Materi Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris

GENERAL ENGLISH Compiled by Yuyun Hendrety, M.Pd.

Transcript of Materi Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris

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Compiled by

Yuyun Hendrety, M.Pd.

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What do you think the term Global Village means?

More and more often, the term global village is used to describe the world and its people. In a typical village, however, everyone knows everyone else and the people face the sae kinds of problems. How can the world be a vilage, when it is home to almost 6 billion people? Political and technological changes in the past century have ade the global village possible.

The years following world war II seemed to promise peace and more equality among people. For example, The United Nations was founded in 1945 to help countries resolve disputes peacefully. This promise was soon shattered, however, by the cold war- tension between The United States and The Soviet Union. These two superpowers engaged in an arms race, spending huge sums of money on weapons. The other nations of the world were split into two sides, and the world was frozen in a perpetual state of hostility, seemingly on the brink of destruction.

It was not until the collapse of the communist governents in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991 that the Cold War ended and the political cliate changed. The end of Cold War tension made the global village more politically possible by opening new channels of communication between nations.

Technologically, the greatest contributor to the global village is the microchip- an electronic circuit on a tiny chip. The microchip has made satellites and computers possible. These form of high-tech communications allow news and ideas to travel quickly from country to country, making people aware of their neighbours around the globe in dramatic new ways. Through the internet, we can get information from computers anywhere and carry on electronic conversations with people everywhere. Through television programs transmitted by satellite, we are exposed to many cultures.

What will happen as we move into the twenty-first century and beyond? Almost certainly the developent of the global village will continue. Not only is this possible, but the challenges that the world faces-for example, pollution, population, growth, and conflicts among people- will make it necessary.

A. use the information above to explain the following terms in your own words.

1. What is The United Nations?2. What was the Cold War?3. Who were the superpowers?4. What was the arms race?5. What is the microchip?6. What is a global village?

B. Based on the text above, decide whether these statements are true or false

1. There are two changes that have made the global village possible2. After 1991 the globa village was more politically possible3. Microchip has made satellites and computers possible

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4. As we ove to 21st century, the global village will end5. The challenges that the world faces will make the global village still continue

C. Pairwork: Talk about these questions

1. What do you think are some of the advantages of a global village for individuals and nations?

2. Some people say that there are disadvantages to a global village that we are coming too much alike. Do you agree? Why or why not?

3. What other challenges do you think the world will face in the twenty-first century? Which do you consider the most serious?

D. Vocabulary exercise.

1. The image you see in the mirror is your ______a. Reflection b. Memory c. recollection d. picture

2. A person who doesn’t eat meat is known as a ______a. Vegetarian b. Chemist c. grocer d. poullterer

3. Jim made a ________ in his calculation, so his sum was wronga. Hole b. Mistake c. request d. answer

4. It was a great ______ to his parents when he failed the exam.a. Luck b. Encouragement c. happiness d. disappointment

5. Shall we ______ a dish of noodles?a. Call b. Ask c. order d. say

6. I have an _______ with the optician this afternoona. Obstruction b. Opposition c. appointment d. approval

7. The scientist used a _______ to study the bacteriaa. Telescope b. Stethoscope c. horoscope d. microscope

8. Rebecca went to the library to borrow some _______a. Stationery b. Scripture c. literature d. pens

9. The guests thanked the _________ at the end of the partya. Diners b. Host c. members d. participants

10. I have no ______ for people who fall ill because of over eatinga. Symphaty b. Consolidation c. kindness d. emotion

11. Mr. Chan informed us that the meeting would be ______ in the halla. Made b. Taken c. met d. held

12. Goods sent out from a country are known as ______a. Contraband b. Exports c. imports d. baggage

13. It is not _______ to smoke in cinemasa. Improper b. Ilegal c. confusing d. permitted

14. The scientist became famous for his amazing ______a. Adventure b. Story c. concert d. discovery

15. Elizabeth ______ the lights before going to beda. Turned over b. Turned in c. turned off d. turned away

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Simple Present Tense

1A. ExplanationThe simple present tense takes one of two forms depending on the subject.Subject

I, youThey, WePlural nouns

He, She, ItSingular nounsNon count-nouns

base form


-s form


1B. ExamplesSubjects followed by verb in base form :

I like rice.

You look nice.

They think twice.

We throw dice.

Chefs use spice.

The boys ring the doorbell.

Children sing on special occasions.

Some people bring gifts to parties.

Bees sting when they are disturbed.

Subjects with verb in ?s form :

She makes toys.

He rakes leaves.

It takes time.

Mom bakes pies.

Water slakes thirst.

Jill loves dates.

Mr. Smith fills crates.

Grandpa washes plates.

The dog jumps gates.

1C. Exercises1. Jerry (come/comes) to school on time.

2. Jerry and Linda (come/comes) to school on time.

3. Ms. Jones (teach/teaches) geography.

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4. The cat (sleep/sleeps) on the sofa every day.

5. Milk (cost/costs) two dollars a quart.

2A. Explanation

Use the simple present tense to indicate:

1. Routine actions

2. Facts

2B. Examples

Routine actions

John brushes his teeth every morning.

Carol usually drives to work.

The teacher grades homework on Fridays.


Hawaii is in the Pacific Ocean.

Some birds fly south for the winter.

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

Note how the present tense is used in the following paragraph.

Mr. Lee is a bus driver. Every day he gets up at 7:00 a.m. and prepares for his day. He showers, eats his breakfast, and puts on his uniform. His wife drives him to the station where he checks in with his supervisor. Then, he gets on Bus #405 and starts the engine. He pulls out of the parking lot and begins his route. At his first stop, he picks up Mrs. Miller, who lives in a red house on the corner of Main Street and Seventh Avenue. She works at the post office and has to be to work by 9:00. At the next stop, the Bartlett twins get on the bus. They attend class at Bayside Elementary. More children get on at the next three stops, and they ride until the bus reaches their school. Mr. Lee enjoys seeing the kids every day and is happy to see them again in the afternoon when he drives them safely back home.

2C. Exercises1. To practice the present tense, reread the above paragraph, then try to repeat the main ideas in your own words. Be sure to use the -s form of the verb when the subject of a sentence is singular. Have a partner listen to your speech and check for correct usage of verbs.

2. Tell whether the present tense is appropriate in the following sentences.

1. Yesterday I go to Washington D.C.

2. Every day, Mr. Johnson cleans his living room.





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3. They usually take the bus to the office.

4. Right now Susan eats her breakfast.

5. Melinda and Harry work in the bank.







Common Mistakes with the simple present tense

1. Not using the -s form with singular subjects:

Jack likes Chinese food.

Jack like Chinese food.


(Incorrect)2. Using the simple present tense when another tense is required.

Last night I watched television for two hours.

Last night I watch television for two hours.



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Simple Past Tense


1. The simple past tense is expressed with the past form of the verb and nothing else.

My grandfather died last year.My grandfather was died last year.My grandfather has died last year.


2. The simple past tense refers to a. action which occurred at a specific time in the pastb. completed actionc. past status


Specific past action

I ate lunch at noon today.He drove to work yesterday.

Completed action

She finally mailed the letter.Jan finished her report on time.

Past status

John was still single in 1995.Jane was a movie star.

Note the usage of the past tense in the following story. Yesterday Mrs. Hubbard had a very rough day. In the morning, she went to the kitchen and looked in the cupboard for some food for her dog, but the cupboard was empty. Her poor dog stared up at her with its hungry eyes, and she knew she had to do something quickly. She hurried to the grocery store to buy some dog food, but unfortunately the store was out of her dog's favorite brand, so she had to catch a bus downtown. After buying the food, she waited for a half hour in the rain to get a taxi. When she finally got home, her dog was sound asleep on the living room sofa.

Common problems with the past tense

1. Using the present tense when the past tense is required.

Last week, Tonya fix her neighbor's car.Last week, Tonya fixed her neighbor's car.


2. Using "was" with verbs in the past tense. It was happened one night in September.It happened one night in September.



Change the verbs in the following sentence into past tense.

1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client.

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2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space.

3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full.

4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations.

5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them."

6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours.

7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car.

8. Then we see a small grocery store.

9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches.

10. That is better than waiting for two hours.

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper.

2. My pet lizard was died last month.

3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room.

4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal.

5. What was happened to your leg?

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The Spread of English

The cross-cultural spread of english is unprecedented in other ways. It is more widely used than any of the other colonial languages like french, portuguese or spanish. It even has a wider use than some of the languages associated with international non-western religious trraditions, like arabic or sanskrit. In countries like india and nigeria, english is used at all levels of society: in local english-language newspapers and broadcasting, in public administration, in university education, in university education, in the major industries, the courts and the civil service. Indeed, with nearly 200 languages, India needs English to unify the country. Professor Lal, a champion of Indian English, who runs a well-known writers’ workshop, claims that in simple numerical terms, in a country of 840 million, ‘more Indians speak English than in England itself ...You know what Malcolm Muggeridge said:”The last Englishman left will be an Indian.”


1. Answer the following questions using your own words. (2 points)a. Why is English more important than other colonial languages?

b. Why is English so important in India?

2. Are the following statements true or false? (1 point)a. Professor Lal manages a writers’ workshop in Indiab. Malcolm Muggeridge said that Indians are left handed

3. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: (1 point)States (V) :Higher Education :

4. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct. (2 points)1. The way English is spreading is:

a. Something normalb. Absolutely unusualc. Quite uncertain

2. The use of English is:a. As frequent as other colonial languagesb. Less frequent than other colonial languagesc. More frequent than other colonial languages

3. In India and Nigeria, English:a. Has a general useb. Is used only in the streets

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c. Is used by newspapers and the people who read it

4. Indiaa. Has fewer English speakers than Great Britainb. Has 840 different languagesc. Has more English speakers than Great Britain

5. Composition (100-150 words). English and Spanish in the world. (4 points)


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Simple Future Tense

In English the Future Time is expressed in a number of ways. The most common are with will and be going to. See examples from the following sentences.

I will finish my homework in an hour.

I'm going to finish my homework in an hour.

With be going to, make sure the verb be agrees with its subject. I'm going to eat a whole watermelon.

She's going to eat a whole watermelon.

Actually, we're going to eat a whole watermelon together.

In speech, the words going to are often pronounced ? gonna .?

Don't forget the be verb.

A: What are you gonna do this weekend?

B: I'm gonna stay home and clean my carpet.

NOT: I gonna stay?

NOT: I'm gonna to stay?

What's the difference between will and be going to?

Both can be used interchangeably in some cases. (Predictions and guesses)

My prints will be here tomorrow.

My prints are going to be here tomorrow.

Be going to is preferable for strong intentions or for describing the inevitable.

I'm going to give her a piece of my mind.

There's no way they can score 21 points in 2 minutes. We're going to win!

Will is the preferable form for making offers or expressing pop decisions.

A: Who will help me finish this chocolate cake?

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B: I will.

A: I have two tickets left for the front row.

B: I'll take them.

Sometimes future time can be expressed with either the present or present progressive tense. In such cases, time words must be expressed or clearly implied.

I fly to Beijing tomorrow.

I'm flying to Beijing tomorrow.

Sorry I can't attend the picnic on Saturday. I'm flying to Beijing .

Exercise: Going to or Will ?

going to


-when you can see what's going to happen


-immediate decisions

-scientific predictions

Fill the gaps with the verb in brackets using either the going to or will form of the future tense.

1 Sally: There's no milk left!

Betty: Oh. I _______________  some from the shop. (get) 

2 The population of Valencia _______________  2 million by the year 2010. (reach)

3 Mum: I told you to tidy up your room.

Son:  Sorry, Mum, I forgot. I _______________  it after lunch.(do)

4 Sally: Why don't we meet for coffee on Friday morning?

Willy:  Sorry. I can't. I _______________  the doctor then. (see)

5 "Tomorrow _______________  a bright and sunny day everywhere in Spain, except in La Coruña," said the weatherwoman. (be)

6 Look at that big black cloud. I think it _______________  . (rain)

7 Sally: What are your plans for the week-end?

Betty: Brad Pitt phoned. We _______________  on a picnic. (go)

8 Betty: Have you booked the flights yet?

Sally: Don't worry. It's all organized. I _______________  to the travel agent's tomorrow morning. (go)

9 In the future people _______________  bigger heads. (have)

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10 If we miss the bus, we _______________  a taxi. (take)

11 Next month I _______________  a DVD player.  (buy)

12 When _______________  you _______________  another party?  (have)

13 I've got to go to the dentist this morning. _______________  you _______________  with me?  (come)

14 Oh no! I think I _______________  .  (sneeze)

15 Fanny:  I can't open this jar.

Leslie:  Give it to me. I _______________  it.  (do)


Present Progressive Tense & Past Proggressive Tense

The present progressive tense takes the form be + V ing.

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The form of be is determined by the subject of the sentence.

He is singing.

She is listening.

They are sleeping.

I am going home.

In English, the present progressive is used to indicate actions happening at the time of speaking, or right now.

Jake is speaking to his mother right now.

Please keep quiet. The baby is sleeping.

The present progressive can also be used to indicate actions occurring over a period of time which includes the present.

I'm taking five classes at the university.

Grace is working at a chemical factory.

What are you doing these days?

The present progressive is sometimes used to indicate ongoing, developing, imminent or future actions.

Ongoing Don't bother Mr. Grumpy while he is watching the football game.

Developing I'm beginning to like this place!

Imminent A: Honey, where are you?

B: I'm coming. Just let me put on my shoes.

Future (Note the presence of future time words.) A: Are you going to the concert this weekend?

B: I wish I could, but I'm meeting an important client from Oklahoma.

Some non-action verbs do not occur in the present progressive tense. The simple present is sufficient.

Exercise: The Present Continuous

Put the following sentences into the present continuous tense.

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1 Maria does yoga.


2 Esteban speaks Greek.


3 Joachin listens to the radio. 


4 Do they teach kung fu?


5 Do you eat chocolate?


6 Does Clara make cakes?


7 I don't cook.


8 We don't go to the cinema.


9 Michael doesn't fight with his sister.


10 Ana writes letters to her friends.


The Past Continous Tense

The past continous tense describes actions in progress in the recent past ( a few moments before the moment of speaking) or at a specific time in the past.

Recent past

Oh! You startled me! I was taking a little nap.

Specific time

When you arrived at my house last night, I was doing my home assignment

When and While

These connecting words are frequently used to connect two past actions.


He was watching TV while I was doing the dishes

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While John was talking to the man at the door, the phone rang

My mother was cooking in the kitchen while my father was reading

A man jumped out of the train while it was moving fast

There was a knock on the door last night while I was having dinner


John was talking to the man at the door when the phone rang

When I arrived at this house last night, he was writing a letter


The Bermuda Triangle

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Around 1975 a number of books were written about strange occurrences in the Bermuda Triangle, a part of the atlantice ocean off the southeast coast of the U.S. They told the stories of planes and ships that disappeared for no understandable reason and were never found again. They told about ships which were found undamaged but with no one on them. According to the books, more than 1,000 people disappeared in the Triangle from 1945 to 1975.

According to some writers, there were no natural explanations for many of the disappearances, so they suggested other explanations for example, according to one writer, some strange and terrible power exists in the triangle. According to another writer, people from space are living at the bottom of the atlantic and sometimes they need human sailors and airmen for their research. These ideas were not scientific, but they were good advertisements. The books about the Bermuda Triangle were immediate successes.

However, the books give little evidence to support their unusual ideas. In addition, they ignore at least three important facts that suggest natural reasons for many of the occurrences. First, messages from some of the ships and aircraft which later disappeared give us evidence of problems with navigational instruments. Similar stories are told by officers who were on duty on planes and ships aster. Second the weather in this part of the atlantic ocean is very unpredictable. Dangerous storms that can cause problems even for experienced pilots and sailors can begin suddenly and without warning. Finally the bermuda triangle is very large and many people both experienced and inexperienced sail and fly through it perhaps the figure of 1,000 deaths in thirty years shocks some people, but in fact, the figure is not unusual for an area of ocean that is so large and that is crossed by so many ships.

The evidence which exists, therefore, supports one conclusion about the bermuda triangle: We do not need stories about people from space or strange unnatural powers to explain the disappearances.

Based on the text above, decide whether these statements are true or false

1. T F All the books about the Bermuda Triangle give natural expectations for the things that happen there

2. T F The books about the Bermuda Triangle were bought by a lot of people3. T F The writer of this passage agrees with the conclusions which were suggested

In the books about the Bermuda Triangle4. T F Perhaps some of the disappearances were caused by instruments that failed

to work. There is some evidence for for this5. T F The writer of this passage is shocked by the large number of deaths in the

Bermuda Triangle between 1945 and 19756. T F According to the writer of the passage, perhaps the weather is connected with

some of the disappearances7. T F None of the planes or ships which disappeared reported any problems before

their disappearance


The Present Perfect Tense

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The Present Perfect Tense can describe an event that happened (did not happen) at an unknown time in the past. No specific time is given with these statements.

Study these examples:

He’s gone to Tokyo several times. He last went there three years ago.

Have you ever visited Denpasar in Bali?

How many times have you talked to her in Jakarta? She has called at least

five times

He has lived in this city since 1998

My brother has worked in your company for a year

The following adverbs are frequently used with the Present Perfect Tense: (not) yet, just, recently and already.


Have you already read the book? Yes, I’ve just read it

Have you read it yet? No, I haven’t read it yet

Yes, I’ve recently read it

Yes, I’ve recently read ii.

Has your father come home? Yes, he’s just coe home

Exercise: Use the simple past or the present perfect. In some sentences either tense is possible but the meaning is defferent.

1. I (attend, not) .......... any parties since I cae here.2. I (go)............ to a party at sally’s apartment last Saturday night.3. My uncle (arrive)............. here three days ago.4. He (be)............ in this town since the 22nd.5. In herwhole lifetime he (see, never) ......... snow.6. Last January I (see) .......... snow for the first time in my life.7. So far this week I (have).......... two tests and quiz.8. Up to now Professor Williams (give) .............. our class five tests.9. I (have, not).............. much free time since classes bagan.10.Are you taking chemistry 101 this semester? No, I (take, already) .......... it I

(take) ............ it last semester.

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Gerunds are defined as the -ing form of a verb. They have several functions.

1. Used as subjects and complements

Skiing is my favorite sport.

Hiking can be very strenuous.

Seeing is believing

2. Used as objects following prepositions and prepositional expressions Thanks for tending my children.

The job consists of typing, filing, and answering the phone.

3. Used as objects following certain verbs*. The children enjoyed watching the parade.

Ms. Terrell avoided paying her taxes until it was too late.

Gerunds can sometimes take objects of their own: Roland is afraid of making mistakes.

Sandy is considering leaving New York.

*These verbs are commonly followed by gerunds.


can't help**dislikeprefersuggest





*The verb stop is followed by either a gerund or an infinitive, depending on meaning.

I stopped smoking (meaning “I no longer smoke”)

He stopped to light his pipe (meaning”He stopped doing something else in order to light his pipe”)

**Notice that the verb phrase, can’t help (eaning “can’t prevent” or can’t stop”) is used with gerund.

His jokes are so funny that I can’t help laughing at them

I couldn’t help overhearing your comment

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***The verb go is followed by the –ing form of many “activity verbs”: go shopping, go dancing, go skiing, go bowling and others



. Infinitives are defined as to + base form of the verb. They have several functions.

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1. Used as subjects and subject complements.

To know me is to love me.

To live in Hawaii is my lifetime dream.

2. Used as objects following certain verbs*. I wanted to tell you how much I appreciated your gift.

He hesitated to ask the embarrassing question.

3. Used as a shortened form of in order to. You must take this medicine (in order) to get well.

I went to the bank to cash a check.

Infinitives can sometimes take objects of their own. We hope to find the person who did this.

I was asked to make a dessert for the potluck dinner.

*These verbs are commonly followed by infinitives.


agreearrangechooseknow( how)

deservelearn (how)stop

AskVote Would ike

Exercise: Gerund or Infinitive

1 Fill the gaps with the verb in brackets in the appropriate form.

1 I can't stand ________________ in queues. ( to wait )

2 I wouldn't like ________________ in his shoes. ( to be )

3 Jim loves ________________ in Thailand. ( to work )

4 I hate ________________ the shopping on Saturday. ( to do )

5 Blast! I forgot ________________ milk. ( to buy )

6 In the end we decided ________________ in. ( to stay )

7 I need ________________ some information about Portugal. ( to find )

8 My parents like ________________ for long walks at the weekend. ( to go )

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9 Tony gave up ________________ years ago. ( to smoke )

10 I wanted ________________ and see Troy but no one else was interested. ( to go )

11 Mrs Leith offered ________________ us to the airport. ( to take )

12 Clare refused ________________ clean up after the party. ( to help )

13 I tried ________________ him to come but it was no use. ( to persuade )

14 Do you mind not ________________ ? ( to smoke )

15 Everybody really enjoyed ________________ the cha-cha-cha. ( to dance )

16 Lionel admitted ________________ my chocolate mousse. ( to eat )


Coming Soon to a Theater Near You

What are special effects? Do you enjoy movies that use a lot of special effects?

Dinosaurs from the distance past! Space battles from the distant future! There has

been a revolution in special effects and it has transformed the movies we see.

The revolution began in the mid-1970s with George Lucas’s Star Wars, a film that

stunned audiences; that revolution continues to the present, with dramatic changes in special

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effects technology. The company behind these changes is Lucas’s Industrial Light & Magic

(ILM). The man behind the company is Dennis Muren, who has worked with Lucas since

Since Wars. Muren’s interest in special effects began very clearly: At age 6, he was

photographing toy dinosaurs and spaceship. By 10, he had an 8-milimeter movie camera and

was making these things move through stop-motion. (Stop-motion is a process in which

objects are shot with a camera, moved slightly, shot again, and so on; when the shots are put

together , the objects appear to move).

Talk to Muren and you’ll understand what ILM is all about: taking on new challenges.

By 1989, Muren decided he had pushed the old technology as far as it would go. He saw

computer graphics (CG) technology as the wave of the future and took a year off to master it.

With CG technology, images can be scanned into a computer for processing, for

example, and many separate shots can be combined into a single image. CG technology has

now reached the point, Muren says, where special effects can be used to do just about

anything – so that movies can tell stories better than ever before. The huge success of

Jurassic Park and its sequel, The Lost World – the stars of which were computer-generated

dinosaurs – suggests that this may very well be true.

A. Read the article. Check (√) True or False. For the false statements, give the correct


1. The special-effects revolution began in the mid-1980s with Star Wars

2. ILM is the company reponsiblenfor many of changes in special effects

3. By age 10, Dennis Muren was able to use computer graphics to make things seem

to move

4. With the stop-motion process, many separate shots can be combined into a single


5. Muren feels that with stop-motion technology, just about any special effect can be


B. Group work. Talk about these questions.

1. What movie’s special effects impressesd you the most? Describe the effects.

2. Critics say that movies are emphasizing special effects at the expense of the story.

Others argue athat special effects make the stories better. What do you think?

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Passive Voice

     How to construct the passive.

            1.  Check to see if the active sentence contains an object.

                        John ate an apple.         (S V O)            Passive is possible.

                        John ate yesterday.       (S V)                Passive is not possible.

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            2.  Move the object to the front of the sentence.  Put the original subject in a "by" phrase .

                        An apple (V) by John.

            3.  Put the verb in the form "be" +3 (of main verb)*

                        An apple "be" eaten by John.

            4.  Put the "be" in the same tense as the original active sentence.

                        An apple was/were eaten by John.  ( past tense)

            5.  Make the first verb agree with the new subject.

                        An apple was eaten by John.

            (Put other elements of the sentence in grammatical and logical order.)

Yesterday the large green apple was quickly eaten by John, who didn’t realize that it belonged to his sister.

When other (auxiliary) verbs and modals are used in combination with the passive, remember:

                                                                        be + 3*              (Passive)

                                                            be + V ing                     (Progressive)

                                                have + 3                                   (Perfect)

                                    modal + 1                                             (Modal)

            The apple         should  have     been     being    eaten by John.

Combination of auxiliary verbs with the passive.

                                                                        be + 3              (Passive)

                                                            be + V ing                     (Progressive)

                                                have + 3                                   (Perfect)

                                    modal +1                                              (Modal)

            The apple                                             is          eaten    by John.  (Present tense)

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            The apple                                             was      eaten    by John.  (Past tense)

            The apple                                 is          being    eaten    by John.  (Present prog.)

            The apple                                 was      being    eaten    by John.  (Past Progressive)

            The apple                     has       been                 eaten    by John.  (Present Perfect)

            The apple                     had       been                 eaten    by John.  (Past Perfect)

            The apple                     has       been     being    eaten    by John.  (Pres. Perf. Prog)

            The apple                     had       been     being    eaten    by John.  (Past Perf. Prog)

            The apple         will                               be        eaten    by John.  ( Future/Modal)

            The apple         is going to                     be        eaten    by John.  (Future/Modal)

            The apple         must                             be        eaten    by John.  (Modal)

            The apple         must     have     been                 eaten    by John.  (Past Modal)

            The apple         must     have     been     being    eaten    by John. (combination)

*Note, to simplify things, we refer to the forms of the verbs with numbers, as follows:

1 base form (be, go, do)2 past form (was/were, went, did)3 past participle (been, gone, done)

Exercise: The Passive Voice  

A shark has eaten the Prime Minister

The Prime Minister has been eaten by a shark

Change the sentences from the active to the passive.

They grow coffee in Kenya.

1 ______________________________________________________ .

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They publish The Times newspaper in London.

2 ______________________________________________________ .

They make shoes in Calatayud.

3 ______________________________________________________ .

They transport oranges from Valencia to Germany in special crates.

4 ______________________________________________________ .

They are sending the parcel by sea.

5 ______________________________________________________ .

They are destroying the forests in Indonesia.

6 ______________________________________________________ .

The shark ate the man.

7 ______________________________________________________ .

The arsonist started the fire.

8 ______________________________________________________ .

The police took him away.

9 ______________________________________________________ .

They've treated him very well.

10 ______________________________________________________ .

They haven't cleaned the kitchen yet.

11 ______________________________________________________ .

They didn't punish him for what he did.

12 ______________________________________________________ .




Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es.

Singular Plural

boat boats

hat hats

house houses

river rivers

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A noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies.

Singular Plural

a cry cries

a fly flies

a nappy nappies

a poppy poppies

a city cities

a lady ladies

a baby babies

There are some irregular formations for noun plurals. Some of the most common ones are listed below.

Examples of irregular plurals:

Singular Plural

woman women

man men

child children

tooth teeth

foot feet

person people

leaf leaves

half halves

knife knives

wife wives

life lives

loaf loaves

potato potatoes

cactus cacti

focus foci

fungus fungi

nucleus nuclei

syllabus syllabi/syllabuses

analysis analyses

diagnosis diagnoses

oasis oases

thesis theses

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crisis crises

phenomenon phenomena

criterion criteria

datum data

Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural.




sheep sheep

fish fish

species species

aircraft aircraft

Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb.


news The news is on at 6.30 p.m.athletics Athletics is good for young people.linguistics Linguistics is the study of language.darts Darts is a popular game in England.billiards Billiards is played all over the world.

Some nouns have a plural form and take a plural verb.


trousers My trousers are too tight.jeans Her jeans are black.glasses Those glasses are his.

others include:

savings, thanks, steps, stair, customs, congratulations, tropics, wages, spectacles, outskirts, goods, wits

Singular and Plural Noun E xercise

Fill the gaps with the words in brackets using the correct form.

1 ___________ are small and smelly. (child)

2 My old friend Jack Kane thinks that men and ___________ don't really like each other very much. (woman)

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3 The police are looking for a ___________ with black hair and a red beard. (man)

4 Toby counted at least 2000 ___________ before he finally fell asleep. (sheep)

5 How  many roast ___________ do you want? (potato)

6 I saw three ___________ sitting on the temple walls. (monkey)

7 Valencia FC ___________ playing against Deportivo this Saturday. It will be a difficult match. (be)

8 The Spanish ___________ have plans to provide more computers for schools. (government)

9 People ___________ strange, when you're a stranger. (be)

10 Big ___________ need to consider what effects their products have on the environment. (company)

11 ___________ have broken into a museum and stolen a Picasso. (thief)

12 The trees leave ___________ all over the driveway. (leaf)

13 3 million Euros ___________ stolen from a bank yesterday. (be)

14 A new species of owl ___________ been discovered in The Amazon. (have)

15 The latest ___________ is that The Prince of Asturias is getting married. (new)

16 Blast! My favourite jeans ___________ still wet. (be)

17 Did you remember to bring the box of ___________ ? (match)

18 That road is always full of ___________ . (lorry)

 Personal Pronouns & Possessive Adjectives 

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How Do I advise Them?


You are one of the social workers at a neighborhood counseling center. Every day several people of different backgrounds stop in to tell you their problems and seek your advise on personal matters. You are paid by the state government to do everything within your power to solve their problems; however, you rarely have to leave your office. Today, five people with pressing problems have dropped in for advice.

Consider1. You must be extremely careful with your advice; statistics have shown that most

people follow the counselor’s advice2. Be as clear and reasonable as possible3. The problems will be told in the speakers’ own words


Advice Seeker 1: James Nathan (age 77)

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“Ever since my wife died three years ago, I’ve been living with my son and his wife and their two children. They live in a three –bedroom apartment on the fourth floor of an apartent building three blocks from here. We’ve always gotten along well before now; they’ve given me a room and meals, and I’ve given them some of my Social Security check each month. But last nightwe had a big argument. My daughter in-law said it was getting too hard to take care of me, and they were going to put me in a nursing home. My son agreed with her and said he was going to make arrangements for me to leave at the end of the month. What am I going to do? I don’t have enough mooney to get apartment alone, I don’t have any friends, and I’ll kill myself before I’ll let them take me to a nursing home.”


Advice Seeker 2: Jill Tucker (age 14)“My boyfriend and I had been going together for six months. Yesterday, I found out that I’m pregnant. I told him and thought he’d be happy, but he said he didn’t want to see me anymore, and that I should get an abortion. I don’t really want to get an abortion, but I’m not sure I could support myself and a baby if I quit high school. I haven’t told my parents yet because I’ m so scared; they might beat me up or something. What should I do?”


Advice Seeker 3: Herbert Jackson (age 49)“ I just don’t know what to do anymore. My son Jimmy has just been arrested for the third time and is in jail. The first time it wasn’t too bad, only shoplifting, but this time he broke into a man’s store and stole a TV. He’s ony 17 years old, and I’ve tried everything. We’ve taken him to a psychologist, we’ve talked to him hundreds of times but nothing seems to work. He’s our only child, and it’s just about to drive us crazy. Please help me. What can I do?”


Advice Seeker 4: Lisa Sanchez (age 19)“My best friend is a heroin addict. She’s the same age as me and we’ve sort of grown up together. We’ve been on dates together, shared secrets with each other, just everything that best friends do. We even started trying drugs together a couple of yaers ago. I stopped, but Lisa kept going. Now it’s so bad, she doesn’t even recognize me a lot of the time. Her parents don’t care about her, and are even threatening to throw her out of the house. I’m afraid that she’ll soon have to become a prostitute or something in order to support her habit. I want to help her very much, but I don’t know what to do!”


Advice Seeker 5: Charlotte Tucker (age 36)“I really need some help. I know my husband is seeing other women, but I can’t anything about it. I would divorce him tomorrow if I could, but I have four young children to taake care of. I never finished high school, so I don’t feel I have enough education to get a decent

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job. That’s way I have to stay with my husband for financial support. The more I see him, the more I hate him, but what can I do?”




one bookbookssome bookstwo booksmany booksfew booksa few books

A count noun:(1). May be preceded by a or an in the singular,(2). Takes a final -s or –es in the plural


moneysome moneya lot of moneymuch moneylittle moneya little money

A noncount noun:(1). Is not preceded by a or an;(2). Has no plural form; does not take a final –s

Following is a list of some common nouns which are usually or always used as noncount nouns:

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Advice work* weather clothing fruit**Information homework water furnitureFoods housework rain jewelryBread evidence snow luggage butterIntelligence wind machinery cheeseSlang ignorance air moneyCoffee vocabulary knowledge dewMusic meat significance fogPostage milk fun hailScenery pepper enjoyment courageHeat traffic rice happinessHonesty humidity transportation saltSadness luck lighting baggagesugar

*Work is used as a count noun when it means “ a work of art”; e.g., There are many works of art in the museum. (Compare: I have some work to do tonight.)

**Many food terms are used as count nouns when they mean “a kind of”;e.g. An orange is a fruit. (Compare: I had fruit for dessert.)

BE CAREFUL with the noun 'hair' which is normally uncountable in English:

She has long blonde hair

It can also be countable when referring to individual hairs:

My father's getting a few grey hairs now

Exercise 1: complete each of the following by adding final s/-es if the noun in parentheses is countable noun

1. He has (money)2. They ate (sandwich)3. That book has (good idea)4. We’ve been having (bad weather)5. We have (homework) to do tonight6. She gave me (good advice)7. She took (photograph)8. An encyclopedia contains (information)9. I have learned (new vocabulary)10. He knows (American slang)11. A gambler needs (luck)12. We were late because there was (traffic)13. She has (courage)14. (Human being) go to bed hurry every night

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15. Our country has made (progress) in the last twenty years.16. My friend has (knowledge)17. That company makes (product)18. They bought (new furniture) for their house19. We all had (fun) at the picnic20. We saw (beautiful scenery) on our cross-country trip

Exercise 2: Countables and Uncountables

 Circle the correct answer.

 1 Is there ________ cheese left?

A some

B any

C the

6 Excuse me. I need ________ information about trains to Guadalajara.

A Some

B Any

C An

 2 To make pancakes we need ________ eggs and some flour.

A some

B any

C an

 7 Do you know ________ good restaurants near here?

A some

B any

C the

 3 How ________ money do we have left?

A many

B much

C do

 8 For lunch today I had a salad and ________ piece of pizza.

A some

B any

C a

 4 How ________ cars are we taking?

A many

B much

C long

 9 How ________ rice do we have left?

A many

B much

C peas

 5 How ________ glasses of wine did you drink?

A many

B much

C drunk

10 It's cold. Don't open ________ windows.

A some

B any

C a

Exercise 3: Complete the following sentences by using ‘many’ or ‘much’ and the correct form of the noun in parentheses

1. I don’t have (money)2. I haven’t visited (city) in the United States3. I haven’t gotten (mail) latey4. I can’t go with you because I have too (work) to do5. How (edge) does a pentagon have?

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6. I couldn’t find (information) in that book7. How (equipment) does a skier need?8. I haven’t met (people) since I came here9. how (postage) do I need to mail this letter?10. I don’t have (patience) with incompetence


Azar, B.S. 1996. Fundamentals of English Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents