Market Characteristics of Banana Hybrids Resistant to Black Sigatoka By: Catalina Obando Salas Ms....
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Market Characteristics of Banana Hybrids Resistant to Black Sigatoka By: Catalina Obando Salas Ms. Student. Ph.D Fernando Prez Muoz President, Graduate Committee Slide 2 CONTENT CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. ACTUAL SITUATION 3. PRIMARY GOAL 4. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES 5. MATERIALS AND METHODOS 6. RESUME TEST TABLE 7. BANANA VARIETIES IN STUDY 8. PRELIMYNARY RESULTS Slide 3 INTRODUCTION Banana and plantain production for fiscal year 2006-2007 represented 27% of the total agricultural production in Puerto Rico. These crops with better quality are cultivated in 6 municipalities around the island. Slide 4 INTRODUCTION The local production is threatened by fungus Mycosphaerela fijensis, discovered in the island on 2004, (Ortiz- Alvarado & Daz, 2005) This fungus causes a disease known as Black Sigatoka. Slide 5 ACTUAL SITUATION In an effort to maintain local production, the USDA Tropical Agricultural Research Station (TARS) initiated a three year project to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of several banana hybrids resistant to Black Sigatoka. Slide 6 PRIMARY GOAL Evaluate the market fresh characteristics of banana hybrids (Musa Acuminata), to determine their potential use. Slide 7 SECONDARY OBJECTIVES Characterize the ripening behavior of hybrids under storage at 20 o C. Determine the shelf life of hybrids using non microbiological tests and to compare them against commercially available varieties. Determine fat and moisture absorption of hybrids during processing. Slide 8 MATERIALS AND METHODOS Fruit sampling: Banana hybrid samples are obtained from the TARS facility in Isabela, harvested fruits are stored at 20 o C until evaluated Non Microbiological shelf life test: The following test are performed every four days until overripe to three samples randomly picked from the pool of the fruit. Slide 9 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test a) Maturity Index Determination: This test assess the changes in appearance of the fruit during storage using the seven points scale (hedonic scale). (three samples are evaluated). Slide 10 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test b) Peel and pulp color: Measurement made on the middle of the fruit and the pulp of the fruit using a Hunter Lab Mini Scan XE configured for 2 o observer and D65 illuminant. (three samples are evaluated) c) Cut strength: Measurement performed using a Texture Analyzer TA-XT2. Configured to measure force in compression, using the light knife blade perspex instrument. (three samples are evaluated twice) LIGTH KNIFE BLADE PERSPEX Slide 11 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test e) pH: Measurement of the acidity of the product. The measurement is performed using a portable pH meter from Fischer Scientific. (three samples are evaluated twice) e) Brix: Total soluble solids are determined with a Palm Abbe Digital Refractometer. Two measurements for each sample. Slide 12 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test Mechanical Properties: Performed on three samples on days 1, 10 and 20 using the Texture Analyzer equipped with an steal cylinder to inflict different levels of damage. 10-P STEALCILINDER Slide 13 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test a) Impact The test attempts to estimate the effect of the impact resulting from dropping the fruit from a given height (Velsquez, 2006) to inflict the damage level. Test Condition Fall Height (ft) Equivalent Velocity (m/s) A 56 B 108 C 1510 Slide 14 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test b) Stack height This test attempts to estimate the degree of damage resulting from stacking bananas. Test Condition Stack Height (fruits) Force (kilograms) A101.5 B203.0 C304.5 Slide 15 Non Microbiological Shelf Life Test Respiration Rates: Nine samples, weighed and placed into each of five 1-gal. glass jars. Jars are hermetically sealed with a cap equipped with a septum for headspace sampling and stored at 20C for one hour. A 10 ml syringe is inserted into the septum and the collected air sample analyzed using a gas analyzer (Servomex Food Package Analyzer) to measure the O 2 and CO 2 concentration. Slide 16 PROCESSING CHARACTERISTICS From the days 0, 8, 14 and 21 three samples are randomly picked from the pool to the following tests: a) Pulp yield: Using a laboratory scale, each picked sample is weighed with peel and afterwards the pulp is weighed. b) Moisture absorption: A portion of the sample is cut in a half and both pieces are weighed. One of the pieces is placed in boiling water (100 o C) for ten minutes, removed, drained cooled and weighed again. Both pieces are placed in a oven at 100 o C for 24 hours, removed from the oven, cooled and weighed. Slide 17 PROCESSING CHARACTERISTICS c) Fat Absorption: A portion of the sample is cut in a half and both pieces are weighed. One of the pieces is dipped in oil heated to 375 o F, for five minutes, removed, drained cooled and weighed again. To determine the fat content is used the XT14 Fat extractor (Ankom). Slide 18 MATERIALS AND METHODOS Glycemic Index: The method (Englyst et al 1999) is reproducible by HPLC. The method is based in the extraction of the portion of rapidly available glucose (RAG). There is evidence to suggest that the glycemic response is likely to be dose dependent for amounts