Harald Bluetooth. Othercoins that were discovered come fromfurther afield, including England,

    Germany, Poland, Czech Republic andeven Arabic dirhams. Also found were small pieces of silverjewellery parts of bracelets and rings.No evidence was found that the a buildingonce existed where the treasure wasdiscovered, and it is believed thatcenturies of farming had probablydisturbed the items. The treasure is now on display at MuseumVestsjlland. Curator Hugo HvidSrensen explained to the CopenhagenPost that A treasure like this is found onceevery 10-15 years. It contains many itemsand is extremely well kept because it hasbeen buried in sandy earth.

    Coins discovered on the Danish island of Om Photos by Tobias Bondesson /Museum Vestsjllandd

  • English Noble Family'sheritage traced in studyThe lineage of one of the longest-established noble Englishfamilies could extend back as far as pre-Roman times, accordingto genealogy research at the University of Strathclyde.The Berkeley family can trace their ancestryto the mid-11th century, before the time ofthe Norman conquest, and are generallyrecognised as one of only a handful offamilies who can reliably trace their ancestryback through the male line to before 1066. At this time, their earliest known ancestor,Eadnoth the Constable, served as Royalofficial to King Edward the Confessor and KingHarold. Eadnoths grandson, RobertFitzharding, was granted the Barony ofBerkeley and his son Maurice married one ofthe Berkeley family, whose surname he tookon. Eadnoth was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman butDNA testing of his male line descendants,examined by the Strathclyde researchers, hasshown that their origins may date back evenfurther, to an ancestor belonging to a geneticgroup which arrived in the UK earlier than theAnglo-Saxons settlement around the middleof the 5th century. The descendants testedwere Julian Lennox Berkeley, middle son ofthe composer Sir Lennox Berkeley, and greatgrandson of George Lennox RawdonBerkeley, 7th Earl of Berkeley (1827-1888);and Viscount Portman. The results of the research have delightedmembers of the Berkeley family. CharlesBerkeley, whose father, John, is the currentowner of family seat Berkeley Castle, said: Itis very interesting to hear that, through recentDNA tests done on members of the Berkeleyfamily, the origins of the male line of thefamily have been established as dating from

    pre-Anglo-Saxon times. Although regarded asAnglo-Saxon, this research suggests that ourancestors were in England at an even earlierperiod. The study has been carried out byresearchers from Strathclydes GenealogicalStudies Postgraduate Programme. A memberof the project, Graham Holton, said:Eadnoths male line ancestor was a memberof a people who appear to have travelled overa period of time from southern to northernSpain, Some eventually arrived in Britain,possibly earlier than the Roman period. Another possibility is that the ancestor fromthe same genetic group was a Roman soldier,recruited in Spain, who settled in Britainduring the Roman occupation, which lastedfrom the first to fifth centuries. Either scenariowould suggest that Eadnoths ancestor hadsettled in Britain before the Anglo-Saxon era. With the subsequent dominance of Anglo-Saxon culture, it would be almost inevitablethat, over time, the family would adopt Anglo-Saxon names and become assimilated intothe Anglo-Saxon culture. It is possible that thefamily maintained its status from the end ofthe Anglo-Saxon period into the Normanperiod - a very unusual occurrence - but mayalso have held this position from an evenearlier Roman or pre-Roman period. Thiscould be evidence of the longest period ofnoble status maintained in the male line byone family.

  • Archaeologists from the Russian Academy ofSciences have discovered a letter written onbirchbark that comes from the 14th century. The letter was found in Moscow and is oneof about a 1,000 such medieval documentsthat have been found in Russia since the1950s. The letter does not reveal who the author is- nor the recipient, who is referred to as'Master' - but reveals that he and others weregoing to the city of Kostroma, which is northeast of Moscow, when they were detained bysomeone, perhaps a local official.

    The writer goes on to note that he had to maketwo separate payments for themselves to bereleased, leaving the group to poor tocontinue their journey. Last year, the New York Times reported onthe invaluble details on life from medievalRussia being found in these birchbark letters.They included the writings from a 6 or 7 yearold boy named Onfim, who in 1260 used apiece of this bark to jot down school exercisesand doodles. In another case, a man namedMikita wrote a love-letter to a woman namedAnna saying, I want you, and you me.

    The Berkeley family has held the titles ofMarquess of Berkeley, Earl of Berkeley andBaron Berkeley and still own Berkeley Castlein Gloucestershire, the county where theyhave been established since before theNorman Conquest.

    The study originated in the connection withtheir Battle of Bannockburn Family HistoryProject, run by the Genealogical StudiesPostgraduate Programme to mark the 700thanniversary of the 1314 battle. A number ofBerkeley family members fought in the battle.

    14th-Century BirchbarkMessages discoveredin Russia

    Photo courtesy Russian Academy of Sciences - Institute of Archaeology

  • The earliest remains of the church of NossaSenhora da Conceio date from around1470, with a further larger constructiondating from 1500. Extensions and a re-cladding of the church with tiles importedfrom Lisbon have also been documented. This church is the oldest formal Europeancolonial building yet discovered in sub-Saharan Africa, say researchers. It was foundamongst the ruins of Cidade Velha, the formercapital of Cape Verde, which at its height wasthe second richest city in the Portugueseempire; a city that channelled slavery foralmost 300 years. Its a profound social and political story towhich these new archaeologicalinvestigations are making an invaluablecontribution, said Cambridges ProfessorMarie Louise Stig Srensen. Archaeologists from the University and theCambridge Archaeological Unit (CAU) havejust completed the excavation andconservation of this building for publicdisplay, and have been working with the CapeVerde government and local partners on the

    towns archaeology since 2007. Weve managed to recover the entirefootprint-plan of the church, including itsvestry, side-chapel and porch, and it nowpresents a really striking monument, saidChristopher Evans, Director of the CAU. Evidently constructed around 1500, themost complicated portion is the east-endschancel where the main altar stood, and whichhas seen much rebuilding due to seasonalflash-flood damage. Though the chancelssequence proved complicated todisentangle, under it all we exposed a gothic-style chapel, he said. This had been built as a free-standingstructure prior to the church itself and is nowthe earliest known building on the islands the whole exercise has been a tremendoussuccess. During the excavation sever