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  • Master’s Project - ENV690

    Critical Success Factors and Challenges for Landscape-Scale

    Wildlife Corridor Governance and Management: Ideas to

    Inform Good Practice

    The Berry Corridor, a part of the Great Eastern Ranges Initiative – from the Escarpment to the Sea

    (This photograph is courtesy of the Berry Chamber of Commerce, NSW)

    David W. Brawn BSc, MSc, GradDipEnEnv, GAICD

    School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University

    July 2018

  • i

    ABSTRACT

    This research project aimed to identify challenges and critical success

    factors (success factors) that impact on the successful governance and

    management of landscape-scale wildlife corridor developments around the

    World. Corridors aim to provide habitat connectivity over large geographies

    to preserve and enhance flora and fauna biodiversity under threat particularly

    from anthropogenic actions. Key stakeholder relationships and how Corridors

    are managed are considered to play an important role in achieving Corridor

    aims.

    Semi structured interviews and a quantitative literature review were used to

    identify challenges and success factors. UNESCO guidelines, a framework of

    4 governance themes (network; planning; stakeholder relations; and

    community relations) and 6 management themes (resources; government;

    private property; fundraising; scientific research; and media and

    communications) informed the research methods. Semi structured interviews

    were conducted, by skype or phone, with 18 Corridor managers from 4

    Australasian Corridors including the Great Eastern Ranges Initiative,

    Gondwana Link, Habitat 1410 and Reconnecting Northland (NZ). A

    systematic quantitative literature review identified challenges and success

    factors in 70 relevant scholarly papers accessed using reputable online

    databases. The two studies collected many ideas from experts grouped into

    49 challenges and 47 success factors and segmented by the ten governance

    or management themes.

    Important challenges were stakeholder relations; social network structure

    and management; private property conservation; fundraising and

    government relations/funding. Significant success factors included

    stakeholder collaboration and cooperation; direction and planning;

    community support; core entity direction and support; private property

    conservation and resources.

  • ii

    The findings highlight that governance and management processes are

    important drivers of Corridor performance. The research findings also point

    to a gap between academic and practitioner priorities highlighting issues with

    knowledge exchange.

    The findings identify opportunities for improvement in corridor governance

    and management that provide guidance for practitioners, researchers, and

    other interested parties.

  • iii

    CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................... i

    CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 1

    1.1 Purpose of the research.................................................................... 1

    1.2 Governance and Management ......................................................... 1

    1.3 Wildlife Corridors .............................................................................. 2

    1.4 Project initiation ................................................................................ 3

    1.5 Research questions .......................................................................... 4

    CHAPTER 2 – METHOD ............................................................................... 5

    2.1 Development of themes for data collection and analysis .................. 5

    2.2 Interview Programme ........................................................................ 7

    2.3 Systematic quantitative Literature Review ...................................... 11

    CHAPTER 3 - INTERVIEW PROGRAMME – FINDINGS ............................ 13

    3.1 Interview findings - Challenges ....................................................... 13

    3.2 Interview findings - Success factors ................................................ 16

    CHAPTER 4 – SYSTEMATIC QUANTITATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW -

    FINDINGS .................................................................................................... 21

    4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 21

    4.2 Literature Review findings - Challenges .......................................... 21

    4.3 Literature Review findings - Success factors .................................. 24

    4.4 Combined findings - Interview Programme and Literature Review . 28

    CHAPTER 5 – DISCUSSION ...................................................................... 35

    5.1 Themes ....................................................................................... 35

    5.2 Comments ................................................................................... 35

    5.3 Ideas ............................................................................................ 36

    5.4 Challenges……………………………………………………………..34

    5.5 Success factors ........................................................................... 37

    5.6 Further commentary .................................................................... 45

    CHAPTER 6 – CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 47

    REFERENCES ............................................................................................ 49

    APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………… 53

  • iv

    LIST OF APPENDICES

    Appendix 1 – Actively managed landscape-scale wildlife Corridors 0

    around the World......…………………………………………………………… .53

    Appendix 2 – Great Eastern Ranges Initiative……………….………….…. .55

    Appendix 3 – Gondwana Link…………………………………………..…… 59

    Appendix 4 – Habitat 1410 ….…………………………………………………. 63 Appendix 5 – Reconnecting Northland………………………………………. 65

    Appendix 6 - Wildlife Corridor – Semi-structured Interview Guide….……. .69

    62

    Appendix 7 - List of interviewees………………………………………….… 71

    Appendix 8 – Interview Programme - Number of comments by theme

    and Corridor - Challenges…………………………………………………… .72

    Appendix 9 – Interview Programme - Number of ideas by theme and

    Corridor – Challenges…………………………………………………………. 73

    Appendix 10 – Interview Programme – Excel database…………………… 74 Appendix 11 – Interview Programme – Frequency of comments and ideas………………………………………………………………………... 79 Appendix 12 – Interview Programme - Number of comments by theme and Corridor - Success factors………………………………………………… 80 Appendix 13 – Interview Programme - Number of ideas by theme and Corridor for success factors……………………………………………………. 81 Appendix 14 – Interview Programme – Frequency of comments and ideas about success factors………………………………………….… 82 Appendix 15 - Research papers and articles reviewed in the Literature Review……………………………………………………………… 83 Appendix 16 – Literature Review – Excel database………………………… 87

    Appendix 17 – Literature Review – Frequency of comments and ideas

    about challenges ……………………………………………………………… .93

    Appendix 18 – Literature Review – Frequency of comments and ideas

    about success factors………………………………………………………….. 94

    Appendix 19 – Challenges from the Interview Programme and

    Literature Review……….………………………………………………………. 95

    Appendix 20 – Success factors from the Interview Programme

    and Literature Review…………………………………………………………. 96

    Appendix 21 – Combined Findings – Excel database……………………… 97

    Appendix 22 – Combined Findings –Challenges………………………… 105

    Appendix 23 – Combined Findings –Success factors…………………… .106

    Appendix 24 – Combined Findings – Top 3 success factors by theme

    with the associated ideas…………………………………………………….. 107

    Appendix 25 – Combined Findings – Alignment of success factors

    with challenges……………………………………………………………… 111

    Appendix 26 – Improvi