Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et...

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Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair Jason Sulkowski, MD www.downstatesurgery.org

Transcript of Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et...

Page 1: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair

Jason Sulkowski, MD

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Page 2: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Case Presentation • 9:50AM – 34 y F BIBEMS as pedestrian struck, +

LOC, GCS 15 in field

• Primary Survey: – A: intact, speaking – B: bilateral breath sounds, O2 saturation 100% – C: SBP 90s, HR 130s, distal pulses on ¾ extremities – D: Numbness and paralysis of left foot

– FAST: negative – CXR: no pneumothorax, no effusion

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Page 3: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• Secondary Survey: – Neuro: sensation and motor absent in left lower

leg – Head: laceration on posterior scalp, above right

eye, and right mandible, numerous broken teeth – Neck: + midline tenderness – Chest: left chest tenderness – Pelvis: unstable, exquisite tenderness – Back: large superficial abrasion along left back – LLE: open tibia fracture with 20cm skin defect,

dislocated knee joint – RLE: mid femoral deformity

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Page 4: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Before All Else… 2+ 2+

2+

2+ 0+

0+

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Page 5: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• Imaging Summary: – CT Head: neg – CT C-spine: C1 nondisplaced inferior anterior arch

fracture – CT Chest: small L PTX, L 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th rib fracture – CT Abd: neg – CT TLS-spine: L2-4 transverse process fractures,

comminuted fracture of upper sacral alae to sacroiliac joint, comminuted L acetabular fracture, bilateral inferior and right superior pubic rami fractures

– CTA RLE: pseudoaneurysm of SFA, femur fracture – CTA LLE: cutoff of distal popliteal artery with

minimal reconstitution of posterior tibial, cuts off again at tibia fracture, peroneal and anterior tibial arteries not seen

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Page 6: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 7: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 8: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 9: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 10: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 11: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 12: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 13: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• ED Interventions: – Foley placed – Bilateral LE splints – 2L fluid bolus – Massive transfusion protocol

• 3u PRBC • 1u FFP • 1u Plt

– Intubation

– Taken to OR

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Page 14: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• 11:30AM – Initial OR Course: – Pelvic binder – Ex-fix to LLE and pelvis

• 12:30PM – Bypass:

– L peroneal artery exploration – On table angiogram showed good flow from peroneal

artery to foot – L SFA to peroneal bypass

• Non-reversed translocated greater saphenous vein, harvested from contralateral side

– On table angiogram showed runoff via peroneal bypass

– EBL: 400 – Fluids: 3000mL crystalloid, 6u PRBC, 9u FFP, 1u Plt

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Page 15: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• 10:30PM – Orthopedic Intervention: – Adjustment of LLE ex-fix – Pelvic reduction, fixation – Irrigation and debridement of L grade IIIc open

tibia fracture

• 12:30AM – Interventional Radiology: – Angiogram: No contrast extravasation seen – LLE: Abrupt cutoff of flow at distal popliteal

artery with occlusion of popliteal-peroneal bypass, no reconstitution of flow distal to the popliteal artery

– RLE: 1.2cm pseudoaneurysm seen in SFA – IVC filter placed

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Page 16: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• HD2 – Left above knee amputation

• HD4 – Right femur nailing, removal of ex-fix

• HD5 – ORIF L sacroiliac joint, R superior pubic ramus, L acetabulum, pubic symphysis; CRIF R sacroiliac joint; removal of ex-fix

• HD9 – ORIF L acetabulum revision

• Since then… – Multiple trips to OR for hematoma evacuations, VAC

changes

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Page 17: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Questions? www.downstatesurgery.org

Page 18: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Before All Else… www.downstatesurgery.org

Page 19: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Lower Extremity Anatomy

• Vascular anatomy

• Nerve distribution

• Compartments

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Page 20: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Vascular Anatomy

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
Main blood vessels in the leg: external iliac common femoral divides into SFA and profunda femoris SFA popliteal which divides into anterior, posterior tibials and the peroneal
Page 21: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Vascular Anatomy

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
Greater saphenous is part of the superficial system. Deep system mirrors arterial system. Superficial femoral vein goes to popliteal, which divides into anterior and posterior tibials along with a peroneal vein
Page 22: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Relative Frequency of Vascular Trauma

Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, 8th Ed.

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
In general, penetrating trauma affects proximal vessles more often, while blunt trauma affects distal vessels more often
Page 23: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Nerve Distribution

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
Briefly, saphenous nerve supplies the medial lower leg, two branches of the common fibular nerve supply the lateral lower leg and dorsal foot, while the two branches of the tibial nerve supple the distal medial lower leg and plantar foot. The web space between the first and second digits is supplied by the deep branch of the common fibular nerve, which is from the L5 root
Page 24: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Compartments – Lower Leg

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
The lower leg has 4 compartments Anterior: muscles involved in foot dorsiflexion and toe extension Lateral: everts the foot Superficial posterior: plantarflexion Deep posterior: toe flexion, foot inversion
Page 25: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Compartments – Upper Leg

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
3 compartments in upper leg Anterior: knee extension and hip flexion Medial: adduction of hip Posterior: knee flexion
Page 26: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Vascular Injury – Physical Exam • Hard signs

– Absent distal pulses – Palpable or audible thrill – Expanding hematoma – Pulsatile bleeding

• Soft signs

– Diminished distal pulses – History of significant bleeding – Neurologic deficit – Proximity of wound to vessel

• Hard signs present in only 30% with vascular injury

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Page 27: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Vascular Injury – Imaging • Plain x-ray: evaluate

for orthopedic injuries

• CTA: evaluate arterial system – Extravasation – Dissection – Thrombosis

• Angiography

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Page 28: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Evaluation of Orthopedic Injuries • Neurovascular status

• Open vs Closed

• Location

• Alignment / Articular involvement

• Rotation

• Displacement

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Page 29: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Gustilo Open Fracture Classification

• Early stabilization – Provide comfort – Easier transport – Improve neurovascular compromise

Category Description

Class I Clean wound, <1 cm

Class II Wound >1 cm, no significant tissue loss

Class III Wound >5 cm, tissue loss

IIIA Periosteal coverage

IIIB Significant periosteal loss

IIIC Associated vascular injury

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Page 30: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Infection Prophylaxis • Tetanus

– Toxoid – Immunoglobulin

• Antibiotics

– Add penicillin if “barnyard” or soil contamination is present

Category Likely Organism Antibiotic Duration Class I G+ cocci 1st gen cephalosporin 24 hours

Class II G+ cocci 1st gen cephalosporin + gentamicin 24-48 hours

Class III (all) G+ cocci, G- rod 1st gen cephalosporin + gentamicin 48-72 hours

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Page 31: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Mangled Extremity • Damage to multiple tissue types

– Skin – Muscle – Bone – Nerve – Blood vessels

• Primary amputation or salvage?

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Page 32: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Mangled Extremity Severity Score • Retrospective analysis, 26 limbs

– 17 salvaged – 9 amputated – Used to develop the MESS

• Prospective analysis, 26 limbs

– 14 salvaged – 12 amputated – MESS ≥7 predicted amputation in 100% of cases

Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72.

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Page 33: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Mangled Extremity Severity Score

Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72.

Category Description Score Musculoskeletal

Low-energy Stab wounds, closed fractures, low-caliber GSW 1

Medium-energy Open or multi-level fractures, moderate crush injury 2

High-energy Shotgun, high-caliber GSW, crush injury 3

Very high-energy Above + contamination, tissue avulsion 4

Shock

Normal BP stable in field and in OR 0

Transient hypotension BP unstable in field, responsive to IV fluids 1

Prolonged hypotension SBP <90 in field, responsive to IV fluids in OR only 2

Ischemia (score x2 if >6hrs)

None Pulsatile limb, no ischemia 0

Mild Pulse reduced or absent, no ischemia 1

Moderate Pulseless, diminished cap refill; parasthesia 2

Advanced Pulseless, absent cap refill; paralyzed, numb 3

Age

<30 0

30 to <50 1

50+ 2

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Presenter
Presentation Notes
MESS score of 10
Page 34: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Other Mangled Extremity Classifications • Predictive Salvage Index (PSI)

– Howe HR et al. Am Surg. 1987; 53:205-8.

• NISSSA

– McNamara MG et al. J Orthop Trauma. 1994; 8: 81-7.

• Limb Salvage Index (LSI)

– Russel WL et al. Ann Surg. 1991; 213:473-80.

• Hannover Fracture Scale (HFS)

– Tscherne H, et al. Unfallheilkunde. 1982; 85:111-5.

Bosse MJ et al. J Bone Joint Surg. 2001; 83(1): 3-14.

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Page 35: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Lower Extremity Assessment Project • Prospective, multicenter trial (LEAP trial)

– >600 patients 16-69 years with significant lower extremity injuries

• Analysis of 5 scoring systems’ ability to predict amputation – Evaluated with immediate amputations

included and excluded

• Sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver-operator curve

• Conclusion: all performed poorly

Bosse MJ et al. J Bone Joint Surg. 2001; 83(1): 3-14.

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Page 36: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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Page 37: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Adapted from “Treatment Approaches to the Severely Injured Extremity”, published by American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma, 2008

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Page 38: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Vascular Repair • Ischemia time significant predictor of limb

salvage or amputation

• Addressing arterial injuries early will improve salvage

• Options – Intraluminal shunt – Definitive reconstruction

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Page 39: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Shunt: Pro & Con • Pro:

– Restore blood flow distal to injury while more life threatening thoracic / abdominal injuries are managed

– Skeletal stabilization can protect subsequent definitive reconstruction

• Con: – Extra step that takes time and delays definitive

reconstruction – May cause vessel complications (e.g. dissection,

thrombosis)

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Page 40: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Shunt: Pro & Con • Pro:

– Starr A et al. J Trauma. 1996; 4: 17-21. – Reber P et al., J Trauma. 1999; 47: 72-6. – Hossny A. J Vasc Surg. 2004; 40: 61-6. – Hornez E et al., J Visc Surg. 2015; 152: 363-8.

• Con:

– Wagner W et al., J Vasc Surg. 1988; 7: 736-43. – Nair R. Br J Surg. 2000; 87: 602-7. – Hafez H et al., J Vasc Surg. 2001; 33: 1212-9. – Huynh TTT et al., Am J Surg. 2006; 192: 773-8.

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Page 41: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Multicenter Shunt Study Group • Multicenter, retrospective review

– 201 patients had temporary intravascular shunt (TIVS)

• Included extremity and trunk injuries

• Shunt indications – Damage control: 63.4% – Combined orthopedic injury: 36.1%

• Type of shunt

– Argyle: 81.2% – Pruitt-Inahara: 9.4% – Chest tube / Feeding tube: 9.4%

Inaba K et al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016; 80(3): 359-65.

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Page 42: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

• Complications prior to shunt removal: – Thrombosis: 5.6% – Compartment syndrome: 4.2% – Dislodgement: 1.4% – Amputation: 3.5%

• Predictors of graft failure (after shunt):

– Noncommercial vs commercial shunt • Adjusted odds ratio: 6.3 (1.2-32.0)

– Damage control vs combined orthopedic surgery • AOR: 3.3 (1.0-10.6)

• Predictor of mortality

– ISS >25 • AOR: 16.2 (1.6-162.1)

– Notably no factors related to the shunt!

Inaba K et al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016; 80(3): 359-65.

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Page 43: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Inaba K et al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016; 80(3): 359-65.

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Page 44: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Lower Leg Fasciotomy www.downstatesurgery.org

Presenter
Presentation Notes
Two incisions: anterior and lateral compartments are opened with incision 2cm anterior to fibula from fibular head to the lateral maleolus. Taken down to muscle fascia, which first encountered will be anterior compartment. This is divided and taken down proximally and distally. Then undermine subq tissue along fascia to the intermuscular septum, divide at this level to open the lateral compartment. Posterior compartments opened via incision 2cm posterior to tibia. Take care to avoid saphenous vein and nerve. These are retracted and superficial compartment will be exposed, this is opened. Then soleus muscle is detached from the proximal tibia, which will expose the proximal portion of the deep posterior compartment.
Page 45: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Upper Leg Fasciotomy www.downstatesurgery.org

Presenter
Presentation Notes
Anterior and lateral compartments opened with lateral incision, fascia lata is incised, the anterior compartment is then exposed and the fascia opened. The vastus lateralis is retracted medially to expose the lateral intermuscular septum, which is then opened to decompress the posterior compartment. The medial compartment (adductor compartment) can be opened with a single medial incision.
Page 46: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Definitive Vascular Reconstruction • Arteriorrhaphy

• Patch angioplasty

• Resection and end-to-end

anastomosis

• Resection and interposition graft

• Bypass graft

• Extra-anatomic bypass

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Page 47: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Autogenous vs Graft • 3 year patency for infrapopliteal

reconstruction: – 70-80% with autogenous vein – 30-50% for prosthetic graft

• Autogenous: contralateral saphenous vein

• Prosthetics

– Dacron – PTFE

• Vein cuff at distal anastomosis improves

patency (52% vs 29% at 2 years)

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Page 48: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Venous Repair • Venous ligation better tolerated than arterial

• Repair should be attempted when possible

– Reduce acute venous hypertension – Reduced phlegmasia – No increase in thrombosis or thromboembolism

• Ligation is best when:

– Patient is in poor physiologic condition – Multiple injuries – Requires long segment interposition grafting or

synthetics

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Page 49: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Summary • Life > Limb

• Primary amputation considered when

– Organ failure or severe shock is present – Crush injury, severe soft tissue loss, segmental

bone loss

• Limb salvage starts with re-establishing arterial inflow with shunt or definitive reconstruction

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Page 50: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

Additional References • Atlas of Trauma / Emergency Surgical

Techniques. Ed. Cioffi, WG et al. 2014.

• Current Therapy of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Second Edition. Ed. Asensio JA et al. 2016.

• Rich’s Vascular Trauma, Third Edition. Ed.

Rasmussen TE et al. 2016.

• Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery, Eighth Edition. Ed. Cronenwett Jl et al. 2014.

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Page 51: Mangled Extremity and Vascular Repair extremity.pdfMangled Extremity Severity Score Johansen K et al. J Trauma. 1990; 30(5): 568-72. Category Description Score Musculoskeletal Low-energy

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