Marine spatial planning for shellfish aquaculture: tools ... permitting and facilitated aquaculture

download Marine spatial planning for shellfish aquaculture: tools ... permitting and facilitated aquaculture

of 42

  • date post

    03-Jul-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Marine spatial planning for shellfish aquaculture: tools ... permitting and facilitated aquaculture

  • Marine spatial planning for shellfish

    aquaculture: tools, activities, and conflict

    resolution

    Julie Rose

    Nancy Balcom, Damian Brady, Suzanne Bricker, Susan Bunsick, Cary Chadwick, Anoushka Concepcion, Sylvain DeGuise, Tessa

    Getchis, Laura Hoeberecht, Jamie Miller, Cori Rose, Michael Rubino, Bill Walton

  • Addressing spatial and social challenges to shellfish

    aquaculture in the United States

    • Spatial

    • Ensuring a place for aquaculture in the coastal environment

    • New tools and developments in nearshore marine spatial planning

    • Strengths and limitations of GIS-based tools for conflict resolution

    • Social

    • Major barrier to aquaculture expansion throughout the United States

    • Conflict can be both internal and external

    • Opportunities provided by National and State-based Shellfish Initiatives to open dialogue, educate, and find common ground

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 2

  • U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 3

    Tools for addressing spatial challenges to

    shellfish aquaculture

  • • GIS technology has given growers and regulators the

    ability to visualize and minimize potential use conflicts

    • Maps are becoming increasingly available in many

    states

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 4

    Mapping and site selection

    Connecticut Aquaculture

    Mapping Atlas Massachusetts Online Data

    Viewer

    New York Shellfish iMap

  • Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

    1) Street map: locate, identify area of interest

  • 2) Add Imagery

    Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

  • Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

    3) Navigation layers: channel + buffer, bathymetry, cables, buoys

  • 4) Shellfish Beds: location of municipal/state/natural beds

    Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

  • 5) Shellfish classification: prohibited, conditional, approved

    Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

  • 6) Environmental sensitivity index: habitats, species, diversity

    Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

  • 7) Marina location: use conflicts

    Aquaculture Mapping Atlas: GIS Layers

  • Step 1: Output “Suitable” sites based on mapping

    Site 1.

    Site 2.

  • Limitations of static mapping

    Patrolia et al. (2016) combined boat-

    based visual surveys with participant

    intercept surveys to map human uses

    of RI coastal lagoons

    Participants indicated high use in the

    entire area; observations suggest use

    was not uniformly distributed

    Some uses may appear to conflict but

    in reality do not (e.g. water skiing &

    recreational clamming)

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 13

    Blue = reported use

    Yellow = observed use

  • Limitations of static mapping: How well will

    shellfish grow in “leftover” spaces?

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 14

    Several farm-scale models are commercially available

    to address biological production, ecological carrying

    capacity, and environmental impacts

  • Pilot Study – Connecticut waters of Long Island

    Sound

    Sampling Details

    Milford: Monthly for a year

    Westport & Stonington: May-September

    Station 09 and H2: Long-term water quality

    monitoring stations; >15 years data

    Environmental Inputs for FARM model

    Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,

    chlorophyll, particulates, current speeds

  • Pilot Study – Connecticut waters of Long Island

    Sound

    Typical culture practices

    Collection of seed oysters (1-2 in) from

    restricted areas

    Grow out to 3 in harvest size in

    conditional/approved leased areas

    Days to harvest from 1 to 3 inches

    indicator of site suitability

    Thresholds for growth categories

    High growth = 1500

    days

  • Results for pilot locations

    High Growth;

  • Benefits of a combined approach

    • Mapping does not address production potential - will

    the target organism grow? At what rate in the system?

    • Integrated, mapping + modeling allows users to

    simultaneously address social, environmental,

    economic factors towards an improved decision-making

    process

    • Responsible growth: expand into areas without

    existing conflicts that are best suited for shellfish

    production

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 18

  • Sustainable Ecological Network (SEANET)

    • Damian C. Brady

    • Paul Anderson

    • University of Maine

    • Carrie Byron

    • Barry Costa-Pierce

    • University of New England

  • Modeling and Monitoring Approach

    Place-Based and Idea- Based (organism-

    based)

    Sea weed: hydrodynamics, light, and nutrient

    dynamics

    Oysters: hydrodynamics, nutrient, light,

    and productivity dynamics

    Salmon: hydrodynamics (sea

    lice transport)

    Slides from Damian Brady, U. Maine

  • What we are monitoring

    Slides from Damian Brady, U. Maine

    (LOBOs):

    Land Ocean

    Biogeochemical

    Observatories

  • LandSat to identify growing areas

    • Unprecedented resolution

    • Temperature (feeding rate, superchill)

    • Chlorophyll (food)

    • Turbidity (clarity)

    Slides from Damian Brady, U. Maine

  • Large-scale approach to aquaculture expansion

    • “Finding the next Damariscotta River”: identify large

    areas that are likely to be supportive of shellfish

    growth and prioritize them for development

    • Take advantage of new tools in water quality

    management and apply them to aquaculture

    • End of Trial-and-Error Aquaculture: Reduce risk for

    new farms

  • Tools for addressing social challenges to

    shellfish aquaculture

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 24

  • Social challenges can be external and internal

    NIMBY opposition to aquaculture common in USA:

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 25

  • Social challenges can be external and internal

    Internal fights can also exist within shellfish

    stakeholder community

    U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA Fisheries | Page 26

  • National Shellfish Initiative

    Goal: increase populations of bivalves through shellfish farming and restoration

    Encourage commercial and restoration shellfish communities to work together

    Launched in 2011 to implement NOAA Aquaculture Policy

    Slides from Michael Rubino, NOAA

  • Focus Areas: Benefits:

    Spatial planning and efficient

    permitting

    Research on environmental

    effects

    Technologies for restoration and

    farming

    Coordinated and innovative

    financing

    Jobs

    Habitat improvement

    Species protection

    Domestic Seafood

    Shoreline protection

    Slides from Michael Rubino, NOAA

  • National Accomplishments: High Level Attention

    • National Ocean Council directive: NOAA and USDA to implement National Shellfish Initiative (2013)

    • National Strategic Plan for Federal Aquaculture Research 2014

    • Interagency Working Group on Aquaculture: Regulatory Task Force (2012-2016)

    • Guide to shellfish permitting

    • NOAA-Army Corps-EPA collaboration

    Slides from Michael Rubino, NOAA

  • State and Regional Action

    Initiatives

    Washington

    California

    Connecticut

    Alaska

    Other Actions

    Oregon

    Maryland

    Rhode Island

    Hawaii

    Mississippi

    Gulf of Mexico

    Slides from Michael Rubino, NOAA

  • • First shellfish initiative of the country

    • Strong champion in Governor Gregoire and support

    from PCSGA

    • Stakeholder meetings with targeted reps from

    industry, agencies, tribes, NGOs

    • Common ground in clean water, permitting, OA

    • Small core group writing, organizing, tracking

    implementation

    State shellfish initiatives as a tool for conflict

    resolution: Washington

  • • A major source of conflict in WA is external:

    shoreline homeowners

    • Strong focus on educating local officials

    • Likely first in line to deal with NIMBY issues

    • Identify real iss