MC0076 Smu Mca 4th Sem 2012
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Transcript of MC0076 Smu Mca 4th Sem 2012
Assignment Set 1(60 Marks)
Q1. What doyou understand by Information processes data?Ans: The Concept of Information Meaning Information is a complex concept that has a variety of meanings depending on its context and the perspective in which it is studied. It could be described in three ways 1) Processed data, 2) The opposite of uncertainty, and 3) A meaningful signal-to illustrates the richness of the concept of information. Information as Processed Data Data are generally considered to be raw facts that have undefined uses and application; information is considered to be processed data that influences choices, that is, data that have somehow been formatted, filtered, and summarized; and knowledge is considered to be an understanding derived from information distinctions among data, information, and knowledge may be derived from scientific terminology. The researcher collects data to test hypotheses; thus, data refer to unprocessed and unanalyzed numbers. When the data are analyzed, scientists talk about the information contained in the data and the knowledge acquired from their analyses. The confusion often extends to the information systems context, and the three terms maybe used interchangeably. Information as the Opposite of Uncertainty A different perspective on information derives from economic theory and defines information as the negative measure of uncertainty; that is, the less information is available, the more uncertainty exists, and conversely, the more information is available, the less uncertainty exists? In microeconomic theory the equilibrium of supply and demand depends on a market known as
a perfect market, where all buyers and sellers have complete knowledge about one another and where uncertainty does not exist. Information makes a market perfect by eliminating uncertainties about supply and demand. In macroeconomic theory, firms behave according to how they read the economic climate. Economic signals that measure and predict the direction of the economy provide information about the economic climate. The firm reduces its uncertainty by decoding these signals. Taking an example of Federal Express in USA, each incoming aircraft has a scheduled arrival time. However, its actual arrival depends on unforeseen conditions. Data about when an aircraft departed from its destination is information in the economic sense because it reduces uncertainty about the aircrafts arrival time, thereby increasing Federal Expresss ability to handle arriving packages. Managers also define information in terms of its reducing uncertainty. Because managers must project the outcomes of alternatives in making decisions, the reduction of uncertainty about the outcomes of various alternatives improves the effectiveness of the decision- making process and the quality of the decision. Information as a Meaningful Signal Information theory, a branch of statistics concerned with measuring the efficiency of communication between people and/or machines, defines information as the inputs and outputs of communication. Electronic,auditory, visual, or other signals that a sender and receiver interpret similarly convey information. For example, in the recruitment scenario about, the resumes and applications for the open positions are information because they are signals sent by the applicants, and interpreted similarly by both. The Managers in their roles as communicators both generate and receive information. They receive reports that organize signals or data in a way that conveys their meaning. Reports of sales trends become information; so do reports about hazardous waste sites. Managers derive meaning from the information they see and hear as part of communication and use it to make decisions. This definition of information requires a manager to interpret a given signal as it was intended. For example, a managers incorrect interpretation of body language in a negotiation would not be considered to be information from this perspective, although we know that managers use both correct and incorrect perceptions as information in decision making and
other managerial functions. Again, this view of information suggests the complexity of the concept and the value of a multifaceted definition.
2. How do you retrieve information from manual system?AnsRetrieving desired data from manual systems can be time consuming and expensive executives spend approximately six weeks a year on average looking for misplaced material. Secretaries may spend as much as 30 percent of their time looking for paper documents and approximately 20 percent of that time searching for misfiled items. Because paper files require large amounts of space, managers may store the data on a different floor or even in a different building. The labour costs of retrieving even small amounts of information exceed those for retrieving information electronically unless the organization can create small and compact storage for its paper records. Electronic systems provide rapid and inexpensive access to information stored electronically in an organized fashion. The costs incurred are only those of using the computer equipment for a fraction of a second, particularly when retrieval is part of ongoing processing. If an individual requests the retrieval, it may require additional processing to translate the retrieval request from a form understood by the person to a form understood by the computer. Then the information is stored in a different place from where it is requested, the request must be transmitted electronically to where the data are stored, and the retrieved data must be transmitted back. Communication costs are relatively low for small amounts of information, but the communication equipment and infrastructure can be expensive unless amortized over a sufficiently large volume of data communication. Companies that have small communication needs can pay to use the infrastructure of third parties, such as telephone companies.
3. What are the challenges of information management?Ans
Challenges of Information Management In identifying their information management requirements, individuals face four major challenges in addition to securing the most appropriate information. First, they must deal with large quantities of information that may create overload. Second, they may face insufficient or conflicting information. Third, they must find ways to enhance their personal productivity. Fourth, they must acquire and maintain the technical skills needed for effective personal information management. Dealing with Quantities of Information The gap between the amount of information that an organization can collect and the ability of its employees to make sense of that information has been widening rather than narrowing. The early fear that computers would so improve a persons ability to process and manage information that a job holder would need only one-third to one-half the time to do his or her job has been dispelled The reverse has occurred. Often employees face an infoglut, an overload of information. As individuals move higher in the organizational hierarchy and assume more managerial responsibility, information overload become an even more significant challenge. To avoid such overload individuals must carefully asses their information needs and then find effective ways of managing the required and available information. They must also find ways to manage data better. Facing Insufficient or Conflicting Information Although computers can make large quantities of information available to individuals, such information may not address their needs. Ramesh, ASM of Airtel, may wish to do some library research about competitors products. In spite of the large amount of information in the librarys electronic catalog,
she may not be able to secure the precise information she needs. Because computers process input from diverse sources, users may also obtain conflicting information if one source updates information more frequently than another does. Enhancing Personal Productivity Employees in any organization increasingly use information technology to improve their personal productivity. To ensure high productivity, employees must know how to use computers to facilitate, not hinder, their performance. They must know how to access the information they require and recognize when manual data collection and processing is adequate. Often employees must lobby their employers to add new technology that will help increase personal productivity. The ability to show the cost-effectiveness of additional expenditures for diagnosing and meeting information needs is critical. Employees must also understand and demonstrate when advanced technology is a detriment rather than an asset. Maintaining Technical Skills Finally, using information technology effectively requires continuous updating of technical skills. Although many companies provide training to their employees, others do not. Ensuring that employees have the appropriate skills has both financial and time cost implications. As a result, employees may find their mobility and productivity limited by the extent to which they can learn new technical skills independently of their employer.
4. Explain the different components of MIS. AnsThe components of MIS The physical components of MIS comprise the computer and communications hardware, software, database, personnel, and procedures. Almost all organizations employ multiple computer systems, ranging from powerful mainframe machines (sometimes including supercomputers) through minicomputers, to widely spread personal computers (also known as microcomputers). The use of multiple computers, usually interconnected into networks by means of telecommunications, is called distributed
processing. The driving forces that have changed the information processing landscape from centralized processing, relying on single powerful mainf