Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual Prepared for: Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Office of Watershed Management and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region I, Water Division, Water Quality Section

Transcript of Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Page 1: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

MassachusettsForestry Best Management Practices Manual

Prepared for:

Massachusetts Department of Environmental ProtectionOffice of Watershed Management


U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyRegion I, Water Division, Water Quality Section

Page 2: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

David B. Kittredge, Jr.

Extension Forester/ Associate ProfessorDepartment of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Massachusetts

Michael Parker

Service Forester, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management

Page 3: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Table of Contents

1. Why Best Management Practices (BMPs)? 1

2. Planning 4

3. Skid Trails 8

4. Truck Roads 12

5. Landings 16

6. Hay Bale and Silt Fence Installation 19

7. Filter Strips 21

8. Buffer Strips 25

9. Stream Crossings 26

10. Wetlands 35

11. Vernal Pools 41

12. Rare and Endangered Species 44

13. Seeding 46

14. Before Leaving the Job 49

15. Forest Chemical Management 51

16. Prescribed Burning and Wildfire 52

17. MA Slash Law Requirements 53


1. MA Department of Environmental Management [DEM) 54

2. MA Division of Fisheries and Wildlife 55

3. MA Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program 55

4. MA Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) 55

5. Acknowledgments 56

6. Technical Reviewers 56

Third printing, December, 1999

Illustrations: Nancy HaverDesign: Karen Chrisman

This project has been financed partially with Fed-eral Funds from the Environmental ProtectionAgency [EPA] to the Massachusetts Departmentof Environmental Protection [DEP] under anS319 Nonpoint Source Competitive Grant. Thecontents do not necessarily reflect the views andpolicies of EPA or of DEP, nor does the mentionof trade names or commercial products consti-tute endorsement or recommendation for use.

Page 4: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Why Best Management Practices? 1

1 Why BMPs (Best Management Practices)?

When forest products are harvested using heavyequipment that can disturb soil, runoff carryingsediment may occur. This sediment-laden runoffis called non-point source pollution if it gets intorivers, streams, lakes, ponds, or wetlands. Othertypes of non-point source pollution include lubri-cant leaks, and fertilizer/pesticide applications.

The basic principle behind BMPs is to mini-mize the overland speed and volume of water car-rying sediment and nutrients that:

• impact wetlands and water bodies, • impact drinking water supplies, and• impact fish/amphibian/reptile habitat

BMPs are required to prevent or minimizenon-point source water pollution by MGL Chap-ter 132, sections 40-46 - the Massachusetts ForestCutting Practices Act, and the latest (1995) revi-sion of its regulations.

The US Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) and National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration (NOAA )administer several feder-al laws that require state agencies to address non-point source pollution from forest harvesting:

Section 6217 Federal Coastal Zone Act of1990 requires the MA Coastal Zone Managementoffice to assess non-point source pollution prob-lems caused by harvesting, publish specific man-

Figure 1 (above) – The path of water over and throughsoil towards a water body.

Page 5: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

agement recommendations, and coordinate theimplementation of these recommendations inareas affecting coastal regions of the state. Har-vesting activities throughout the entire state areconsidered to possibly have an effect on thecoastal zone.

Section 319 of the Federal Clean Water Actof 1987 requires MA Department of Environmen-tal Protection to assess nonpoint source forestryproblems statewide as they affect water qualitystandards, identify best management practicesneeded to reduce levels of pollution, and coordi-nate the implementation of these BMPs.

Section 404 of the Clean Water act of 1977requires the US Army Corps of Engineers to pro-vide jurisdiction over activities that result in dis-charges of dredged or fill material in waters ofthe United States. Recently the Corps of Engi-neers and the states have been cooperating totransfer the jurisdiction to the appropriate stateagency for easier administration.

Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 131The Wetland Protection Act and Chapter 132 theForest Cutting Practices Act require BMPs to con-trol non-point source pollution from harvestingoperations. Under the wetland regulation, BMPsare required in order to meet the conditions forthe exemption from the Wetlands Protection Act.There is a Memorandum of Understanding(MOU) between the Department of Environmen-tal Management, responsible for administeringChapter 132, and the Department of Environ-mental Protection, responsible for administeringChapter 131, that provides Service Forester over-sight of wetland protection during harvesting,and thereby exempts harvesting from Chapter131 procedures so long as it is in compliance withChapter 132.

Finally, BMPs prevent rutting and will pre-serve access for future activities. They will alsoimprove the looks of a timber harvest, which is important to landowners and the public in general.

This manual contains BMPs required byChapter 132, as well as BMPs that are notrequired but highly recommended to protectwater supplies, terrestrial and aquatic wildlifehabitat, and the forest environment.

R BMPs required by Chapter 132 are indicated by a red R.

GRecommended activities or guidelinesare indicated by a gold G.

2 3Why Best Management Practices? Why Best Management Practices?

Page 6: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

2 Planning

Planning is one of the most important BMPs, andthe first to consider. Planning ahead can save time in the future once the job begins, and insureprompt approval of the Forest Cutting Plan by the DEM Service Forester. It can also result in themost efficient use of machinery, and reduced wear and down-time.

Locate landings, access roads, and skid roadscarefully to avoid steep slopes, wetlands, vernalpools, and stream crossings. It may be more cost-effective and efficient to layout longer skid trails to avoid these situations. Avoiding them will alsomean less possibility of erosion. Consider alterna-tives such as obtaining permission to access thetimber sale from a neighboring property to avoidsuch situations.

Planning not only means how you will accessthe timber sale, but also when the timber will becut. Timing is one of the most important BMPs.Operating when the ground is dry, frozen, or snow-covered is an excellent way to reduce erosion.

RForest Cutting Plan must include a des-cription of the erosion control measuresto be used. The Forest Cutting Plan mapmust show the proposed location of alltruck roads, principal skid roads, streamand wetland crossings, as well as the general location of appropriate erosioncontrol measures such as filter strips.

ROperating on sustained slopes of 30%or more for a slope distance of 200 feetor greater requires the indication ofthese Steep Slope areas on the ForestCutting Plan map. Special care must betaken to prevent erosion from roads,skid roads, and trails by closely followingerosion control practices such as waterbars to stabilize these areas during and

4 5PlanningPlanning

Figure 2 – Topograpic map of the same timber sale. Left,a well-planned operation, avoiding sensitive areas.Right, skid trails in conflict with such areas.

Vernal PoolVernal



Page 7: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Planning Planning 76

after the operation. Specific measures tobe used to control erosion in these areasmust be detailed in the Plan.

RNo logging equipment may operate in afilter strip except:

• to reduce environmental damage shown to

be necessary in a statement in an approved

Forest Cutting Plan,

• at an approved stream crossing,

• on a pre-existing logging road, or

• in filter strips greater than 50 feet in width,

beyond 50 feet from the water body. In this

case, equipment can operate beyond 50 feet

of the waterbody, as long as no principal skid

road is located there, disturbance of the for-

est floor is minimized, and any disturbed soil

is promptly stabilized.

RMA Slash Law requirements pertain, andshould be considered in the planningphase before the sale begins. See the sec-tion on slash for more details.

R Upon approval of the submitted ForestCutting Plan, post the certificate at thelanding of the job.

ROperators are required to have a copy ofthe approved Forest Cutting Plan on thejob site.

RAn approved Forest Cutting Plan is validfor up to two years from the date of receipt at the DEM regional office. Twoone-year extensions may be granted foradequate reasons, at the discretion of theDirector or the Director’s agent, whenrequested in writing by the landowner or

Figure 3 – Steps in filing a Forest Cutting Plan/ Noticeof Intent including threshold for Chapter 132

Landowner/ Agent

Forest Cutting

Plan/Noticeof Intent to


the landowner’s Agent at least 30 daysbefore the expiration date of the Plan. Alllogging, engineering, and stabilization re-quirements of the Plan must be fulfilledby the completion of the operation or bythe expiration date, whichever is sooner.

Simultaneously, and at least 10 business daysbefore beginning harvest:

Forest Cutting Plan/

Notice ofIntent to

DEM ServiceForester

Receive Approved Plan and certificate fromDEM

Notify DEM of any information left blank, e.g.,operator and starting date

Provide approved permit to operator for prop-er posting at site

Notify DEM Service Forester of any proposedchanges to Cutting Plan

Notify DEM at least 30 days prior to expirationdate if extension is needed

Notify DEM Service Forester within 2 weeks ofjob completion for inspection

Notificationmailed or

hand-deliveredto Abutters

within 200 feetof harvest

Page 8: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

3 Skid Trails

RWater bar spacing: use common sense in the location of water bars. Local terrain often preventsthem from being located exactly wherethe guidelines below specify, howeverthese guidelines are a requirement ofChapter 132.

road grade (%) approximate distance needed between water bars(feet)

1 400

2 245

5 125

10 78

15 58

20 47

25 40

30 35

35 32

40 29

( )x 100 = % slope

Skid Trails8

Figure 5 – How slope is determined

RDo not operate skidders on slopesgreater than 60%, unless special per-mission is given by the Service Foresterin the approved Forest Cutting Plan. Inthese cases, the applicant must showthat soils are stable and that measureswill be used to minimize erosion duringand following the operation.

9Skid Trails

Figure 4 – Twowater bars. Left, properprocedures as indicated. Above, incorrect procedures.1. Angle to the center line of the road of roughly 30degrees (i.e., not perpendicular) 2. Height of the berm (8-12”), depth of the ditch 3. Outflow for water from the ditch is open, and extendsbeyond the edge of the skid road; use of a shovel4. Reinforce berm with a log5. Make them deep to insure that they last a long time,and serve as a possible deterrent to ORV traffic, whichcan be a significant source of erosion 6. Mulching or seeding the berm will reduce scouring orerosion of the berm and make it last longer

horizontal distance in feet10 50 100







e in

feet vertical


Page 9: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

RDo not operate a machine in a wetlandunless the ground is dry, frozen, or oth-erwise stable enough to support it.Identify the location of wetland andstream crossings on the ground withflagging or paint, as well as on the mapwith the Forest Cutting Plan. See thesection on Wetland Protection (page35) for further information.

RNo machinery is allowed to operate in acertified vernal pool at any time of theyear. A 50-foot filter strip must sur-round each certified vernal pool. Seethe sections on filter strips (page 21)and vernal pools (page 40) for moreinformation.

RNo logging equipment may operate inthe filter strip except:

• to reduce environmental damage shown

to be necessary in a statement in an

approved Forest Cutting Plan,

• at an approved stream crossing,

• on a pre-existing logging road, or

• in filter strips greater than 50 feet in

width, beyond 50 feet from the water body.

In this case, equipment can operate beyond

50 feet of the waterbody, as long as no

principal skid road is located there, distur-

bance of the forest floor is minimized, and

any disturbed soil is promptly stabilized.

RAll principal skid roads will be stabilizedwhenever they are left inactive for onemonth or more, or whenever the Ser-vice Forester determines such work isnecessary. All necessary and required

erosion control work will be performedby the completion of the operation.

GWatch the weather forecast and planahead for severe storms. Most sedimententers a stream following a severestorm. Hay bales and reinforced waterbars are the best way to keep water fromentering streams at crossings.

GConsider topography in the location ofskid roads. Avoid steep slopes.

GMinimize debarking and other damageto residual trees.

GChoose skid roads partially on the basisof which trees are the “best” to damage.Every reasonable effort should be madeto preserve advanced regeneration.

GWoods roads and skid trails should besmoothed and repaired after logging,and left in a stable condition to resisterosion.

10 11Skid Trails Skid Trails

Page 10: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

RAdequate drainage ditches, culverts, andwater bars will be provided, and runoffwill be led into filter strips or haybaleimpoundments to remove sediment.

RAccess roads from a landing to a highwaymust be graveled or mulched to preventmud from tracking onto the highway.Alternatively, they must not be used during wet weather, or mud must beremoved immediately from the public

highway. At the end of the operation,the soil must be stabilized, and if neces-sary, seeded with grass. Refer to the sec-tion on seeding for specifics (p. 46).

RNo logging equipment may operate inthe filter strip except:

• to reduce environmental damage shown

to be necessary in a statement in an

approved Forest Cutting Plan,

12 13Truck Roads Truck Roads

Figure 6 – Left, woods road with proper crown andditches in place, and occasional broad-based dips, open-topped culverts, and culverts in use. Above, woods roadwith no crown, no ditches, water running down the cen-ter, spewing mud on the highway.

4Truck Roads

Page 11: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

• at an approved stream crossing,

• on a pre-existing logging road, or

• in filter strips greater than 50 feet in width,

beyond 50 feet from the water body. In the

last case above, equipment can operate

beyond 50 feet of the waterbody, as long as

no principal skid road is located there,

disturbance of the forest floor is minimized,

and any disturbed soil is promptly stabilized.

RWhen a culvert is used, the Forest CuttingPlan must state its diameter, based on theculvert sizing table below:

Area above pipe diameter ( " )pipe (acres) Type I Type II

1 8 8

5 12 12

10 15 18

15 18 24

20 24 24

25 24 24

30 24 30

35 30 30

40 30 30

45 30 30

50 30 36

75 36 36

100 48 48

150 48 48

200 60 60

250 60 60

Type I terrain is forested and rolling, with slopes between5 and 10%. Type II terrain is forested and hilly, withslopes between 10 and 30%. Culvert diameters are basedon the 25-year storm.

GBroad-based dips can be installed by abulldozer, and are easier to maintainthan culverts, since they do not have tobe cleaned out. They also can not bebroken down by Off-Road Vehicles(ORVs). They are effective at movingsurface water off the road and into adja-cent ditches or the forest floor. Recom-mended spacing is:

road grade (%) approx distance between dips (ft)

1 500

2 300

5 180

10 140

GOpen-topped culverts can also be usedto move water off of the road surface.recommended spacing is:

road grade (%) approx distance between culverts (ft)

1 400

2 245

5 125

10 78

15 58

20 47

GIf possible, avoid grades of more than 5%.

Good road management practices during andafter the harvesting operation include: maintainand clear culverts, maintain and periodically rein-force broad-based dips and water bars, and closeroads to unauthorized use.

14 15Truck Roads Truck Roads

Page 12: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual


RAll unnatural debris such as cans, papers,discarded tires, metal parts, and otherjunk must be removed. Woody debris willbe placed neatly to improve appearanceand promote rapid decay.

RSoil will be stabilized and if necessaryseeded to grass at the end of the opera-tion (see p. 46).

GLocate the landing on gently sloping orlevel ground with good drainage, to avoidponding of water. Whenever possible,place the landing out of sight of publicways. Curve the access road to break theline-of-sight from the public way.

GSet the landing at least 100 feet fromwater bodies and wetlands.

G If the landing must be closer than 100feet to a water body or wetland, use haybales or silt fence to check erosion.

GLocate diversions such as water bars orbroad-based dips on skid trails leadinginto the landing, to prevent water fromflowing into the landing and ponding,due to soil compaction from themachinery.

GLocate diversions such as water barsand broad-based dips on the truck roadleading out of the landing, to preventthe flow of accumulated water and sedi-ment from the landing out onto thepublic way.

16 17LandingsLandings

Figure 7 – Left, a good landing, as described in this sec-tion. Above, an improper landing.

Page 13: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

GCheck hoses and fittings regularly toprevent leaks of lubricants andhydraulic oil from machinery.

GHave oil-absorbent mats on the landingin case fuel, lubricant, or hydraulicfluid spills or leaks. In the event of slowleaks while the machine is parkedovernight or for an extended period,place an oil-absorbent mat to catch theleak.

6Hay Bale and Silt FenceInstallation

Hay bales can be used as temporary means tointercept runoff and trap sediment. They can beused downslope of disturbed areas such as land-ings or on a skid trail upslope from a streamcrossing, to keep water carrying sediment fromentering the stream while the job is inactive (e.g.,overnight, on weekends or during down times).

Proper installation includes:

• Hold the bales in place with stakes.

• To prevent being undercut, dig a foundation for the bales several inches deep. Compact soil up against the bales on the upslope side.

• Overlap hay bales to increase their effectiveness and insure that they will remain in place.

Wire or nylon-bound bales are more durablethan those bound with twine.

Hay bales will only last 2-6 months, and willneed to be replaced when saturated with sedi-ment.

Silt fence is intended to temporarily retain sedi-ment from small disturbed areas by reducing thespeed of overland flow.

The rule of thumb for placement downgradi-ent of disturbed areas such as landings generallyis to use 100 feet of silt fence for every 1/4 acreof disturbed area.

Proper installation of silt fence involves:

• Drive in posts spaced 4-6 feet apart.

• Fence height should be at least 2.5 feet.

18 19Hay Bale and Silt Fence Installation Landings

Page 14: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

• Attach a continuous length of fabric to theposts. Attach the posts downgradient fromthe fabric, so water and sediment do not pull the fabric from the posts.

• Bury several inches of the fabric in theground to anchor it and prevent flowbeneath it.

• Backfill the base of the fabric with compacted soil or crushed stone.

Consider reinforcement of silt fence by stringingwire mesh fencing between the posts.

Beware of undercutting of silt fence due toimproper burying of the fabric.

Do not install silt fence across streams, ditches, or waterways.

Inspect fence periodically and after eachrainfall.

Replace worn fabric immediately.

Remove accumulated sediment depositsimmediately.

Remove all fence materials and unstable sedi-ment after the drainage area is stabilized.

The design life of silt fence is 6 months orless. Do not leave the silt fence in place as a per-manent erosion control structure. It may serve asa barrier to amphibian and reptile travel.

7Filter Strips

It is the purpose of filter strips to:

• slow the movement of overland flow of water, thus enabling transported sediment to be left behind,

• provide an opportunity for vegetation to take up nutrients that may otherwise flowinto the water body,

• provide shade to the adjacent water body, to prevent warming of the water, and thus injury to aquatic and riparianwildlife habitat, and

• protect bank stability and prevent erosion.

It is important not to disturb the forest floorof filter strips, to permit the filtration of overlandflow through ground vegetation and forest floordebris. It is likewise important to retain at least50% of the overstory basal area, to provide theimportant shade function to the adjacent waterbody.

RFilter strips are required along all waterbodies and certified vernal pools. Nomore than 50% of the basal area maybe cut at any one time, and a waitingperiod or five years must elapse beforeanother cut is made. The residual standwill be composed of healthy growingtrees well distributed over the area.Exceptions to this standard may bemade by the Service Forester if it isshown in the Forest Cutting Plan that aheavier cut is necessary to protect thestream, bank, or water quality.

20 21Filter Strips Hay Bale and Silt Fence Installation

Page 15: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

RThe filter stripwill extend 50 feetback from the bank, mea-sured along the slope, exceptin the following circumstances:1. for streams greater in width than 25 feet bank to bank, ponds 10 acres orlarger in area, designated scenic rivers,and along Outstanding Resource Watersand their tributaries (excluding vernalpools), filter strips will be of variablewidth, depending on slope, as describedin the following table:

slope % filter strip width (feet)

0 50

10 90

20 130

30 17

40 210

50 250

60 290

70 330

80 370

90 410

100 450

VVariable-width filter strips may be advis-able to use in other circumstances, aswell.

2. where slopes are 30% or greater, the filter strip will extend 100 feet backfrom the bank, or to the point between50 and 100 feet from the bank, where abreak in the topography reduces theslope to less than 30%.

RNo logging equipment may operate inthe filter strip except:

• to reduce environmental damage shown

to be necessary in a statement in an

approved Forest Cutting Plan,

• at an approved stream crossing,

• on a pre-existing logging road, or

• in filter strips greater than 50 feet in

width, beyond 50 feet from the water body.

In the last case above, equipment can

operate beyond 50 feet of the waterbody,

as long as no principal skid road is located

there, disturbance of the forest floor is

minimized, and any disturbed soil is

promptly stabilized.

22 23Filter Strips Filter Strips

Figure 8 – Cross section of a stream showing filterstrip.Slope of right side is less than 30% and requires a 50 foot filter strip. The left side slope is greater than30% and requires a 100 foot filter strip at least untilthe break in slope.

Page 16: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

RCut trees will be winched out of the filter strip and slash will be disposed of according to the Slash Law. No slash can remain within 25 feet of anycontinually flowing brook, stream, river, or any lake, pond, or water supply.

GThe following guidelines may be usedto provide additional protection to sen-sitive streams (tributaries to water sup-ply reservoirs, high-quality troutstreams, and rare species habitat) andwildlife habitat in riparian corridors:

• 15-foot no-cut buffer

• avoid soil compaction and rutting within

200 feet of a stream

• maintain areas within 200 feet of the

stream in a forested condition

• preserve important habitat characteristics

within 200 feet of a stream, such as trees

with cavities, downed logs, stone walls and

rock jumbles

• use variable-width filter strip guidelines


• avoid the cutting of trees directly on the

stream bank

• avoid the use of rip-rap to stabilize banks.

8Buffer Strips

Buffer strips are areas of light cutting alongroads, where the intensity of cutting is restrictedto maintain a forested appearance and an attrac-tive landscape.

RBuffer strips will be left along the edgesof publicly maintained ways, exceptalong forest management roads in fed-eral, state, county, or municipal forests,parks or reservations. Within bufferstrips, no more than 50% of the basalarea may be cut at any one time, and awaiting period of five years must elapsebefore another cut is made. The resid-ual stand in the buffer strip will be com-posed of healthy growing trees well dis-tributed over the area.

RBuffer strips will extend 50 feet backfrom the outer edge of the highway,except for designated scenic roads,where they will extend 100 feet fromthe highway.

RHardwood slash must not be left morethan 2 feet above the ground within 40feet of any highway. Softwood slashmust not be left on the ground within40 feet of any highway, and must not bemore than 2 feet above the groundbetween 40 and 100 feet of any highway.

24 25Buffer Strips Filter Strips

Page 17: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

9Stream CrossingsStudies in Massachusetts have shown that streamcrossings represent one of the principal ways thatsediment can enter a water body. They do, how-ever, prove necessary on the majority of jobs.

For purposes of Chapter 132, and determin-ing when mitigation is necessary, a stream isdefined as follows:

a body of running water, including brooksand creeks, which moves in a defined chan-nel due to a hydraulic gradient, and whichflows within, into, or out of an area subjectto protection under the Wetlands Protec-tion Act. A portion of a stream may flowthrough a water control structure such as aculvert or bridge. Such a body of runningwater, which does not flow throughout theyear (intermittent) is a stream except forthe portion up-gradient from all bogs,swamps, wet meadows, and marshes.

RWhen a crossing is essential, existing oldcrossings will be rehabilitated and used,provided that it can be shown that thiswill cause less disturbance than con-structing a new crossing.

RTemporary crossing structures will beremoved at the end of the operation,and the site will be stabilized.

RThe installation of permanent streamcrossings and the construction of permanent roads involving fill through wetland resource areas requires the ap-proval of the local Conservation Com-mission under the Wetlands ProtectionAct MGL 131 section 40. See page 33for a description of this procedure.

RThe rehabilitation, new construction,and stabilization of stream crossings willbe done to the standards defined below:

Banks streambed acceptablecrossing method

shallow rocky ford with stabilized(less than approaches,one foot corduroy, in height) culvert, bridge

soft corduroy, bridge, corduroy with culvert

steep rocky corduroy, culvert,(greater bridgethan one soft corduroy, culvert,foot in bridgeheight)

RAll crossing will be made at right anglesto the channel.

RWhen crossing involves fill or otherclosed or semi-closed structures whichwill obstruct flow, they will be designedto accommodate at least the 25-yearstorm (refer to the table of culvert sizeson p. 14).

R If a culvert is to be used, the Forest Cut-ting Plan must state the diameter of theculvert based on the culvert sizing tablein this manual (p. 14).

RAll banks and approaches to streamcrossings will be stabilized during and atthe end of the operation.

RAll stream crossings will be accuratelymapped and labeled on the Forest Cutting Plan map, and marked on the

26 27Stream Crossings Stream Crossings

Page 18: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

ground with paint or flagging at thetime the Plan is filed.

R If a stream crossing must be changedduring the operation, the ServiceForester must be notified and approvethe change before it is made.

RWithin 1000 feet upstream of a publicwater supply reservoir, measured alongthe course of the stream from the high-water mark of the reservoir, all streamcrossings must use a temporary bridge.Exceptions to this will require filing ofan Environmental Notification form(ENF) in accordance with MGL Chap-ter 30, sections 61-62H and CMR 11.00.

GAvoid steep or undercut banks. Gentlebanks minimize erosion. The approachto the crossing should be level forroughly 50 feet on both sides.

Crossing Options:

A. Corduroy, or Poled Ford:Place logs in a stream parallel to the direction offlow. Logs should be large enough to keep theskidder out of the water, and should be level withthe stream banks. Place one or several culverts inand amongst the logs, to permit streamflowthough the ford, and prevent damming. Ductileiron culverts or pieces of gas pipeline can with-stand great impact and support heavy loggingequipment without collapsing, including fully-loaded forwarders.

B. Bridge: From the standpoint of water quality, it is mostadvisable to use a bridge to keep the machineand hitch completely out of the water. Thismeans that lubricant and fuel will not wash intothe stream water, and sediment will not bedragged into the stream on the tires and hitch.Also, the banks will remain intact, and their dis-turbance will not represent another source ofsediment. There are two ways to bridge a stream:

28 29Stream Crossings Stream Crossings

Figure 9 – Poled fords. Above, a properly constructedexample. Right, a bad example, with dammed upwater and flooded approach.

Page 19: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Stream Crossings 31

2. Re-usable temporary skidder bridge. There aremany different designs possible, including the recom-mended one below.

1. Skidder bridges can be constructed on-site.

30 Stream Crossings

Figure 10 – A skidder bridge will include: a) 3-6 stout tree-length logs used as stringers across thestream,b) 4-inch planks used as decking, bumper logs added tothe sides to keep the hitch from falling into the stream, c) straight approach to line up the hitch, d) sills or log abutments to improve stability, anchor thebridge in place, and elevate it above the level of thebank.

Figure 11 – Construction and use of areusable skidder bridge. a) It is built in two inde-pendent sections, each 5 feetwide, 20 feet long, and 7 inchesthick, constructed of laminatedtimber bolted together. b) A chain on one end facilitatesskidding into place.

Page 20: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Sections are skidded into place from thelanding, and located side-by-side at the crossing.At the end of the operation, the pieces can beskidded back to the landing, loaded onto a logtruck, and moved to another site. It is importantto stabilize the approaches while installing andremoving portable or temporary skidder bridges.

C. Culverts:

(Refer to the culvert guidelines on p. 14.)

For all Stream Crossings:Use hay bales staked at stream crossing approach-es parallel to banks to catch sediment before itenters the stream (see p. 19). Locate hay balesprior to bridge installation to intercept as muchsediment as possible. It is better to use hay balesor silt fence to intercept runoff before it gets intothe stream than to use them in the stream itself.Do not use silt fence in a stream. However, if haybales are used in the stream, they should bestaked at least 15 feet downstream to preventponding at the crossing. Hay bales that becomefull of sediment should be removed, placed awayfrom the stream, and replaced with fresh ones.

It is very important to stabilize the approach-es to a stream crossing both during the loggingoperation and after completion. Unstableapproaches are one of the primary ways that sedi-ment can enter a stream. Although water bars aregenerally installed at the end of a timber harvest,it is advisable to install at least one directly uphillfrom a crossing to prevent water moving down askid road from reaching a stream. This waterbarwill need to be occasionally reinforced during thecourse of the job. The approaches can be cor-duroyed with poles to prevent rutting and thechurning of soil. Consider staking a few hay balesin the skid road at the approach to a streamcrossing at the end of the day or week, especiallyif there are showers or heavy rains in the forecast.

Although not covered under Chapter 132,permanent accessways/ stream crossings maybe obtained by the following procedure:

I. Under the wetlands regulations, 310 CMR10.53(3)(r), “limited project”:

A . File Notice of Intent under 310 CMR10.53(3)(r), limited project for permanentaccess for forestry (if uncertain that activitywill take place in an area subject to the wet-land regulations you can file a Request forDetermination of Applicability (RFD)- there isno fee associated with an RFD);

B. Work must conform to Order of Condi-tions, all seven conditions listed below, andany conditions determined necessary by theConservation Commission;

C. Filing fee for the limited project Notice ofIntent is minimal.

Conditions that must be met as part of the aboveapproval:

1a. The road is designed and constructed inaccordance with a Forest Cutting Planapproved by DEM under provisions of 304CMR 11.00, and the Massachusetts ForestryBest Management Practices Manual OR

1b. The road is to be built on land with apermanent recorded Conservation Restric-tion and maintains the land in perpetualforest use.

2. The accessway is minimum practicalwidth required for cutting and removal oftrees;

3. Practical alternative access across uplandnot available;

4. Number of accessways in wetlandresource area minimized;

32 33Stream Crossings Stream Crossings

Page 21: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

5. Activities conducted when soil is frozen,dry, or otherwise stable to support equip-ment;

6. The accessway does not increase floodstage or velocity;

7. Design and installation done in accor-dance with Massachusetts Forestry BMPManual and allows for 25-year storm.

II. If the seven (7) conditions under 310 CMR10.5393)(r) cannot be met, an Order of Condi-tions for a non-limited project activity must beobtained as follows:

A. File Notice of Intent under standard wet-land regulation procedures.

B. Approval is based on engineering consider-ations and the ability of the activity to meet thewetland performance standards.

C. Work must be done in conformance withthe Order of Conditions.

D. Notice of Intent filing fee will be depen-dent upon the project and the number of wet-land crossings.

Order of Conditions received per either I or IIabove may be appealed to the MassachusettsDepartment of Environmental Protection (DEP).For further information see the wetland regula-tions 310 CMR 10.00. For general informationsee the appendix for Departmental contact,addresses, and phone numbers.

10 Wetlands

Figure 12 – cross-section of a wetland showing thesefunctions:1) filters that trap sediment, nutrients, and heavy met-als from surface and subsurface flows2) sources of groundwater recharge3) buffers of heavy rains, releasing them slowly down-stream to prevent flooding 4) habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species, andmore than 40 threatened or endangered animal speciesin Massachusetts

Wetlands in Massachusetts are legally identifiedin the Wetlands Protection Act (MGL Chapter131 Section 40) and defined in the wetland regu-lations 310 CMR 10.00. In general, the wetlandresource areas referenced in this BMP Manualare Bordering Vegetated Wetlands (BVWs).These areas are the result of inundated or satu-rated conditions for sufficient periods of time tocause a change in the plant community and soils.They are generally recognized by the type ofplants that comprise the vegetated community(such as red maple, green or black ash, black

34 35Wetlands Stream Crossings

Page 22: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

Wetlands 37

Figure 13 – Cross-section of a wetland depicting thesefeatures:1) presence of water at or near the surface for a portionof the year – look for: drainage channels, high watermarks, depressions, debris lines2) plants adapted to wetland conditions, e.g., willow,red maple, green and black ash, cattail, skunk cabbage3) poorly drained soils with mottling discoloration-indicators: spongy ground underfoot, black organicsoils

gum, spicebush, skunk cabbage), the type of soilspresent (organic soils such as peat or muck andmineral soils gray or dull in color or with otherwetness features such as mottling) and the evi-dence of water present at or near the surface fora significant length of time (look for drainagechannels, water marks on fixed objects, waterstained leaves, debris lines). Additional informa-tion on BVWs is presented in a handbook avail-able from DEP entitled “Delineating BorderingVegetated Wetlands”.

Although wetlands may act as filters, thisfunction may be compromised by excessive pollu-tant loads, which in turn may cause wetlands tobecome sources of non-point source pollution,and impair other functions. Thus, it is importantto keep sediment out of wetlands, so as to notimpair their function as filters. Runoff fromroads, skid trails, and landings should not bedirected into wetlands.

RAll forest harvesting activities that takeplace within 100 feet of a wetlandresource area must receive either anexemption to or a permit under MGLChapter 131 the Wetlands ProtectionAct. A properly filed, approved, and fol-lowed Forest Cutting Plan provides anexemption to the normal filing require-ments of the Wetlands Protection Act.

36 Wetlands

Page 23: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

RWetlands that will be crossed, logged in,or lie adjacent to any harvesting activitywill be accurately shown and labeled onthe Forest Cutting Plan map. The loca-tion of a crossing must be identified onthe ground with paint or flagging.

RRoads through wetlands approvedunder Chapter 132 Forest Cutting Prac-tices Act are temporary. Permanentroads through wetlands require Conser-vation Commission approval underChapter 131 Wetlands Protection Act.

RWetlands will not be operated in unlessdry, frozen, or otherwise stable. Whenthese conditions are not met, the ForestCutting Plan requires special approvalby the Service Forester, after showingthat it will help avoid significant envi-ronmental damage.

R If the wetland crossing needs to changeduring the operation, the ServiceForester must approve the changebefore it is made.

Rmaintain at least 50% basal area in wet-lands.

GWhen operating in a wetland it is advis-able to:

• concentrate skidding in a few well-definedcorridors,

• use cable and winch as much as possible,

• use brush or corduroy to minimizeground pressure and rutting,

• reduce hitch volumes to minimize rutting,

• use BMPs to minimize sediment transport,

• avoid landings in wetlands,

• not store fuels or lubricants on landingsin or within 100 feet of a wetland,

• not refuel or clean machinery on landingsin or within 100 feet of a wetland,

• fell trees away from wetlands, to facilitatewinching them out.

GIsolated Vegetated Wetlands are areasthat are generally saturated by ground-water or covered by surface water longenough to produce hydric soil condi-tions and which, under normal circum-stances, support wetland plant commu-nities. Isolated Wetlands have many ofthe same characteristics as BorderingVegetated Wetlands (BVWs), exceptthat they do not border on a pond,lake, or stream, and are therefore notdefined as wetland resource areas bythe Wetlands Protection Act. IsolatedWetlands may perform some importantwater quality functions, and may alsoprovide wildlife habitat. In order tomaintain their ability to perform thesefunctions, it is suggested that the stan-dards required for Bordering VegetatedWetlands (BVWs) also be applied to Iso-lated Wetlands. That is: avoid them ifpossible, cross only when the ground isfrozen, dry, or otherwise stable, andharvest no more than 50% of the basalarea at any one time.

38 39Wetlands Wetlands

Page 24: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

11 Vernal Pools

A vernal pool is a confined basin depressionwhich, at least in most years, holds water for atleast two continuous months during the springand/or summer, and which is free of adult fishpopulations. These areas provide essential breed-ing habitat for a variety of amphibian speciessuch as wood frogs, spotted salamanders, andother important wildlife species.

Certified Vernal Pools are those that havebeen certified by the Massachusetts Division ofFisheries and Wildlife. For information on thelocation of Certified Vernal Pools, contact TheNatural Heritage and Endangered Species Pro-gram (see appendix for address and phone num-ber).

The following activities are required underChapter 132, the Forest Cutting Practices Act, forCertified Vernal Pools, and are recommended forvernal pools in general.

RFilter strip 50 feet in width around aCertified Vernal Pool, measured fromits edge along the slope. No more than50% of the basal area may be cut at anytime, and a waiting period of five yearsmust elapse before another cut is made.Exceptions to this standard may bemade by the Service Forester, if it isshown in the Forest Cutting Plan that aheavier cut is necessary to protect envi-ronmental quality.

RWhere slopes within the filter strip are30% or greater, the filter strip willextend 100 feet from the Certified Ver-nal Pool, or to the point beyond 50 feetfrom the pool where a break in topogra-phy reduces the slope to less than 30%.

40 41Vernal Pools Vernal Pools

Figure 14 – Two vernal pools. Because of their tempo-rary nature, vernal pools can be difficult to identify.Pools at left are full. Pools above are empty, and showidentification features such as depression, mattedleaves, and water lines on trees.

Page 25: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

RNo equipment may operate in thedepression of a Certified Vernal Pool,and no logging equipment may operatein the filter strip except:

• to reduce environmental damage shown

to be necessary in a statement in an

approved Forest Cutting Plan,

• at an approved stream crossing,

• on a pre-existing logging road,

• in filter strips greater than 50 feet in

width, beyond 50 feet from the water body.

In the last case above, equipment can

operate beyond 50 feet of the vernal pool,

as long as no principal skid road is located

there, disturbance of the forest floor is

minimized, and any disturbed soil is

promptly stabilized.

RTree tops and slash shall be kept out ofthe Certified Vernal Pool depression. Ifan occasional top does land in the pool,leave it only if it falls in during theamphibian breeding season (approxi-mately March 1 through July 1).

GAvoid making ruts deeper than 6 incheswithin 200 feet of a vernal pool. Thesecan represent barriers to amphibianmigration.

42 43Vernal Pools Vernal Pools

Figure 15 – vernal pool protection measures showing fil-ter strip width and basal area retained.

50 ft

Page 26: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

12 Rare and Endangered Species

The Massachusetts Rare and Endangered SpeciesAct prohibits the taking of rare or endangeredspecies and the alteration of designated signifi-cant habitats without the approval of the Director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife.Activities conducted in accordance with anapproved Forest Cutting Plan are presumed to be in compliance with the Massachusetts Rareand Endangered Species Act. Landowners, tim-ber harvesters, and foresters are encouraged tocontact the Natural Heritage and EndangeredSpecies Program of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (see appendix)to determine theapplicability of this Act to their property or harvesting activities.

Upon receipt of a Forest Cutting Plan, theService Forester will check the most recent edi-tion of the “Massachusetts Natural HeritageAtlas” to see if the area to be harvested falls with-in an Estimated Habitat of Rare WetlandsWildlife.

• If the harvest falls within an estimatedhabitat, the Plan will be forwarded to theDivision of Fisheries and Wildlife, NaturalHeritage and Endangered Species Program(NHESP).

• Upon receipt of the Cutting Plan, NHESPwill have 15 business days to determine andreport to DEM whether the proposed har-vest will negatively impact rare wetlandswildlife habitat.

• If NHESP determines that the proposedharvest will negatively impact the habitat, it will advise DEM of its findings and recommend mitigation of the impact to the habitat.

• Upon receipt of NHESP’s recommenda-tions, the Service Forester shall modify theCutting Plan to avoid negative impacts tothe habitat.

Also, upon receipt of a Forest Cutting Plan,the Service Forester will check the most recentedition of the “Massachusetts Natural HeritageAtlas” to see if the proposed area to be harvestedfalls within a High Priority Site of Rare SpeciesHabitat.

• If the harvest falls within a priority habitat,the Plan will be forwarded to NHESP.

• Upon receipt of the Cutting Plan, NHESPwill have 10 business days to determine andreport to DEM whether the proposed har-vest may result in the taking of a rarespecies.

• If NHESP determines that the proposedharvest may result in the taking of a rarespecies, it will advise DEM of its findingsand make recommendations to avoid thepotential take.

• Upon receipt of NHESP’s recommenda-tions, the Service Forester shall modify theCutting Plan to avoid a taking of rarespecies, and send NHESP a copy of themodified Plan. If the above process hasbeen followed and the modified CuttingPlan complied with, it will be presumed thatpotential violations of the MassachusettsEndangered Species Act will have beenavoided.

44 45Rare and Endangered Species Rare and Endangered Species

Page 27: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual


Grasses and other herbaceous cover can stabilizebare mineral soil and minimize erosion. It is agood practice to seed disturbed areas followingharvesting. The following table describes differ-ent seed mixtures. Mixture number 4 (creepingred fescue, birdsfoot trefoil, and tall fescue)hasbeen traditionally successful in central New Eng-land.

None of the recommended grass species arenative to Massachusetts. Some are even consid-ered ecologically hazardous because they are soaggressive, and interfere with native plants. Tallfescue, crownvetch, and flatpea are particularlyaggressive, or at least so successful that they keepnative species from becoming established.

GSeeding with native grasses would bepreferable, but they are difficult to findcommercially (see table of recommend-ed native species below- try some of thelarger nurseries in the northeast). Acompromise alternative is to use rapidlystabilizing plants like domestic rye-graass, red fescue, redtop, or Canadabluegrass which will germinate quicklyand stabilize the soil, but are not tooaggressive and will not persist orspread. In the meantime, the soil isimmediately stabilized, and the naturalsuccession of native vegetation isallowed to progress.

Seed Lbs/ Lbs/ soil phMixturea Acre 1000 ft2 range

1. domestic 20 0.45 4.5 - 7.5ryegrass

2. creeping red fescue, 20 0.45 4.5 - 7.5red top, 2 0.05tall fescue 20 0.45

3. tall fescueb , 20 0.45 5.5 - 7.5flatpeac 3 0.65

4. creeping red fescueb , 2 0.45 4.5 - 7.5birdsfoot trefoil c,d , 8 0.20 5.5 - 7.5tall fescue 20 0.45 4.5 - 7.5

5. crownvetchc , 15 0.32 5.5 - 7.5tall fescue, 20 0.45creeping red fescue, 20 0.45redtop 2 0.05a suggested fertilizer rate for mixtures besides ryegrass is 400lbs/acre of 5-10-10 or 5-10-5. If stabilizing disturbed mineralsoil within the filter strip, do not use fertilizer. It may resultin nutrient loading into the water body. b good mixtures for shady areasc innoculate seedd better adapted for limestone soils

It is recommended that the area to be seededbe limed at the rate of approximately 2 tons/acre, depending on the pH of the soil.

Recommended times of seeding are fromApril 15 to June 15, or August 1 to September 15.Winter rye can be used as a temporary cover, andseeded between August 15 and October 15.

Spreading hay on the disturbed site will mini-mize erosion and also provide a source of seed.Use approximately 60 bales/acre.

46 47Seeding Seeding

Page 28: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

The following grasses are native toMassachusetts, and would be good for stabilizing disturbed soils:

partial shade:

Agrostis hyemalis - ticklegrass

Deschampsia flexuosa - wavy hairgrass

Luzula multiflora - wood rush

Muhlenbergia schreberi - nimbleweed

Panicum clandestinum - deertongue

Panicum virgatum - switchgrass

moderate-to-heavy shade:

Agrostis perennans - upright bent

Brachyelytrum erectum - woodgrass

Bromus ciliatus - fringed bromegrass

Carex pensylvanica - Penn. Sedge

Cinna arundinacea - stout woodreed

Elymus virginicus - Virginia wildrye

Festuca obtusa - nodding fescue

Hystrix patula - bottlebrush grass

Juncus tenuis - path rush

Oryzopsis asperifolia - mountain ricegrass

open areas:

Andropogon gerardii - big bluestem

Andropogon virginicus - broom-sedge

Panicum virgatum - switchgrass

Schizachyrium scoparium - little bluestem

Sorghastrum nutans - indiangrass

14Before Leaving the Job

RPull temporary skidder bridges, and makesure that fords and other stream crossingsare left in a stable, and free-flowing condi-tion.

RRemove all temporary structures (e.g.,culverts, bridges) from Wetland ResourceAreas.

R Install appropriate water bars on skidtrails, especially at the approach to thelanding and stream crossings, steepslopes, and erodible areas.

RNotify Service Forester to schedule a finalinspection.

GSeed and mulch the approaches to streamcrossings and banks and steep sections ofskid trails.

GPut brush or slash on skid roads, and seedwhere vulnerable to erosion. Close offaccess with a gate, cable, massive waterbar, or some other means.

GSmooth and grade the landing. Seed ormulch to prevent erosion. Clear perma-nent culverts. Accentuate broad-baseddips

GSmooth the woods road. There is signifi-cant aesthetic benefit to using hand tools,such as a hoe or fire rake, to smooth tiretracks and ruts- especially along the mostvisible sections of trails or roads.

48 49Before Leaving the Job Seeding

Page 29: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

15Forest Chemical Management

Improperly applied fertilizers or pesticides(insecticides, herbicides, fungicides)may contam-inate surface waterbodies as well as groundwater.

In all cases, by federal law, chemical usersmust follow the directions on the EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA) labels on containers.

In Massachusetts, commercial applicators ofpesticides which use or supervise the use ofrestricted or limited-use pesticides must be certi-fied by the MA Pesticide Control Board. Formore information, contact MA Department ofFood and Agriculture (DFA), Pesticide Bureau at617-727-3020.

MA Pesticide Control regulations (333 CMR13.03)require a 400-foot buffer around publicdrinking water supplies. The regulations furtherstate that no application shall result in pollutionof any waterway, groundwater, or waterbody.Other restrictions include abutter notificationand special provisions for exclusion areas. Appli-cators should be familiar with all of the restric-tions contained in these regulations.

Use the following BMPs to prevent chemicalcontamination of surface and ground waters:

• Check local weather forecast before appli-cation. Do not apply if high wind or rain ispredicted.

• Avoid applying chemicals when tempera-tures are high or relative humidity is low, toavoid rapid evaporation of chemicals.

• Abide by all restrictions on the label.

• For aerial spray applications, mark andmaintain a 100-foot buffer around all waterbodies. Ensure that there is no applicationto water bodies.

• For ground spraying and other types ofapplication, mark and maintain a 25-footbuffer. Ensure that there is no direct appli-cation of chemicals to the waterbody.

• Calibrate spray equipment to apply chemi-cals uniformly and in correct quantities.

• Prevent leaks from equipment. check allequipment for leaking hoses, connections,and nozzles.

• Locate all mixing and loading areas out-side of filter or buffer strips, or riparianareas.

• Dispose of pesticide wastes and containersaccording to labels and state/federal laws.

• Develop a spill contingency plan. Haveonsite a spill clean-up kit including:

detergent or soap,

hand cleaner and water,

activated charcoal, adsorptive clay, saw dust, ver-miculite, or other absorptive materials,

lime or bleach to neutralize pesticides in emer-gency situations,

tools such as shovels and containers for disposal,

protective clothing/gloves/masks

• Report spills immediately to the PesticideControl Board and the Service Forester.

• Apply slow-release fertilizers when possi-ble.

• Base fertilizer type and application rate on soil and/or foliar analysis when possible.

• Do not use fertilizers within filter strip orriparian zone due to possible nutrient loading.

50 51Forest Chemical Management Forest Chemical Management

Page 30: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

16Prescribed Burning and WildfireThough seldom used in Massachusetts, pre-scribed burning is a silvicultural tool that maylead to water quality degradation. Exposed soilfollowing burns may lead to increased erosion.

According to 310 CMR 7.07 (1-6), openburning of brush, trees, and forestry debris mustbe conducted under the provisions of a properlyexecuted permit from the local Fire Departmentor from the Department of Environmental Pro-tection’s (DEP)Division of Air Quality (DAQ).Prescribed burns may only occur between Janu-ary 15 and May 1, during favorable atmosphericconditions.

The following BMPs have proven effective inreducing impacts:

• Do not conduct burns within 50 feet of asurface waterbody or wetland.

• Avoid construction of firelines within 50feet of a waterbody or wetland.

• Locate firelines on contour as much aspossible.

• Avoid burning on steep slopes or highlyerodable soils.

• Revegetate and stabilize firelines and ero-sion-prone areas with herbaceous cover.

• Avoid applying chemical fire retardant towaterbodies.

17MA Slash Law Requirements

RHardwood slash must not be left morethan 2 feet above the ground within 40feet of any boundary line or outer edgeof any highway, or 20 feet of an estab-lished woods road.

RSoftwood slash must not be left on theground within 40 feet of any boundaryline or outer edge of any highway, andmust not be more than 2 feet above theground between 40 and 100 feet of theouter edge of any highway or 25 feet ofan established woods road.

RAll slash must be disposed of in a man-ner as to minimize fire danger.

RNo slash is permitted within 25 feet ofany continuously flowing brook, stream,river, or any lake, pond, or water supply.

52 53Slash Law Requirements Prescribed Burning and Wildfire






hardwood slash (2 ') softwood slash (2 ')softwood slash (2 ')

hardwood slash (2 ') NO slash NO softwood slash

25 '

20 'woods road

brook or stream, pond, river, or water supply

40 '

40 '

100 '

All slash shall be disposed of in such a manner as to minimize danger from fire.

property line

25 '

40 '

Page 31: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual


1. Massachusetts Department of EnvironmentalManagement, Division of Forests and ParksOffices:

Statewide OfficeDEM 617 626-1250 voice100 Cambridge Street, 617 626-1449 fax19th floorBoston, MA 02202

Region 1 – Southeast(Plymouth and Bristol Counties, Cape, and Islands):Division of Forests & Parks 508 866-2580 voiceP.O. Box 66 508 866-7736 faxSouth Carver, MA 02366

Region 2 – Northeast (Middlesex, Essex, and Norfolk Counties):Division of Forests & Parks 978 369-3350 voiceP.O. Box 829 978 369-1965 faxCarlisle, MA 01741

Region 3 – Central(Worcester County):Division of Forests & Parks 978 368-0126 voiceP.O. Box 155 978 368-0217 faxClinton, MA 01510

Region 4 – Pioneer Valley (Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties):Division of Forests & Parks 413 545-5993 voiceBox 484 413 545-5995 faxAmherst, MA 01004

Hampton Ponds Field Office:1048 North RoadHampton Ponds State Park 413 532-6872Westfield, MA 01085

Region 5 – BerkshiresDivision of Forests & Parks 413 442-8928 voiceP.O. Box 1433 413 442-5860 faxPittsfield, MA 01202

2. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife Offices:Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and WildlifeField Headquarters 508 792-7270 voice1 Rabbit Hill Road 508 792-7275 faxWestborough, MA 01581

3. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program:

Division of Fisheries and Wildlife1 Rabbit Hill Road 508 792-7270 voiceWestborough, MA 01581 508 792-7275 fax

4. Massachusetts Department of EnvironmentalProtection (DEP) Offices:

Boston office:One Winter Street 617 292-5500 voiceBoston, MA 02108 617 556-1049 fax

Environmental Crimes 617 556-1000 voiceStrike Force

Northeast regional office:205 Lowell Street 978 661-7600 voiceWilmington, MA 01887 978 661-7615 fax

Southeast regional office:20 Riverside Drive 508 946-2700 voiceLakeville, MA 02347 508 946-2835 fax

Central regional office:627 Main Street 508 792-7650 voiceWorcester, MA 01605 508 792-7621 fax

Western regional office:436 Dwight Street 413 784-1100 voiceSpringfield, MA 01103 413 784-1149 fax

54 55Appendices Appendices

Page 32: Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual

5. Acknowledgments:The authors gratefully acknowledge the specific impor-tant contributions made to this manual by the followingpeople, and the general support by the following agen-cies:

Bruce Carlisle, MA Coastal Zone Management Nonpoint Program

Christopher Miller, USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service

David Nelson, USDA Natural Resource ConservationService

Kathryn Ruhf, New England Small Farm Institute

Jim Soper, MA Department of Environmental Management

David Welsch, USDA Forest Service

Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Office of Coastal Zone Management

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management

Division of Forests and Parks

Berkshire-Pioneer RC&D Area, Inc.

Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife

Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program

University of Massachusetts

Department of Forestry & Wildlife Management

USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service

USDA Forest Service

Harvard University, the Harvard Forest, and theCharles Bullard Fellowship Program in Forest Research

6. Technical Reviewers:Warren Archey, Bruce Carlisle, John Conkey, ChristineDuerring, Lincoln Fish, Fred Heyes, Scott Jackson, JohnScanlon, Thom Kyker-Snowman, Arthur Screpetis, JoeSmith, Jim Soper, Charlie Thompson, Richard Tomczyk

56 Appendices